Welcome to WIRE (Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)

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  • Impact of detuning and dephasing on a laser-corrected subnatural-linewidth single-photon source

    López Carreño, Juan Camilo; Zubizarreta Casalengua, E.; Laussy, Fabrice P.; Valle, Elena del (IOP Publishing, 2019-01-08)
    The elastic scattering peak of a resonantly driven two-level system has been argued to provide narrow-linewidth antibunched photons. Although independent measurements of spectral width on the one hand and antibunching, on the other hand, do seem to show that this is the case, a joint measurement reveals that only one or the other of these attributes can be realised in the direct emission. We discuss a scheme which interferes the emission with a laser to produce simultaneously single photons of subnatural linewidth. In particular, we consider the effect of dephasing and of the detuning between the driving laser and/or the detector with the emitter. We find that our scheme brings such considerable improvement as compared to the standard schemes as to make it the best single-photon source in terms of all-order multi-photon suppression by several orders of magnitudes. While the scheme is particularly fragile to dephasing, its superiority holds even for subnatural-linewidth emission down to a third of the radiative lifetime.
  • Geochemical characterization of banana, buriti palm, jute and coir fibres for use as biogeotextiles for erosion control

    Egbujuo, Charles, Izuchukwu; Fullen, M.A.; Guerra, Antonio J.T.; Opara, Alexander Iheanyi (VGTU Press, 2018-10-09)
    Geochemical analysis of selected plant fibres used as geotextiles for erosion control was conducted to evaluate their geochemical composition and to determine the elements that could potentially be nutrients for plants or cause heavy metal contamination in soils. Analysis of the samples was performed using X-ray Diffraction and X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry. Results revealed that potassium concentrations varied from 3.63% in jute-mat (India)-50.73% in banana-leaf (São Romão, Brazil), with a mean of 27.17%. Similarly, calcium concentrations varied from 0.09% in banana-leaf (São Romão) –37.0% in banana-leaf/stem (Oleo, Brazil). Iron concentrations varied from 0.15% in banana-leaf/stem samples (Oleo) –4.47% in jute-cloth (India). Since banana-leaf/stem had the highest concentration of macro-nutrients, it is therefore proposed that banana-leaf has the highest potential for adding nutrients to the soil system when biodegraded. In addition, heavy metal analysis of the samples revealed that none of the fibres have high concentrations that may contaminate the soil upon decomposition.
  • How infant massage enhances pedagogical attachment in families facing challenging circumstances

    Rouse, Elizabeth (2018-12-05)
    This doctoral research project aimed to contribute a needed in-depth understanding of the effects of infant massage for families around the times they faced stressful life events. It was developed in response to Bennett, Underdown and Barlow’s 2013 meta-analysis and critique of studies examining the influence of infant massage on young babies’ health outcomes, and their recommendation that future studies explored the effects for groups they described as ‘higher risk’. The research was underpinned by five key concepts identified as potentially important themes, namely touch, intersubjectivity, attachment, resilience and infant massage. Located in the constructivist paradigm, and using a praxeological case study methodology, this qualitative study used methods including video, storyboarding, interviews and questionnaires with families and practitioners. The central ethical issues were around the assent, consent and voices of three infant-carer dyads who participated in the filming, and addressed through an innovative matrix of approaches to informed consent, and co-interpretation of the data with families. Infant massage was found to facilitate a unique multi-modal form of joint communication which I termed ‘visceral interaction’. This connectivity was set in a series of delicately balanced and nested environments (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and was found to enhance carers’ understanding of infants’ cues, respect for them as individuals, and to support intersubjective and attachment relationships. Infant massage can offer families a special environment focusing on the infant-carer connection, and offering important respite from the challenges that may disrupt its development. However, the environments surrounding the families, and timing of the programme were found to be critical; the massage context needs to support infant and carer feelings of containment (Bion, 1962) and regulation (Gerhardt, 2015) as they adjust to a new life phase. Drawing on these findings, this study recommends that future research focuses on practices which may support families’ increased participation in this vital service, and that there is a move to widen the offer of compassionate, respectful and individualised services to all families at this critical early stage.
  • Problems of drought and its management in Yobe State, Nigeria

    Hassan Gana, Abdullahi; Fullen, M.A.; Oloke, David A. (Elsevier, 2019-01-09)
    Drought poses an enormous global threat to sustainable development and is expected to increase with global climate change. Drought and desertification are major problems in Yobe State (north-east Nigeria). This study investigates the main problems associated with drought in Yobe State. Qualitative methods were employed to investigate socio-economic impacts of drought via Focus Group Discussions (FDG). Farmers and officials from the State Ministry of the Environment were the discussants. Both groups confirmed the frequency and severity of drought in Yobe. However, farmers have practises that cause environmental degradation. Developing a viable and holistic approach to drought mitigation is crucial, to arresting and hopefully reversing environmental degradation. Understanding the causes and consequences of drought will help develop drought mitigation and management strategies. Currently, there is no proper drought mitigation and management framework in Yobe State. This paper introduces the socio-economic and environmental effects of drought and makes recommendations for mitigation and management strategies in Yobe State.
  • From the outside in: narratives of creative arts practitioners working in the criminal justice system

    Caulfield, Laura; Simpson, Ella; Morgan, Catherine (Wiley-Blackwell, 2019-12-31)
    The penal voluntary sector is highly variegated in its roles, practices and functions, though research to date has largely excluded the experiences of front-line practitioners. We argue that engaging with the narratives of practitioners can provide fuller appreciation of the potential of the sector’s work. Though life story and narrative have been recognised as important in offender desistance (Maruna, 2001), the narrative identities of creative arts practitioners, who are important ‘change agents’ (Albertson, 2015), are typically absent. This is despite evidence to suggest that a practitioner’s life history can be a significant and positive influence in the rehabilitation of offenders (Harris, 2017). Using narratological analysis (Bal, 2009), this study examined the narratives of 19 creative practitioners in prisons in England and Wales. Of particular interest were the formative experiences of arts practitioners in their journey to prison work. The findings suggest that arts practitioners identify with an ‘outsider’ status and may be motivated by an ethic of mutual aid. In the current climate of third sector involvement in the delivery of criminal justice interventions, such a capacity may be both a strength and weakness for arts organisations working in this field.

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