Welcome to WIRE
(Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)
WIRE is an open access repository for the research publications and other outputs from postgraduate students and staff at the University of Wolverhampton.
Wolverhampton staff: to deposit your publication to WIRE, go to: https://www.wlv.ac.uk/lib/research/wire/
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The relationship between passion, basic psychological needs satisfaction and athlete burnout: examining direct and indirect effectsAthlete burnout symptoms are detrimental to athlete well-being. Obsessive passion has been identified as an antecedent of athlete burnout, with basic psychological need satisfaction potentially mediating this process. The aim of the current research was to extend on previous work and examine whether the relationship between passion and athlete burnout was mediated by psychological need satisfaction in a heterogeneous sample. Participants were 120 competitive athletes (Mage = 22.04, SD = 5.83) from 21 different sports. Each participant completed the Passion Scale, Basic Psychological Needs in Sport Scale, and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Multiple regression and bootstrapping procedures were used to analyze the data. Passion (harmonious and obsessive) was found to share a significant relationship with sport devaluation but shared no significant relationship with emotional and physical exhaustion and reduced sense of accomplishment. Bootstrapping results suggested that the basic psychological need of autonomy was the only significant mediating variable in the relationship between passion (harmonious and obsessive) and burnout (sport devaluation). Potential antecedents and consequences of athlete burnout, alongside applied and conceptual implications are discussed.
The battle of the giants: EU law, ECHR and the Energy Charter Treaty; the rematch to protect property rights in EuropeThis article explores the various levels of compensation for expropriated investments in the European legal framework. This article is timely, because it adds to the discussion on the changing position of UK investors after Brexit and whether their international protection is equal to their protection under EU law. In order to critically evaluate the proposition that energy investors are granted equivalent protection of their investments under the EU legal framework, as compared to the legal framework of investment treaties (BITs, FTAs, IIAs), this article evaluates the existing rules on compensation under the Energy Charter Treaty, the EU law and the European Convention on Human Rights.
A brief report of the epidemiology of obesity in the inflammatory bowel disease population of Tayside, ScotlandAim: Obesity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn’s disease (CD), has previously been considered unusual (3%). CD patients who are obese tend to have increased perianal complications and a higher level of disease activity on an annual basis. Obesity in Scotland has been documented to have increased over the last decade, and over half all men and women in Scotland are now considered to be overweight. This study aims to assess obesity prevalence in the IBD community in Tayside, Scotland. Methods: All IBD patients (n = 1,269) were considered for inclusion. Inclusion criteria required a weight measurement taken from the preceding 12 months and a height measurement within the last decade. 489 patients were included in the analysis. Results: 18% of the Tayside IBD population were obese in comparison to approximately 23% of the Scottish population on a whole. A further 38% of patients were over-weight, the same percentage as the general population. In the overweight and obese ulcerative colitis patients there were higher levels of surgery, but the converse was true in the CD group, where the normal-weight group had the highest levels of surgery. There were significantly more obese men and women with CD than with ulcerative colitis (P = 0.05). Conclusion: Obesity prevalence has increased in IBD patients. This is significant because of the known increased levels of postoperative complications, perianal disease and requirement for more aggressive medical therapy. Research needs to be done to look at the effects of obesity on the co-morbid associations of other diseases with IBD, in particular colorectal cancer, and to ascertain whether or not screening frequency should be altered depending on BMI.
Accuracy of ECG chest electrode placements by paramedics; an observational studyBackground The use of the 12-lead ECG is common in sophisticated prehospital Emergency Medical Services but its value depends upon accurate placement of the ECG-electrodes. Several studies have shown widespread variation in the placement of chest electrodes by other health professionals but no studies have addressed the accuracy of paramedics. The main objective of this study was to ascertain the accuracy of the chest lead placements by registered paramedics. Methods Registered paramedics who attended the Emergency Services Show in Birmingham in September 2018 were invited to participate in this observational study. Participants were asked to place the chest electrodes on a male model in accordance with their current practice. Correct positioning was determined against the Society for Cardiological Science & Technology’s Clinical Guidelines for recording a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (2017) with a tolerance of 19mm being deemed acceptable based upon previous studies. Results 52 eligible participants completed the study. Measurement of electrode placement in the vertical and horizontal planes showed a high level of inaccuracy with 3/52 (5.8%) participants able to accurately place all chest electrodes. In leads V1 - V3, the majority of incorrect placements were related to vertical displacement with most participants able to identify the correct horizontal position. In V4, the tendency was to place the electrode too low and to the left of the pre-determined position whilst V5 tended to be below the expected positioning but in the correct horizontal alignment. There was a less defined pattern of error in V6 although vertical displacement was more likely than horizontal displacement. Conclusions Our study identified a high level of variation in the placement of chest ECG electrodes which could alter the morphology of the ECG. Correct placement of V1 improved placement of other electrodes. Improved initial and refresher training should focus on identification of landmarks and correct placement of V1.
The origins of chemical warfare in the French ArmyFollowing the Germans’ first use of chlorine gas during the second battle of Ypres, the Entente had to develop means of protection from future poison gas attacks as well as systems for retaliation. This article, through the analysis of heretofore unexamined archival sources, considers early French attempts at engaging in chemical warfare. Contrary to the existing historiography, the French army aggressively adapted to, and engaged in, chemical warfare. Indeed, the French army would be the first to fire asphyxiating gas shells from field guns and, by June 1915, would pioneer the use of gas as a neutralization weapon to be used in counter-battery fire, as opposed to unleashing gas via canisters to engage enemy infantry. Such innovation invites a rethinking not only of French gas efforts but also of the role and evolution of the French army as a whole on the Western Front, a topic which the Anglophone world is in great need of examining further.