Welcome to WIRE
(Wolverhampton Intellectual Repository and E-Theses)
WIRE is an open access repository for the research publications and other outputs from postgraduate students and staff at the University of Wolverhampton.
Wolverhampton staff: to deposit your publication to WIRE, go to: https://www.wlv.ac.uk/lib/research/wire/
Use the search box above or the browse function on the left to discover publications from the research community at the University of Wolverhampton.
University students and staff can also search WIRE using LibrarySearch
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Transformation or retaining the status quo: Multinational hospitality companies and SME collaboration on sustainability in emerging countriesThis chapter focuses on the dynamics of MHC-SME collaboration on sustainability in an emerging country context. The findings show that MHC sustainability policy is generally driven from headquarters and that economic sustainability has priority over environmental and social sustainability. By contrast, SMEs appear to be able to initiate fully sustainable strategies based on the culture, tradition, family history, industry, and ethical standing of the owners. The interaction of MHCs and SMEs in relation to sustainability involves varying factors at the macro, meso, and micro levels. However, the micro level factor (i.e., human agency) seems to be the determining factor of the relationship. The authors provide rich contextual data by adopting a qualitative research method (case study) based on primary data, which is rare in international business literature.
Soil properties influence the toxicity and availability of Zn from ZnO nanoparticles to earthwormsTo develop models that support site-specific risk assessment for nanoparticles (NPs), a better understanding of how NP transformation processes, bioavailability and toxicity are influenced by soil properties is needed. In this study, the influence of differing soil properties on the bioavailability and toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs and ionic Zn to the earthworm Eisenia fetida was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to ZnO_NPs and ionic Zn, between 100 and 4400 mg Zn/kg, in four different natural soils (organic matter content: 1.8–16.7%, soil pH: 5.4–8.3, representing sandy loam to calcareous soils). Survival and reproduction were assessed after 28 and 56 days, respectively. Zn concentrations in soil pore waters were measured while labile concentrations of Zn were measured using an in-situ dynamic speciation technique (diffusive gradient in thin films, DGT). Earthworm Zn tissue concentrations were also measured. Soil properties influenced earthworm reproduction between soil controls, with highest reproductive output in soils with pH values of 6–7. Toxicity was also influenced by soil properties, with EC50s based on total Zn in soil ranging from 694 to >2200 mg Zn/kg for ZnO_NP and 277–734 mg Zn/kg for ionic Zn. Soil pore water and DGT measurements showed good agreement in the relative amount of Zn extracted across the four soils. Earthworms exposed to ZnO_NPs survived higher Zn concentrations in the soils and had higher tissue concentrations compared with ionic Zn exposures, particularly in the high organic content calcareous soil. These higher tissue concentrations in ZnO_NP exposed earthworm could have consequences for the persistence and trophic mobility of Zn in terrestrial systems and need to be further investigated to elucidate if there any longer-term risks associated with sustained input of ZnO_NP to soil.
Terms in journal articles associating with high quality: can qualitative research be world-leading?Purpose: Scholars often aim to conduct high quality research and their success is judged primarily by peer reviewers. Research quality is difficult for either group to identify, however, and misunderstandings can reduce the efficiency of the scientific enterprise. In response, we use a novel term association strategy to seek quantitative evidence of aspects of research that associate with high or low quality. Design/methodology/approach: We extracted the words and 2–5-word phrases most strongly associating with different quality scores in each of 34 Units of Assessment (UoAs) in the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2021. We extracted the terms from 122,331 journal articles 2014-2020 with individual REF2021 quality scores. Findings: The terms associating with high- or low-quality scores vary between fields but relate to writing styles, methods, and topics. We show that the first-person writing style strongly associates with higher quality research in many areas because it is the norm for a set of large prestigious journals. We found methods and topics that associate with both high- and low-quality scores. Worryingly, terms associating with educational and qualitative research attract lower quality scores in multiple areas. REF experts may rarely give high scores to qualitative or educational research because the authors tend to be less competent, because it is harder to make world leading research with these themes, or because they do not value them. Originality: This is the first investigation of journal article terms associating with research quality.
Impact of mechanical stimulation on the life cycle of horticultural plantMechanical stimulation technology is critical in agricultural crop production because it is constantly regarded as a developing green technology to regulate plants to meet people's need for green and healthy agricultural products. Various environmental mechanical stimulation impacts seed germination, seedling growth, flowering date, fruit quantity, and fruit quality throughout the life cycle of a horticultural plant. This study first outlines the basic characteristics of six types of common mechanical stimulation in nature: precipitation, wind, gravity, touch, sound, and vibration. The effects of various mechanical stimulation types on the seed, seedling, flowering, and fruit of horticultural plants throughout their whole life cycle are then presented, as reviewed in the recent 100 years of existing literature. Finally, potential future study directions are discussed. The main challenge in mechanical stimulation technology is to uncover its potential capabilities for regulating and controlling plant development and fruit quality in green agriculture instead of agricultural chemicals.
Support needs and coping strategies in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a multidisciplinary approach to potential unmet challenges beyond pharmacological treatmentNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequently occurring chronic liver disease, affecting approximately 25–30% of the adult general population worldwide. NAFLD reflects excess hepatic accumulation of fat in the absence of increased alcohol intake, and, due to its close association with obesity, is frequently referred to as the ‘hepatic manifestation’ of metabolic syndrome. Indeed, a high percentage of individuals with NAFLD present with a combination of the cardio-metabolic comorbidities that are associated with the metabolic syndrome. In addition to its well-established link with the metabolic syndrome and increased risk for cardiovascular disease, NAFLD has also been associated with certain mental health issues (e.g., depression and stress). Although this link is now being increasingly recognized, there are still unmet needs regarding the holistic management of patients with NAFLD, which could further contribute to feelings of social isolation and loneliness. The latter conditions are also increasingly reported to pose a substantial risk to overall health and quality of life. To date, there is limited research that has explored these issues among patients with NAFLD, despite existing data which indicate that perceived loneliness and isolation may pose an additional health risk. Notably, many features associated with NAFLD have been related to these concepts, such as perceived stigma, fatigue, stress, and confusion regarding this diagnosis. As such, this review aimed to assess such potential problems faced by patients with NAFLD, and to explore the possibility of unmet support needs which could lead to perceived social isolation. Moreover, the importance of a compassionate approach towards such patients is discussed, together with potential coping strategies. Future research directions and the need for a multidisciplinary approach are also highlighted.