Welcome to WIRE

(Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)

WIRE is an open access repository for the research publications and other outputs from postgraduate students and staff at the University of Wolverhampton.

Wolverhampton staff: to deposit your publication to WIRE, go to: https://www.wlv.ac.uk/lib/research/wire/

Use the search box above or the browse function on the left to discover publications from the research community at the University of Wolverhampton.

University students and staff can also search WIRE using LibrarySearch

For further information or help, contact the Scholarly Communications Team at wire@wlv.ac.uk

 

  • RNA-seq analysis revealed key genes associated with seed germination of Fritillaria taipaiensis P.Y.Li by cold stratification

    Yang, Qiu-Xiong; Chen, Dan; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Min; Peng, Rui; Sun, Nian-Xi; Baldwin, Timothy; Yang, Sheng-Chao; Liang, Yan-Li; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-09-28)
    Seed dormancy is an adaptive strategy for environmental evolution. However, the molecular mechanism of the breaking of seed dormancy at cold temperatures is still unclear, and the genetic regulation of germination initiated by exposure to cold temperature requires further investigation. In the initial phase of the current study, the seed coat characteristics and embryo development of Fritillaria taipaiensis P.Y.Li at different temperatures (0°C, 4°C, 10°C & 25°C) was recorded. The results obtained demonstrated that embryo elongation and the dormancy-breaking was most significantly affected at 4°C. Subsequently, transcriptome analyses of seeds in different states of dormancy, at two stratification temperatures (4°C and 25°C) was performed, combined with weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) and metabolomics, to explore the transcriptional regulation of seed germination in F. taipaiensis at the two selected stratification temperatures. The results showed that stratification at the colder temperature (4°C) induced an up-regulation of gene expression involved in gibberellic acid (GA) and auxin biosynthesis and the down-regulation of genes related to the abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic pathway. Thereby promoting embryo development and the stimulation of seed germination. Collectively, these data constitute a significant advance in our understanding of the role of cold temperatures in the regulation of seed germination in F. taipaiensis and also provide valuable transcriptomic data for seed dormancy for other non-model plant species.
  • Investigation of the effect of disulfiram on the chemoresistance and invasiveness in pancreatic cancer cells

    Wang, Weiguang; Nkeonye, Ogechi; Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-07)
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide with a mortality to incidence ratio of 94%. It is the 10th most common cancer in the UK with a 5-year survival less than 7%. In contrast to the improved therapeutic outcomes in many other cancers, the prognosis of PDAC remains dismal. One reason for this is because most PDAC patients are asymptomatic and end up being diagnosed after the cancer has advanced to a late stage. Another major obstacle in PDAC management is that PDAC cells are highly resistant to currently available anticancer drugs and the resistant cells metastasize to vital organs leading to a high rate of fatalities. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for chemoresistance, relapse and metastasis. It is widely accepted that CSCs are located in the hypoxic niche which is responsible for maintaining stemness and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The stemness of cancer cells is a reversible state mediated by the hypoxic tumour microenvironment. Hypoxia initiates stemness in cancer cells by activating genes which inhibit apoptosis, modify glucose metabolism, increase cell proliferation and enhance cell pluripotency. Therefore, development of new drugs to target hypoxia-induced CSCs will be of clinical urgency in PDAC treatment. Due to the time and costs for new drug development, repositioning of old drugs for new ailments is an emerging drug R&D strategy in recent years. Disulfiram (DS) is an anti-alcoholism drug used in clinic for over 60 years. It demonstrates excellent activity against a wide range of cancers such as glioblastoma, non-small cell lung cancer and, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma without toxicity to normal cells. Whereas, its effect on PDAC cells is still largely unknown. In this study, the in vitro effect of hypoxia on the stemness, chemosensitivity and invasiveness of Panc-1, a PDAC cell line, and a panel of patient-derived PDAC primary cultures was investigated. The sphere-cultured PDAC cells contained high hypoxic population which demonstrated CSC/EMT traits and were resistant to the first line anti-PDAC drugs; gemcitabine and paclitaxel. The study manifested that the hypoxia-cultured monolayer PDAC cell line and primary cells also expressed CSC markers, ‘ALDH, CD133, ABCG2’ and EMT markers, ‘Vimentin, Snail1, N-cadherin, Snail2’. The hypoxia-cultured cells were highly resistant to gemcitabine and paclitaxel. Significantly higher migration and invasion activities were detected in the hypoxia-cultured PDAC cells compared to the normoxic cultures. Our previous studies demonstrated that copper is essential for the anticancer activity of DS. In this study, the effect of cyclodextrin encapsulated DS and copper (CycDex DS/Cu) on PDAC cells was examined. In line with previous studies, CycDex DS/Cu showed strong cytotoxicity in sphere- and hypoxia-cultured PDAC cells. It blocked hypoxia-induced CSC/EMT traits and reversed hypoxia-induced chemoresistance to gemcitabine and paclitaxel in PDAC cells. DS is an FDA approved medicine. The study suggests that further studies may translate it into PDAC clinic application in a fast track. Many hypotheses claim that hypoxia activates NFкB which in turn activates a cascade of genes that promote metastasis and chemoresistance in cancer. Our previous results indicate that NFкB plays a key role in chemoresistance and invasiveness in some types of cancer. For these reasons, the effect of NFкB on PDAC cells was investigated, NFкBp65 was genetically overexpressed and knocked out in Panc-1 PDAC cell line. The NFкBp65 overexpressed clones showed significantly higher migration rate but failed to induce chemoresistance. In contrast to our previous findings, the NFкBp65 overexpression and knockout did not influence the expression of CSC/EMT markers. These results suggest that we still need to set up further studies to elucidate the molecular anti-PDAC mechanisms of cyclodextrin encapsulated DS/Cu in PDAC cells.
  • Knowledge sharing within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia large construction organisations

    Renukappa, Suresh; Alamil, Hani Mohammed; School of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2022)
    An increasing number of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) construction organisations are turning to knowledge sharing as a key to leverage their distinctive core competencies in their pursuit of competitive advantage. However, the construction industry is one of the most challenging environments where managing people effectively is vital to ensure that they contribute their knowledge to organisational success. Knowledge sharing is part of knowledge management process, one of the building blocks for an organisation’s success and acts as a survival strategy in this knowledge era. However, knowledge sharing is an under-researched area in the KSA large construction organisations context, despite several policy transformations announced by the KSA government. Thus, the main aim of this research was to investigate how KSA large construction organisations are knowledge sharing en-route to competitiveness. The findings are based on qualitative methodology adopting semi-structured interviews with 44 professionals. The content analysis revealed five key drivers for knowledge sharing. The single most important driver for knowledge sharing is the integration of knowledge assets. Furthermore, seven key knowledge sharing strategies are implemented in large construction organisations in the KSA. Regular sharing of best practices related to project knowledge is the most widely implemented. The study revealed eight knowledge sharing techniques and technologies that are extensively used in the KSA large construction organisations. The key challenge for knowledge sharing is the lack of communication skills whereas knowledge sharing strategies contribute to the acceleration of construction processes. A framework for knowledge sharing was developed and evaluated for the benefit of KSA large construction organisations, which is the main contribution to the knowledge. The study concludes that knowledge sharing is an integrated and complex process. The results suggest that, for effective implementation of knowledge sharing strategies, there is an urgent need for the KSA large construction organisations to develop and deploy appropriate knowledge sharing related management training programmes. The most estimable contribution of this study is to provide valuable insights that would help the KSA construction industry’s decision makers to implement knowledge sharing strategies to improves the sector’s competitiveness. The findings of this research are limited to the KSA construction industry context only; as such, the generalisability of the results outside this context may be very limited.
  • Experience of anger: Perceptions of anger in self and family members

    Hinton, Daniel; Stevens-Gill, Debbie; Markson, Alexandra; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-03)
    Family emotion literature usually focuses on emotions generally, or specific emotions (sadness), often using questionnaires with parents and young children. There is little research on anger, specifically, in families and how it is experienced by family members. This research aimed to investigate individuals’ lived experience of anger, and their experience of family member anger expression while growing up. Meaning obtained from their experiences is examined, considering anger-related beliefs and messages. As literature often interchanges ‘anger’ with ‘aggression’, this study attempted to investigate anger as separate from aggression, while acknowledging that both constructs might co-occur. Six participants attended semi-structured interviews, and using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), multiple themes were developed from participant accounts. Main findings include the internal and external experience of anger, with perceived shifts in control, as well as physiological, cognitive, and behavioural components that support the proposed model. Individuals adopted a dynamic role in anger within the family, shaped by family messages. Additionally, anger was found to be confused with aggression, with aggression often viewed as acceptable when perceived as justified or as punishment. This study contributes to the anger literature by highlighting new phenomena experienced by participants, family anger dynamics, and the idea that individuals take on a dynamic role in family anger. Additionally, a model of anger – the Layers Model – is proposed, as a template for anger experience. This is the first known model of anger experience, which also attempts to differentiate anger from aggression, while acknowledging how these constructs fit amongst other possible ‘layers’ within the anger experience. This model offers a template for future anger research, but also has potential value in therapeutic settings with adults and children. Further suggestions on how this research and its findings are important to clinical practice and Counselling Psychology is addressed.
  • Factors that influence how relationships adjust to a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome: A grounded theory

    Chadwick, Darren; Gutteridge, Robin; Swinton, Jennifer; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-01)
    Background: There is relatively little research explaining how an intimate couple jointly adapt to a diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/ chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). A large body of literature exists that investigates the impact of ME/CFS on the individual and a smaller body of work addresses the effect on the partner and the influence the partner has in the management of the condition. This research, therefore, sought to illuminate couples’ experiences of ME/CFS, in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that influence adaptation to the condition in their joint relationship. A Grounded Theory Methodology was adopted to create a tentative theory of adaptation which could supplement the current evidence base and begin to inform future professional practice. Method: Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with experiencers diagnosed with ME/CFS. Five interviews were conducted with the experiencer alone and three interviews also involved the experiencer’s partner. Interviews focused upon the couple’s experience of living with and adapting to ME/CFS. Interviews were analysed following the constructivist grounded theory principles outlined by Charmaz (2006). Findings: A tentative model of reconciliation was constructed which explained the couple’s journey from disruption towards adaptation. This tentative model explained how the couple manage ‘fundamental disruptions’ to their identities and expectations brought about by the introduction of a powerful entity ME/CFS (‘Illness identity or It’). The couple managed these disruptions by working through periods of ‘loss and grief’ using skills such as humour, communication and understanding. Through this process the couple were able to identify and begin to implement appropriate ‘adaptations’ that helped them to manage the impact of ME/CFS within their relationship. Conclusion: This research identified how ME/CFS impacts upon the individual with the diagnosis and their partner and illuminates that the process of reconciling with loss and grief and implementing adaptations is a joint journey. It highlights the importance of considering the couple and not just the individual in the management of ME/CFS and makes tentative recommendations that could inform professional support interventions in the future.

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