Now showing items 41-60 of 5095

    • The good character backstop: directions, defeasibility and frameworks of fairness

      Glover, Richard (Cambridge University Press, 2020-12-01)
      This paper examines the law on good character evidence in criminal trials through a discussion of the important but under-analysed case of Hunter, in which a five-judge Court of Appeal sought to clarify the law on good character directions to the jury. However, it is argued here that the judgment conflicts with the leading House of Lords decision in Aziz. The paper considers how the court misinterpreted the law and, in particular, the defeasible nature of the rule in Aziz and the impact of the Criminal Justice Act 2003. As a result, the circumstances in which a good character direction will be provided have diminished significantly. It is argued that this has important implications for the right to a fair trial, as good character directions act as a ‘backstop’ against miscarriages of justice. They also form a vital part of the ‘framework of fairness’ considered necessary, in lieu of reasoned jury verdicts, by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights in Taxquet v Belgium. Accordingly, it is contended that Aziz rather than Hunter should be followed so that, where there is evidence of good character, a direction is normally provided as a matter of law.
    • Modeling the dose–response rate/associations between VO2max and self-reported Physical Activity Questionnaire in children and adolescents

      Nevill, AM; Duncan, MJ; Sandercock, G (Elsevier, 2019-05-09)
      © 2020 Background: This study sought to explore the dose–response rate/association between aerobic fitness (VO2max) and self-reported physical activity (PA) and to assess whether this association varies by sex, age, and weight status. Methods: VO2max was assessed using the 20-m shuttle-run test. PA was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ) for Adolescents (aged >11 years, PAQ-A) or for Children (aged ≤11 years, PAQ-C). The associations between VO2max and PAQ were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), adopting PAQ and PAQ2 as covariates but allowing the intercepts and slope parameters of PAQ and PAQ2 to vary with the categorical variables sex, age group, and weight status. Results: ANCOVA identified a curvilinear association between VO2max and PAQ, with positive linear PAQ terms that varied for both sex and weight status but with a negative PAQ2 term of −0.39 (95% confidence interval (CI): –0.57 to –0.21) that was common for all groups in regard to age, sex, and weight status. These curvilinear (inverted U) associations suggest that the benefits of increasing PA (same dose) on VO2max is greater when children report lower levels of PA compared to children who report higher levels of PA. These dose–response rates were also steeper for boys and were steeper for lean children compared to overweight/obese children. Conclusion: Health practitioners should be aware that encouraging greater PA (same dose) in inactive and underweight children will result in greater gains in VO2max (response) compared with their active and overweight/obese counterparts.
    • Stanislavski’s creative state on the stage. A spiritual approach to the “system” through practice as research

      Curpan, Gabriela (Taylor & Francis, 2020-01-13)
      This article is a continuation of a previously published one and talks about my own research project, with a focus on various meditation techniques, used as un underlying principle of breath to observe possible spiritual ways of preparing the actor towards what Stanislavski defines as the creative state or as experiencing ‘the life of the human soul’ on the stage. Following the odyssey of the artist from being oneself to becoming the character, my practice as research looks upon how certain spiritual ways (such as meditation) might contribute to their artistic development. It also draws attention on the strange similarities between Christian Orthodox ideas, the Zen Buddhist state of ‘enlightenment’/ ‘zanmai’, and the Stanislavskian creative state.
    • Ethnic differences in inflammatory bowel disease: Results from the United Kingdom inception cohort epidemiology study

      Misra, R; Limdi, J; Cooney, R; Sakuma, S; Brookes, M; Fogden, E; Pattni, S; Sharma, N; Iqbal, T; Munkholm, P; et al. (Baishideng Publishing Group Inc., 2019-10-28)
      © The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved. BACKGROUND: The current epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the multiethnic United Kingdom is unknown. The last incidence study in the United Kingdom was carried out over 20 years ago. AIM: To describe the incidence and phenotype of IBD and distribution within ethnic groups. METHODS: Adult patients1 (> 16 years) with newly diagnosed IBD (fulfilling Copenhagen diagnostic criteria) were prospectively recruited over one year in 5 urban catchment areas with high South Asian population. Patient demographics, ethnic codes, disease phenotype (Montreal classification), disease activity and treatment within 3 months of diagnosis were recorded onto the Epicom database. RESULTS: Across a population of 2271406 adults, 339 adult patients were diagnosed with IBD over one year: 218 with ulcerative colitis (UC, 64.3%), 115 with Crohn's disease (CD, 33.9%) and 6 with IBD unclassified (1.8%). The crude incidence of IBD, UC and CD was 17.0/100000, 11.3/100000 and 5.3/100000 respectively. The age adjusted incidence of IBD and UC were significantly higher in the Indian group (25.2/100000 and 20.5/100000) compared to White European (14.9/100000, P = 0.009 and 8.2/100000, P < 0.001) and Pakistani groups (14.9/100000, P = 0.001 and 11.2/100000, P = 0.007). The Indian group were significantly more likely to have extensive disease than White Europeans (52.7% vs 41.7%, P = 0.031). There was no significant difference in time to diagnosis, disease activity and treatment. CONCLUSION: This is the only prospective study to report the incidence of IBD in an ethnically diverse United Kingdom population. The Indian ethnic group showed the highest age-adjusted incidence of UC (20.5/100000). Further studies on dietary, microbial and metabolic factors that might explain these findings in UC are underway.
    • Recognizing Events 4.0: The digital maturity of events

      Ryan, William Gerard; Fenton, A; Wasim, A; Scarf, P (Emerald, 2020-12-01)
      The purpose of this research is to explore and define the digital maturity of events using the Industry 4.0 model (I4.0), to create a definition for Events 4.0 (E4.0) and to place various relevant technologies on a scale of digital maturity. In a mixed methods approach, we carried out a qualitative social media analysis and a quantitative survey of tourism and events academics. These surveys and the thorough literature review that preceded them allowed us to map the digital technologies used in events to levels of a digital maturity model. We found that engagement with technology at events and delegate knowledge satisfactorily coexists for and across a number of different experiential levels. However, relative to I4.0, event research and the events industry appear to be digitally immature. At the top of the digital maturity scale, E4.0 might be defined as an event that: is digitally managed; frequently upgrading its digital technology; fully integrates its communication systems; and optimizes digital operations and communication for event delivery, marketing, and customer experience. We expect E4.0 to drive further engagement with digital technologies and develop further research. This study has responded to calls from the academic literature to provide a greater understanding of the digital maturity of events and how events engage with digital technology. Furthermore, the research is the first to introduce the concept of E4.0 into the academic literature. This work also provides insights for events practitioners which include: the better understanding of the digital maturity of events, and the widespread use of digital technology in event delivery.
    • A systems biology approach sheds new light on Escherichia coli acid resistance

      Stincone, A; Daudi, N; Rahman, AS; Antczak, P; Henderson, I; Cole, J; Johnson, MD; Lund, P; Falciani, F; The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2011-06-17)
      In order to develop an infection, diarrhogenic Escherichia coli has to pass through the stomach, where the pH can be as low as 1. Mechanisms that enable E. coli to survive in low pH are thus potentially relevant for pathogenicity. Four acid response systems involved in reducing the concentration of intracellular protons have been identified so far. However, it is still unclear to what extent the regulation of other important cellular functions may be required for survival in acid conditions. Here, we have combined molecular and phenotypic analysis of wild-type and mutant strains with computational network inference to identify molecular pathways underlying E. coli response to mild and strong acid conditions. The interpretative model we have developed led to the hypothesis that a complex transcriptional programme, dependent on the two-component system regulator OmpR and involving a switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, may be key for survival. Experimental validation has shown that the OmpR is responsible for controlling a sizeable component of the transcriptional programme to acid exposure. Moreover, we found that a ΔompR strain was unable to mount any transcriptional response to acid exposure and had one of the strongest acid sensitive phenotype observed. © 2011 The Author(s).
    • Adaptation for adoption - Changing modes of staff development in higher education

      Andrews, Ben; Challen, Rachel; Purnell, Emma; Rhodes, Jonathan; Towers, Paul (Universities and Colleges Information Systems Association (Ucisa), 2011)
      This paper explores the reasons and rationale behind adapting the modes of delivery of the Blended Learning Unit’s staff development programme at the University of Wolverhampton. Responding to institutional and political change the unit demonstrated a reflexive and reactive attitude towards delivering an inclusive and engaging programme of blended learning sessions. Whilst this paper reflects on the past five years and modes of delivery that have been implemented, it also looks towards the future and ways in which the unit can continue to best serve the institution.
    • Are the discretised lognormal and hooked power law distributions plausible for citation data?

      Thelwall, M (Elsevier, 2016-04-07)
      © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. There is no agreement over which statistical distribution is most appropriate for modelling citation count data. This is important because if one distribution is accepted then the relative merits of different citation-based indicators, such as percentiles, arithmetic means and geometric means, can be more fully assessed. In response, this article investigates the plausibility of the discretised lognormal and hooked power law distributions for modelling the full range of citation counts, with an offset of 1. The citation counts from 23 Scopus subcategories were fitted to hooked power law and discretised lognormal distributions but both distributions failed a Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit test in over three quarters of cases. The discretised lognormal distribution also seems to have the wrong shape for citation distributions, with too few zeros and not enough medium values for all subjects. The cause of poor fits could be the impurity of the subject subcategories or the presence of interdisciplinary research. Although it is possible to test for subject subcategory purity indirectly through a goodness of fit test in theory with large enough sample sizes, it is probably not possible in practice. Hence it seems difficult to get conclusive evidence about the theoretically most appropriate statistical distribution.
    • Are there too many uncited articles? Zero inflated variants of the discretised lognormal and hooked power law distributions

      Thelwall, M (Elsevier, 2016-05-06)
      © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Although statistical models fit many citation data sets reasonably well with the best fitting models being the hooked power law and discretised lognormal distribution, the fits are rarely close. One possible reason is that there might be more uncited articles than would be predicted by any model if some articles are inherently uncitable. Using data from 23 different Scopus categories, this article tests the assumption that removing a proportion of uncited articles from a citation dataset allows statistical distributions to have much closer fits. It also introduces two new models, zero inflated discretised lognormal distribution and the zero inflated hooked power law distribution and algorithms to fit them. In all 23 cases, the zero inflated version of the discretised lognormal distribution was an improvement on the standard version and in 16 out of 23 cases the zero inflated version of the hooked power law was an improvement on the standard version. Without zero inflation the discretised lognormal models fit the data better than the hooked power law distribution 6 out of 23 times and with it, the discretised lognormal models fit the data better than the hooked power law distribution 9 out of 23 times. Apparently uncitable articles seem to occur due to the presence of academic-related magazines in Scopus categories. In conclusion, future citation analysis and research indicators should take into account uncitable articles, and the best fitting distribution for sets of citation counts from a single subject and year is either the zero inflated discretised lognormal or zero inflated hooked power law.
    • Object manipulation and tool use in Nicobar long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis umbrosus)

      Mazumder, Jayashree; Kaburu, Stefano (Springer Nature, 2020-12-01)
      Object manipulation and tool use by non-human primates have received considerable attention from primatologists and anthropologists, because of their broad implications for understanding the evolution of tool use in humans. To date, however, most of the studies on this topic have focused on apes, given their close evolutionary relationship with humans. In contrast, fewer studies on tool use and object manipulation have been conducted on monkeys. Documenting and studying object manipulation and tool use in species that are more distantly related to humans can provide a broader perspective on the evolutionary origins of this behaviour. We present a detailed description of toolaided behaviours and object manipulation by Nicobar long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis umbrosus ) living along the coastlines of Great Nicobar Island. We made observations from December 2018 to March 2019, using ad libitum and focal sampling methods. We observed behaviours related to object manipulation and tool use in six different behavioural contexts (foraging, hygiene, communication, play, selfdirected and self-hygiene behaviour) involving eight different types of objects, namely resonance rod, play object, rolling platform, scraping tool, dental groom, pounding substrate, leaves as grip pads and wipers, and stimulation tool. We observed that males were involved in tool use and object manipulation more frequently than females. Our results add to existing records of object manipulation, tool-use behaviour and tool variants displayed by non-human primates, showing that Nicobar macaques perform multiple and diverse tool-aided behaviours.
    • Future of fundamental discovery in US biomedical research

      Levitt, M; Levitt, JM; Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305; michael.levitt@stanford.edu. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2017-06-05)
      Young researchers are crucially important for basic science as they make unexpected, fundamental discoveries. Since 1982, we find a steady drop in the number of grant-eligible basic-science faculty [principal investigators (PIs)] younger than 46. This fall occurred over a 32-y period when inflation-corrected congressional funds for NIH almost tripled. During this time, the PI success ratio (fraction of basicscience PIs who are R01 grantees) dropped for younger PIs (below 46) and increased for older PIs (above 55). This age-related bias seems to have caused the steady drop in the number of young basicscience PIs and could reduce future US discoveries in fundamental biomedical science. The NIH recognized this bias in its 2008 earlystage investigator (ESI) policy to fund young PIs at higher rates. We show this policy is working and recommend that it be enhanced by using better data. Together with the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS)Maximizing Investigators' Research Award (MIRA) program to reward senior PIs with research time in exchange for less funding, this may reverse a decades-long trend of more money going to older PIs. To prepare young scientists for increased demand, additional resources should be devoted to transitional postdoctoral fellowships already offered by NIH.
    • Evaluation of crushing and energy absorption characteristics of bio-inspired nested structures

      Nikkhah, H; Baroutaji, A; Kazancı, Z; Arjunan, A (Elsevier, 2020-01-27)
      Mimicking anatomical structures like bone can aid in the development of energy absorbing structures that can achieve desirable properties. Accordingly, this study presents the analysis of tubular nested designs inspired by Haversian bone architecture. Based on this design philosophy, a total of 18 nested tube designs with various geometrical configurations were developed. Within each design, the effect of reinforcement walls on the crashworthiness performance is also analysed. A finite element model, validated using quasi-static experimental tests, was used to study the crashworthiness performance and progressive deformation of the nested system. Based on the results, a multi-criteria decision-making method known as Technique of Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) was employed to determine the most suitable cross-section that features high energy absorption and low impact force. Consequently, the study identified a nested tube configuration that exhibits superior crashworthiness and high energy absorbing characteristics. The bio-inspired design methodology presented in this study allows the exploitation of variable nested geometries for the development of high-efficiency energy absorbing structures.
    • Synthesis of triazole-linked morpholino oligonucleotides via Cu<sup>I</sup> catalysed cycloaddition

      Palframan, MJ; Alharthy, RD; Powalowska, PK; Hayes, CJ; School of Chemistry, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. chris.hayes@nottingham.ac.uk. (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2016-02-16)
      © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016. Triazole-linked morpholino (TLMO) oligonucleic acids were synthesised using the CuI catalysed (3 + 2) azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The modified DNA analogues were incorporated into 13-mer sequences via solid phase synthesis. UV melting experiments showed that the TLMO modification gives higher Tm values than the corresponding TLDNA modification.
    • Sobralene, a new sex-aggregation pheromone and likely shunt metabolite of the taxadiene synthase cascade, produced by a member of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis species complex

      Palframan, MJ; Bandi, KK; Hamilton, JGC; Pattenden, G; School of Chemistry, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK. (Elsevier, 2018-03-30)
      © 2018 The Authors A new sex-aggregation pheromone, sobralene, produced by the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis from Sobral (Ceará State, Brazil) is shown to have the novel 6,12-membered ring-fused diterpene structure 3. It is proposed that sobralene is a likely shunt metabolite of the taxadiene synthase-catalysed cyclisation of geranygeranyl diphosphate.
    • Biosynthetic interrelationships within polycyclic cembranoids isolated from corals: conjecture, biomimetic synthesis and reality

      Palframan, MJ; Pattenden, G (Wiley, 2019-11-29)
      © 2019 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim Macrocyclic furanobutenolide-based cembranoids are precursors to a wide variety of complex ring-fused diterpene structures in corals, implicating a wide variety of oxidation and photochemical processes, cyclisation and transannulation reactions, and skeletal rearrangements from a variety of reactive intermediates and pericyclic processes. This article gives an up to date personal perspective on the speculations that underpin these interesting biosynthetic interrelationships and summarises biomimetic synthesis and interconversions that would seem to vindicate some of these speculations.
    • Sidechain diversification of grandifloracin allows identification of analogues with enhanced anti-austerity activity against human PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells

      Alexander, BE; Sun, S; Palframan, MJ; Kociok-Köhn, G; Dibwe, DF; Watanabe, S; Caggiano, L; Awale, S; Lewis, SE; Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK. (Wiley, 2019-12-10)
      © 2019 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. The natural product (+)-grandifloracin is a potent “anti-austerity” agent, able to suppress the ability of various pancreatic cancer cell lines to tolerate conditions of nutrient deprivation. Such anti-austerity agents represent a promising approach to cancer chemotherapy. Here we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of racemic analogues of grandifloracin bearing diverse sidechains, of which two show enhanced potency in comparison with the natural product. Additionally, several unexpected by-products containing modifications of the grandifloracin core were isolated, identified and similarly evaluated for biological activity.
    • The verticillenes. Pivotal intermediates in the biosynthesis of the taxanes and the phomactins

      Palframan, MJ; Pattenden, G; School of Chemistry, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK. gp@nottingham.ac.uk. (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2018-07-06)
      © 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Covering: up to May 2018 The verticillene family of 6,12-membered ring-fused diterpenes are found in plants, liverworts, corals and insects. Carbocations derived from verticillene hydrocarbons are central intermediates in the biosynthesis of the taxane and the phomactin families of polycyclic natural products. This perspective delineates these unique biosynthetic interrelationships, which are reinforced by recent biomimetic synthesis investigations, alongside quantum chemical calculations and targeted engineering studies of the taxadiene synthase (TXS) cascade.
    • Acid-catalysed rearrangement of the sandfly pheromone sobralene to verticillenes, consolidating its relationship inter alia to the taxanes and phomactins

      Palframan, MJ; Bandi, KK; Hamilton, JGC; Pattenden, G (Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2019-08-13)
      © 2019 Thieme. All rights reserved. The sex-aggregation pheromone sobralene produced by the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis is isomerised to verticillenes in the presence of mild acid, thereby providing credence to the proposal that sobralene is a likely shunt metabolite of the taxadiene synthase cascade.
    • Aligning to disadvantage: how corporate political activity and strategic homophily create path dependence in the firm

      Perchard, Andrew; MacKenzie, Niall (SAGE, 2020-12-01)
      To what extent should firms get close to government for competitive advantage? What happens if they get too close? In this article we explore how corporate political activity (CPA) inculcated strategic homophily in leading UK aluminium producer, the British Aluminium Company Ltd (BACo), resulting in its path dependence and eventual lock-in. The paper makes three main contributions: a longitudinal study of CPA and strategic homophily revealing their organizational manifestations and detailed understanding of certain mechanisms of path dependence; articulating the value of historical methods and perspectives to exploring organizational path dependence; and exploring the impact that prolonged business-government relations can have on the organizational behaviour and strategic outlook of the firm with implications for TMT selection and environmental scanning. In so doing it responds to calls for firms to align market positions with political activity, as well as those for the recognition of the value of business history in better understanding the links between CPA and firm performance. It further elucidates the longer-term consequences of strategic homophily, which has to date focused on the early stages of venture formation.
    • Validation of epigenetic markers to identify colitis associated cancer: Results of module 1 of the ENDCAP-C study

      Beggs, Andrew D; Mehta, Samir; Deeks, Jonathan J; James, Jonathan D; Caldwell, Germaine M; Dilworth, Mark P; Stockton, Joanne D; Blakeway, Daniel; Pestinger, Valerie; Vince, Alexandra; et al. (Elsevier, 2018-11-22)
      BACKGROUND:Chronic inflammation caused by ulcerative colitis (UC) causes a pro-neoplastic drive in the inflamed colon, leading to a markedly greater risk of invasive malignancy compared to the general population. Despite surveillance protocols, 50% of cases proceed to cancer before neoplasia is detected. The Enhanced Neoplasia Detection and Cancer Prevention in Chronic Colitis (ENDCaP-C) trial is an observational multi-centre test accuracy study to ascertain the role of molecular markers in improving the detection of dysplasia. We aimed to validate previously identified biomarkers of neoplasia in a retrospective cohort and create predictive models for later validation in a prospective cohort. METHODS:A retrospective analysis using bisulphite pyrosequencing of an 11 marker panel (SFRP1, SFRP2, SRP4, SRP5, WIF1, TUBB6, SOX7, APC1A, APC2, MINT1, RUNX3) in samples from 35 patients with cancer, 78 with dysplasia and 343 without neoplasia undergoing surveillance for UC associated neoplasia across 6 medical centres. Predictive models for UC associated cancer/dysplasia were created in the setting of neoplastic and non-neoplastic mucosa. FINDINGS:For neoplastic mucosa a five marker panel (SFRP2, SFRP4, WIF1, APC1A, APC2) was accurate in detecting pre-cancerous and invasive neoplasia (AUC = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.88), and dysplasia (AUC = 0.88; (0.84, 0.91). For non-neoplastic mucosa a four marker panel (APC1A, SFRP4, SFRP5, SOX7) had modest accuracy (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.62,0.73) in predicting associated bowel neoplasia through the methylation signature of distant non-neoplastic colonic mucosa. INTERPRETATION:This multiplex methylation marker panel is accurate in the detection of ulcerative colitis associated dysplasia and neoplasia and is currently being validated in a prospective clinical trial. FUNDING:The ENDCAP-C study was funded by the National Institute for Health Research Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation (EME) Programme (11/100/29).