Welcome to WIRE
(Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)
WIRE is an open access repository for the research publications and other outputs from postgraduate students and staff at the University of Wolverhampton.
Wolverhampton staff: to deposit your publication to WIRE, go to: https://www.wlv.ac.uk/lib/research/wire/
Use the search box above or the browse function on the left to discover publications from the research community at the University of Wolverhampton.
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Ulcerative colitis: Understanding its cellular pathology could provide insights into novel therapies© 2020 The Author(s). Dynamic interactions between the gastrointestinal epithelium and the mucosal immune system normally contribute to ensuring intestinal homeostasis and optimal immunosurveillance, but destabilisation of these interactions in genetically predisposed individuals can lead to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Ulcerative colitis is one of the main types of inflammatory diseases that affect the bowel, but its pathogenesis has yet to be completely defined. Several genetic factors and other inflammation-related genes are implicated in mediating the inflammation and development of the disease. Some susceptibility loci associated with increased risk of ulcerative colitis are found to be implicated in mucosal barrier function. Different biomarkers that cause damage to the colonic mucosa can be detected in patients, including perinuclear ANCA, which is also useful in distinguishing ulcerative colitis from other colitides. The choice of treatment for ulcerative colitis depends on disease severity. Therapeutic strategies include anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) monoclonal antibodies used to block the production of TNF-α that mediates intestinal tract inflammation, an anti-adhesion drug that prevents lymphocyte infiltration from the blood into the inflamed gut, inhibitors of JAK1 and JAK3 that suppress the innate immune cell signalling and interferons α/β which stimulate the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as faecal microbiota transplantation. Although further research is still required to fully dissect the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis, understanding its cellular pathology and molecular mechanisms has already proven beneficial and it has got the potential to identify further novel, effective targets for therapy and reduce the burden of this chronic disease.
Measurement of sedentary time and physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis: an ActiGraph and activPAL™ validation study© 2020, The Author(s). Accurate measurement of sedentary time and physical activity (PA) is essential to establish their relationships with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) outcomes. Study objectives were to: (1) validate the GT3X+ and activPAL3μ™, and develop RA-specific accelerometer (count-based) cut-points for measuring sedentary time, light-intensity PA and moderate-intensity PA (laboratory-validation); (2) determine the accuracy of the RA-specific (vs. non-RA) cut-points, for estimating free-living sedentary time in RA (field-validation). Laboratory-validation: RA patients (n = 22) were fitted with a GT3X+, activPAL3μ™ and indirect calorimeter. Whilst being video-recorded, participants undertook 11 activities, comprising sedentary, light-intensity and moderate-intensity behaviours. Criterion standards for devices were indirect calorimetry (GT3X+) and direct observation (activPAL3μ™). Field-validation: RA patients (n = 100) wore a GT3X+ and activPAL3μ™ for 7 days. The criterion standard for sedentary time cut-points (RA-specific vs. non-RA) was the activPAL3μ™. Results of the laboratory-validation: GT3X—receiver operating characteristic curves generated RA-specific cut-points (counts/min) for: sedentary time = ≤ 244; light-intensity PA = 245–2501; moderate-intensity PA ≥ 2502 (all sensitivity ≥ 0.87 and 1-specificity ≤ 0.11). ActivPAL3μ™—Bland–Altman 95% limits of agreement (lower–upper [min]) were: sedentary = (− 0.1 to 0.2); standing = (− 0.7 to 1.1); stepping = (− 1.2 to 0.6). Results of the field-validation: compared to the activPAL3μ™, Bland–Altman 95% limits of agreement (lower–upper) for sedentary time (min/day) estimated by the RA-specific cut-point = (− 42.6 to 318.0) vs. the non-RA cut-point = (− 19.6 to 432.0). In conclusion, the activPAL3μ™ accurately quantifies sedentary, standing and stepping time in RA. The RA-specific cut-points offer a validated measure of sedentary time, light-intensity PA and moderate-intensity PA in these patients, and demonstrated superior accuracy for estimating free-living sedentary time, compared to non-RA cut-points.
Training the animator anew: Developing cross-disciplinary opportunities for puppetry in arts, health and educationThis positioning article explores a reimagining within the field of applied theatre where through the medium of puppetry, the art and artist may become one as a way of healing. Building upon conceptual principles of animism, transference and embodiment, it is proposed that puppeteer training be usefully integrated into higher education applied arts and health programmes as an extension to existing programmes. Value is given to the metaphorical use of the puppet in both education and therapy. It is proposed that puppeteers may gain value from engaging with crossdisciplinary art-based research as a way to further understand puppetry’s uses and furthering their own practices.
A survey on deep transfer learning and edge computing for mitigating the COVID-19 pandemicGlobal Health sometimes faces pandemics as are currently facing COVID-19 disease. The spreading and infection factors of this disease are very high. A huge number of people from most of the countries are infected within six months from its first report of appearance and it keeps spreading. The required systems are not ready up to some stages for any pandemic; therefore, mitigation with existing capacity becomes necessary. On the other hand, modern-era largely depends on Artificial Intelligence(AI) including Data Science; and Deep Learning(DL) is one of the current flag-bearer of these techniques. It could use to mitigate COVID-19 like pandemics in terms of stop spread, diagnosis of the disease, drug & vaccine discovery, treatment, patient care, and many more. But this DL requires large datasets as well as powerful computing resources. A shortage of reliable datasets of a running pandemic is a common phenomenon. So, Deep Transfer Learning(DTL) would be effective as it learns from one task and could work on another task. In addition, Edge Devices(ED) such as IoT, Webcam, Drone, Intelligent Medical Equipment, Robot, etc. are very useful in a pandemic situation. These types of equipment make the infrastructures sophisticated and automated which helps to cope with an outbreak. But these are equipped with low computing resources, so, applying DL is also a bit challenging; therefore, DTL also would be effective there. This article scholarly studies the potentiality and challenges of these issues. It has described relevant technical backgrounds and reviews of the related recent state-of-the-art. This article also draws a pipeline of DTL over Edge Computing as a future scope to assist the mitigation of any pandemic.
The Early Years Pupil Premium: practitioners’ perspectives on if the funding supports ‘closing the gap’ for looked after children?© 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. The paper investigates practitioners’ perspectives on the Early Years Pupil Premium (EYPP) and its use for looked after children (LAC) in England. The paper considers what practitioners in one Local Authority (LA) think now that the funding has passed its infancy. Specifically, does EYPP funding help ‘close the gap’ for LAC? Q-methodology was used to investigate 19 practitioners’ perspectives; all were owners or managers in 19 different settings. This approach was complemented with a questionnaire survey and focus groups held with 14 practitioners in 13 different settings in the same LA. The findings revealed that practitioners consistently focused on whether all LAC should be eligible for this funding and/or whether the funding is able to ‘close the gap’ between them and their peers. It concludes that EYPP funding can support ‘closing the gap’ for LAC with developmental delay, but its purpose needs to be clarified.