Welcome to WIRE

(Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)

WIRE is an open access repository for the research publications and other outputs from postgraduate students and staff at the University of Wolverhampton.

Wolverhampton staff: to deposit your publication to WIRE, go to: https://www.wlv.ac.uk/lib/research/wire/

Use the search box above or the browse function on the left to discover publications from the research community at the University of Wolverhampton.

University students and staff can also search WIRE using LibrarySearch

For further information or help, contact the Scholarly Communications Team at wire@wlv.ac.uk


  • Is big team research fair in national research assessments? The case of the UK Research Excellence Framework 2021

    Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan; Makita, Meiko; Abdoli, Mahshid; Stuart, Emma; Wilson, Paul; Levitt, Jonathan (Sciendo/National Science Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2023-12-31)
    Collaborative research causes problems for research assessments because of the difficulty in fairly crediting its authors. Whilst splitting the rewards for an article amongst its authors has the greatest surface-level fairness, many important evaluations assign full credit to each author, irrespective of team size. The underlying rationales for this are labour reduction and the need to incentivise collaborative work because it is necessary to solve many important societal problems. This article assesses whether full counting changes results compared to fractional counting in the case of the UK’s Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2021. For this assessment, fractional counting reduces the number of journal articles to as little as 10% of the full counting value, depending on the Unit of Assessment (UoA). Despite this large difference, allocating an overall grade point average (GPA) based on full counting or fractional counting give results with a median Pearson correlation within UoAs of 0.98. The largest changes are for Archaeology (r=0.84) and Physics (r=0.88). There is a weak tendency for higher scoring institutions to lose from fractional counting, with the loss being statistically significant in 5 of the 34 UoAs. Thus, whilst the apparent over-weighting of contributions to collaboratively authored outputs does not seem too problematic from a fairness perspective overall, it may be worth examining in the few UoAs in which it makes the most difference.
  • Sikhi(sm), Sikhs and Sikh Studies: Contextualizing diversity of histories, practices and identities

    Jakobsh, Doris; Takhar, Opinderjit (Routledge, 2023-03-13)
    Much of the public sphere of global Sikh engagement presents a dichotomy of defining a "true" Sikh in the light of largely hegemonic definitions of the term "religion" and as a consequence of the historiography of the development of Sikh identity. As Singh highlights, both India and Pakistan exercise control over Sikh sacred shrines, since the Partition of India in 1947 resulted in key Sikh historical shrines being situated in the newly created Pakistan. A lived religion approach is based instead on the notion that "religion is the handiwork of people", that it is ongoing "cultural work" and that its value lies in "distinguishing the actual experience of religious persons from the prescribed religion of institutionally defined beliefs and practices". According to the Sikh Rehat Maryada, only amritdhari Sikhs are regarded as being "proper" or "true" Sikhs; as such, it is this form of Sikhi/sm that is generally called upon to speak for "the Sikhs.".
  • A comparison of self-reported and device measured sedentary behaviour in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Prince, Stephanie; Cardilli, Luca; Reed, Jennifer L.; Saunders, Travis; Kite, Chris; Douillette, Kevin; Fournier, Karine; Buckley, John P.; Division of Cardiac Prevention and Rehabilitation, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Canada. stephanie.princeware@canada.ca. (BMC, 2020-03-04)
    BACKGROUND:Sedentary behaviour (SB) is a risk factor for chronic disease and premature mortality. While many individual studies have examined the reliability and validity of various self-report measures for assessing SB, it is not clear, in general, how self-reported SB (e.g., questionnaires, logs, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs)) compares to device measures (e.g., accelerometers, inclinometers). OBJECTIVE:The primary objective of this systematic review was to compare self-report versus device measures of SB in adults. METHODS:Six bibliographic databases were searched to identify all studies which included a comparable self-report and device measure of SB in adults. Risk of bias within and across studies was assessed. Results were synthesized using meta-analyses. RESULTS:The review included 185 unique studies. A total of 123 studies comprising 173 comparisons and data from 55,199 participants were used to examine general criterion validity. The average mean difference was -105.19 minutes/day (95% CI: -127.21, -83.17); self-report underestimated sedentary time by ~1.74 hours/day compared to device measures. Self-reported time spent sedentary at work was ~40 minutes higher than when assessed by devices. Single item measures performed more poorly than multi-item questionnaires, EMAs and logs/diaries. On average, when compared to inclinometers, multi-item questionnaires, EMAs and logs/diaries were not significantly different, but had substantial amount of variability (up to 6 hours/day within individual studies) with approximately half over-reporting and half under-reporting. A total of 54 studies provided an assessment of reliability of a self-report measure, on average the reliability was good (ICC = 0.66). CONCLUSIONS:Evidence from this review suggests that single-item self-report measures generally underestimate sedentary time when compared to device measures. For accuracy, multi-item questionnaires, EMAs and logs/diaries with a shorter recall period should be encouraged above single item questions and longer recall periods if sedentary time is a primary outcome of study. Users should also be aware of the high degree of variability between and within tools. Studies should exert caution when comparing associations between different self-report and device measures with health outcomes. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:PROSPERO CRD42019118755.
  • Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviour due to enforced COVID-19-related lockdown and movement restrictions: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Kite, Chris; Lagojda, Lukasz; Clark, Cain; Uthman, Olalekan; Denton, Francesca; McGregor, Gordon; Harwood, Amy; Atkinson, Lou; Broom, David R.; Kyrou, Ioannis; et al. (MDPI, 2021-05-14)
    Prolonged lockdown/restriction measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic have reportedly impacted opportunities to be physically active for a large proportion of the population in affected countries globally. The exact changes to physical activity and sedentary behaviours due to these measures have not been fully studied. Accordingly, the objective of this PROSPERO-registered systematic review is to evaluate the available evidence on physical activity and sedentary behaviours in the general population during COVID-19-related lockdown/restriction measures, compared to prior to restrictions being in place. Defined searches to identify eligible studies published in English, from November 2019 up to the date of submission, will be conducted using the following databases: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PSYCinfo, Coronavirus Research Database, Public Health Database, Publicly Available Content Database, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar. The applied inclusion criteria were selected to identify observational studies with no restrictions placed on participants, with outcomes regarding physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour during lockdown/restriction measures, and with comparisons for these outcomes to a time when no such measures were in place. Where appropriate, results from included studies will be pooled and effect estimates will be presented in random effects meta-analyses. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first systematic review to evaluate one complete year of published data on the impact of COVID-19-related lockdown/restriction measures on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis will constitute the most up-to-date synthesis of published evidence on any such documented changes, and so will comprehensively inform clinical practitioners, public health agencies, researchers, policymakers and the general public regarding the effects of lockdown/restriction measures on both physical activity and sedentary behaviour.
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and potential links to depression, anxiety, and chronic stress

    Shea, Sue; Lionis, Christos; Kite, Chris; Atkinson, Lou; Chaggar, Surinderjeet S.; Randeva, Harpal S.; Kyrou, Ioannis; Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. (MDPI, 2021-11-16)
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) constitutes the most common liver disease worldwide, and is frequently linked to the metabolic syndrome. The latter represents a clustering of related cardio-metabolic components, which are often observed in patients with NAFLD and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, growing evidence suggests a positive association between metabolic syndrome and certain mental health problems (e.g., depression, anxiety, and chronic stress). Given the strong overlap between metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, and the common underlying mechanisms that link the two conditions, it is probable that potentially bidirectional associations are also present between NAFLD and mental health comorbidity. The identification of such links is worthy of further investigation, as this can inform more targeted interventions for patients with NAFLD. Therefore, the present review discusses published evidence in relation to associations of depression, anxiety, stress, and impaired health-related quality of life with NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. Attention is also drawn to the complex nature of affective disorders and potential overlapping symptoms between such conditions and NAFLD, while a focus is also placed on the postulated mechanisms mediating associations between mental health and both NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. Relevant gaps/weaknesses of the available literature are also highlighted, together with future research directions that need to be further explored.

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