Now showing items 41-60 of 5951

    • Effects of hand-rearing on the behaviour of zoo-housed chimpanzees

      Spiezio, Caterina; Vaglio, Stefano; Vandelle, Camille; Sandri, Camillo; Regaiolli, Barbara (Karger, 2021-12-31)
      Early-life experiences may considerably affect the behavioural patterns of adult primates. Particularly, atypical rearing practices might lead to abnormal behaviours and social-sexual deficiencies in captive, adult non-human primates. We conducted behavioural observations of mother-reared (n = 5) and hand-reared (n = 6) adult chimpanzees in a social group at Parco Natura Viva, Italy. We used continuous focal animal sampling to collect behavioural data focusing on individual and social behaviours. We found that all study subjects performed individual and social species-specific behaviours. However, mother-reared chimpanzees performed locomotion and affiliative behaviours significantly more than hand-reared subjects. In addition to these species-typical behaviours, hand-reared chimpanzees showed significantly more abnormal behaviours than mother-reared subjects. Therefore, these findings suggest that hand-rearing could have wide-reaching effects on the behavioural repertoire in adult zoo-housed chimpanzees. Hence, even if sometimes human intervention in rearing may be necessary to ensure the survival of captive infant chimpanzees, our results suggest that zoo-housed chimpanzees might benefit from minimized human-animal interactions and exposure to conspecifics throughout their development. These suggestions should be implemented in regular husbandry practices.
    • A striking new species of Papuan groundsnake (Stegonotus: Colubridae) from southern Papua New Guinea, with a dichotomous key to the genus in New Guinea

      O'Shea, Mark; Richards, Stephen J (Magnolia Press, 2021-02-04)
      We describe a new species of groundsnake of the genus Stegonotus (Colubridae) from the Purari River basin in Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. The new species can be most readily distinguished from all other New Guinean Stegonotus by its unique dorsal colour pattern which consists of a dark head and creamy-white anterior one third to two thirds of the body, grading into increasingly dense dark pigmentation on the posterior of the body and tail. It is most similar to S. iridis from the Raja Ampat Archipelago off western New Guinea, but that species has a different pattern of pigmentation dorsally, has a lower ventral scale count (198–211 vs. 229–239), and exhibits a different temporal scale arrangement. The description of S. aplini sp. nov. brings to fourteen the number of Stegonotus species described from New Guinea. A dichotomous key to described species in the New Guinea region is provided.
    • Injury incidence and severity in pre-professional musical theatre dancers: a 5-year prospective study

      Stephens, Nicola; Nevill, Alan; Wyon, Matthew (Thieme, 2021-12-31)
      Dance injury research has mainly focused on ballet and modern dance with little data on musical theatre dancers. The purpose was to assess the incidence and severity of injuries in a musical theatre dance college over a 5-year period; 198 pre-professional musical theatre dancers (3 cohorts on a 3-year training course) volunteered for the study; 21 students left the course over the study period. Injury aetiology data were collected by an in-house physiotherapy team. Differences between academic year and sex were analysed using a Poisson distribution model; significant difference was set at p≤0.05. In total 913 injuries were recorded, more injuries occurred in academic year 1 than year 2 and 3. Overall injury incidence was 1.46 injuries per 1000 hours (95%CI 1.34, 1.56); incidence significantly decreased between year 1, 2 and 3 (p<0.05). There was no significant sex difference for incidence or severity. Most injuries were classified as overuse (71% female, 67% male). Pre-professional musical theatre dancers report a high proportion of lower limb and overuse injuries that is comparable to other dance genres. Unlike other studies on pre-professional dancers; injury incidence and severity decreased with academic year, even though workload increased across the course.
    • Health professionals’ views and experiences of discussing weight with children and their families: A systematic review of qualitative research

      Heath, Gemma; Abdin, Shanara; Welch, Richard (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
      Background: Healthcare professionals are ideally placed to discuss weight management with children and families to treat and prevent childhood obesity. The aim of this review was to collect and synthesise primary research evidence relating to health professional’s views and experiences of discussing weight with children and their families. Methods: Systematic searches were conducted using the following databases: MEDLINE (OVID), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), EMBASE (OVID), PsycINFO (OVID) and Healthcare Management Information Consortium (HMIC). Twenty-six full text qualitative studies published in English Language journals since inception to October 2019 were included. Papers were quality assessed and synthesised using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results: Data analysis generated five themes: Sensitivity of the issue; Family-professional relationships; Whole systems approach, Professional competency, Socio- cultural context. Conclusion: Supporting behaviour change through discussion of healthy weight with children and families is an important part of the health professional’s role. Tailored information for professionals including resources and training which facilitates them to confidently talk to children and families about weight should be prioritised within interventions. Success of such interventions requires commitment from a range of professionals to ensure healthy weight is tackled through a whole system approach.
    • Collaborative resilience-building: supporting childhood resilience through interaction between adults and children

      Williams-Brown, Zeta; Jopling, Michael; Daly, Jayne; Aston, Andrew (BESA, 2020-12-31)
      The article reports on the key findings from a project that investigated children’s perspectives on their resilience, including whether they had a positive perception of themselves, whether they believed they were resilient and what support was available. The project formed part of an evaluation of Headstart, a programme funded by the Big Lottery (2017-2021) trialling a range of initiatives for improving resilience and emotional wellbeing in six locations in England. To identify shared perspectives, this study used Q-methodology, which provides a means of gathering quantifiable data from highly subjective viewpoints. In 2018, 55 children (aged 9-16 years) in one of the Headstart locations took part in the data collection during community and school-based activities. There was a clear message from all of the children that, regardless of their self-perception and support networks, they valued the support they received from others, but they did not value the role others played in tackling adversity in their lives. Other findings include a significant link between family support (and the support from other groups) and the child’s self-perception and enjoyment of life. Children with limited or no family support sought the support of friends and Headstart. The paper emphasises the need to ensure there is a collaborative resilience-building approach between adults and children where children are listened too in a range of ways and also encouraged to value the involvement they play in tackling adversity in their lives. This is especially significant given the emphasis placed by all children on accessing their support groups at times of adversity.
    • AHP-systems thinking analyses for kaizen costing implementation in the construction industry

      Omotayo, T; Awuzie, B; Egbelakin, T; Obi, L; Ogunnusi, M (MDPI, 2020-12-05)
      The incessant reportage of cost overruns and abandoned projects in contemporary literature have accentuated the need for a re-examination of the nature of the cost management strategies deployed to these projects. This study explores the potential of kaizen costing strategy to engender effective cost management within construction project delivery systems in developing countries. Data collected during this study were analysed using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and systems thinking approaches to determine the criticality of the factors influencing the effective implementation of kaizen costing. Seven (7) archetypes leading to final causal loop diagram identified the incorporation of the plan–do–check–act approach to project and cost planning, the budgeting system of the construction companies, overhead cost reduction during construction and the overall procurement process. Executing these archetypes will potentially reduce high overhead costs, project cost and time overruns, as well as enhance construction industry sector growth policies and construction organisation corporate governance.
    • Local authority responses to people with NRPF during the pandemic: research report

      Dickson, Eve; Jolly, Andrew; Morgan, Benjamin; Qureshi, Fizza; Sojka, Bozena; Stamp, Dave (ICRD, 2020-08-03)
    • Measuring the impact of biodiversity datasets: data reuse, citations and altmetrics

      Khan, Nushrat; Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Springer, 2021-02-28)
      Despite growing evidence of open biodiversity data reuse by scientists, information about how data is reused and cited is rarely openly accessible from research data repositories. This study explores data citation and reuse practices in biodiversity by using openly available metadata for 43,802 datasets indexed in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and content analyses of articles citing GBIF data. Results from quantitative and content analyses suggest that even though the number of studies making use of openly available biodiversity data has been increasing steadily, best practice for data citation is not yet common. It is encouraging, however, that an increasing number of recent articles (16 out of 23 in 2019) in biodiversity cite datasets in a standard way. A content analysis of a random sample of unique citing articles (n=100) found various types of background (n=18) and foreground (n=81) reuse cases for GBIF data, ranging from combining with other data sources to create species distribution modelling to software testing. This demonstrates some unique research opportunities created by open data. Among the citing articles, 27% mentioned the dataset in references and 13% in data access statements in addition to the methods section. Citation practice was inconsistent especially when a large number of subsets (12~50) were used. Even though many GBIF dataset records had altmetric scores, most posts only mentioned the articles linked to those datasets. Among the altmetric mentions of datasets, blogs can be the most informative, even though rare, and most tweets and Facebook posts were for promotional purposes.
    • Café Delphi: Hybridising ‘World Café’ and ‘Delphi Techniques’ for successful remote academic collaboration

      Jolly, A; Caulfield, LS; Sojka, B; Iafrati, S; Rees, J; Massie, R (Elsevier, 2020-12-23)
      Developing collaborative and cooperative research across academic disciplines and university administrative boundaries can be a challenge. In an attempt to understand and propose solutions to this challenge, the authors of this paper set out to: test an innovative combination of methods to generate and evaluate ideas and strategies; and to write about the findings using collaborative online methods. During this process universities in the UK moved to online working and so the authors completed this paper through entirely online means. The authors - a team of academic researchers from the University of AAA - came together in sessions designed as a hybrid of World Café and Delphi technique approaches to discuss challenges and solutions. The findings were written up drawing on insights from the use of massively authored papers (also known as ‘massively open online papers’, MOOPs), and online tools to enable remote collaboration. Expert consensus was sought in this project within a group of participants (N ​= ​7) in one university setting to create a MOOP. This paper presents details of the process, the findings, and reflections on this collaborative and cooperative exercise. That this paper was written using the methods discussed within it, highlights the value and success of the approach. In light of the current Coronavirus pandemic and the increased need to work remotely, this paper offers academics useful strategies for meaningful and productive online collaboration.
    • Recent advances and applications of bacterial cellulose in biomedicine

      Swingler, Sam; Gupta, Abhishek; Gibson, Hazel; Kowalczuk, Marek; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Radecka, Iza (MDPI AG, 2021-01-28)
      Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an extracellular polymer produced by Komagateibacter xylinus, which has been shown to possess a multitude of properties, which makes it innately useful as a next-generation biopolymer. The structure of BC is comprised of glucose monomer units polymerised by cellulose synthase in β-1-4 glucan chains which form uniaxially orientated BC fibril bundles which measure 3–8 nm in diameter. BC is chemically identical to vegetal cellulose. However, when BC is compared with other natural or synthetic analogues, it shows a much higher performance in biomedical applications, potable treatment, nano-filters and functional applications. The main reason for this superiority is due to the high level of chemical purity, nano-fibrillar matrix and crystallinity. Upon using BC as a carrier or scaffold with other materials, unique and novel characteristics can be observed, which are all relatable to the features of BC. These properties, which include high tensile strength, high water holding capabilities and microfibrillar matrices, coupled with the overall physicochemical assets of bacterial cellulose makes it an ideal candidate for further scientific research into biopolymer development. This review thoroughly explores several areas in which BC is being investigated, ranging from biomedical applications to electronic applications, with a focus on the use as a next-generation wound dressing. The purpose of this review is to consolidate and discuss the most recent advancements in the applications of bacterial cellulose, primarily in biomedicine, but also in biotechnology.
    • The Big Read Collaboration between Kingston University, the University of Wolverhampton, Edge Hill University, and the University of the West of Scotland, 2018-2019

      Baverstock, Alison; Steinitz, Jackie; Shelar, Tanuja; Squires, Kelly; Karodia, Nazira; Butler, Rebecca; Smith, Sara; Sopromadze, Natia; Crowley, Sara; Clark, Alison; et al. (Brill, 2020-11-19)
      This paper outlines the experience of four universities that collaborated on a pre-arrival shared reading project, the Big Read, in 2018/2019. They did so primarily to promote student engagement and retention and also to ease the transition into higher education, particularly for first-generation students, to promote staff connectedness, and to provide a USP (unique selling point) for their institution. The paper covers all the associated processes, from isolating the respective aims of the collaborators to the choosing and sharing of a single agreed title. In analysing the outcomes, recommendations are made for future cross-institutional projects of this kind.
    • Improving the decision-making process in the higher learning institutions via electronic records management system adoption

      Mukred, Muaadh; Yusof, Zawiyah M; Mokhtar, Umi Asma; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Hawash, Burkan; Ahmed, Waleed Abdulkafi (Korea Society of Internet Information, 2021-01-31)
      Electronic Records Management System (ERMS) is a computer program or set of applications that is utilized for keeping up to date records along with their storage. ERMS has been extensively utilized for enhancing the performance of academic institutions. The system assists in the planning and decision-making processes, which in turn enhances the competencies. However, although ERMS is significant in supporting the process of decision-making, the majority of organizations have failed to take an initiative to implement it, taking into account that are some implementing it without an appropriate framework, and thus resulted in the practice which does not meet the accepted standard. Therefore, this study identifies the factors influencing the adoption of ERMS among employees of HLI in Yemen and the role of such adoption in the decision-making process, using the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) along with Technology, Organization and Environment (TOE) as the underpinning theories. The study conducts a cross-sectional survey with a questionnaire as the technique for data collection, distributed to 364 participants in various Yemeni public Higher Learning Institutions (HLI). Using AMOS as a statistical method, the findings revealed there are significant and positive relationships between technology factors (effort expectancy, performance expectancy, IT infrastructure and security), organizational factors (top management support, financial support, training, and policy),environmental factors (competitiveness pressure, facilitating conditions and trust) and behavioral intention to adopt ERMS, which in return has a significant relationship with the process of decision-making in HLI. The study also presents a variety of theoretical and empirical contributions that enrich the body of knowledge in the field of technology adoption and the electronic record’s domain.
    • The physiological effects of a walking to music intervention in adults with intermediate hyperglycemia

      Faulkner, Maria; Murphy, Marie; Davison, Gareth; Rowe, David; Hewitt, Allan; Nevill, Alan; Duly, Ellie; Trinick, Tom; McNeilly, Andrea M (Scientific Research Publishing, Inc., 2021-01-27)
      Purpose: Overweight individuals are at risk of intermediate hyperglycemia (IHG) [1]. Increasing physical activity (PA) in IHG is one method to reduce the risk of glucometabolic and cardiovascular (CV) complications [2]. This study investigates walking to music as a modality to increase moderate intensity PA and regulate glucometabolic disturbances. Patients and Methods: Participants were randomized to usual care (UC) or intervention group (IG) who completed a 6 month walking to music program. Physiological assessments for a range of variables (DEXA, flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and glucometabolic biomarkers) were completed at baseline, 4, 6 and 9 months (follow-up). Results: For IG group, walking compliance decreased with time however 71.4%, 79.5% and 73% of walking completed was moderate intensity at 4, 6 and 9 months. At 6 months IG FMD was significantly lower than UC and HbA1Cwas 5% lower. Other physiological markers were not altered. Conclusion: Walking to music may be a novel method to encourage moderate intensity PA. However, the majority of results demonstrate that this intervention was not more effective than UC in managing glucometabolic and CV biomarkers in IHG. Future interventions should include additional support for the entire study duration however this has cost implications.
    • Fit to be president: William Howard Taft, sports and athleticism

      Burns, Adam (Intellect Publishers, 2021-12-31)
      The early twentieth century was a time when the US public consciousness recognized an increasing association between their political leaders and sports and athleticism. With an exceptional precedent for this connection set by Theodore Roosevelt (1901–1909), his replacement as US president would inevitably find it hard to keep pace. In the modern-day popular consciousness, Roosevelt’s immediate successor, William Howard Taft (1909–1913), is often noted more for his obesity than for his physical athleticism or sporting prowess. Yet, as this article shows, as Taft moved closer to the White House, the contemporary US press increasingly associated him with sports, and at least the pursuit of physical fitness. In a post-Rooseveltian America, a rise to national political prominence demanded a portrayal of a president’s links to sports and athleticism, even in the unlikeliest of candidates.
    • Self-healing polymers synthesized by Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) of bio-derived furanic molecules

      Keddie, Daniel; Naguib, Mohamed; Rashed, Atteya (Springer Nature, 2021-02-09)
      Novel bio-derivable tricyclic oxanorbornene polymers, based upon secondary furfurylamine and maleic anhydride derived monomers, prepared via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) are reported. The tricyclic oxanorbornenes with fused lactam ring are exo Diels–Alder adducts. DFT calculations support the cycloaddition is the first step followed by lactamization. The polymerizations are rapid and deliver polymers with targeted molar mass and low dispersity (Đ). The prepared polymers with furanyl pendant groups have reactivity toward maleimide-bearing compounds to form thermally induced crosslinked networks through thermoreversible Diels–Alder reactions. The thermoreversible (self-healing) behavior is confirmed by sol gel transition. This new class of bio-derived polymer could be further modified with different active moieties as pendant groups and hence be tailored for more applications in the future.
    • Strategic framework for unmanned aerial systems integration in public organisations in the Dominican Republic disaster management context

      Vanderhorst, Hamlet Reynoso; Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Heesom, David (Elsevier, 2021-02-09)
      In the Caribbean region, there is a significant yearly number of natural events incidents. The impact of those events has affected the well-being, social and economic structures of the countries in this region. The investment in disaster management strategies is a fundamental decision to the region for improving capabilities, understanding the liabilities, dealing with the disaster stages, and integrating systems and tools to obtain greater results in resilience strategies. Therefore, information technology and robotics have played an effective role bringing innovation to the traditional approaches by improving the capabilities of personnel and serves as a catalyst to rapid data collection tools for effective decision-making during disastrous situation, as has been the case of the Dominican Republic. The organic adoption process of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) has represented a large step forward regarding this matter. Examples of the adoption process occurs based on their flexibility in their regulatory context, funding investments in testing the applications of UAS, such as surveying, delivering medical samples and spray disinfection during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there are only some mature applications that address a future-proofing concept as well as the integration into a typical institutional workflow. Therefore, this paper aims to be an introductory guide for decision and policymakers, educators and technicians to reduce the scepticism, lack of knowledge and know-how in the adoption of reliable, practical and effective tools by providing a combination of theories from socio-technical systems (socio-technical change impact model (SCI)) and organizational level (technology-organizational-environmental) frameworks of the UAS adoption process for natural events, tasks and critical roles in disaster management taking into account the Dominican Republic context. Qualitative cases of studies were evaluated from nine (9) professionals related to disaster management in the Dominican Republic, and a semi-structured interview were used to approach the adoption process of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) in these organisations.
    • The development of current collection in micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells—a review

      Hodjati-Pugh, Oujen; Dhir, Aman; Steinberger-Wilckens, Robert (MDPI AG, 2021-01-25)
      Micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (µT-SOFCs) are suited to a broad range of applications with power demands ranging from a few watts to several hundred watts. µT-SOFCs possess inherently favourable characteristics over alternate configurations such as high thermo-mechanical stability, high volumetric power density and rapid start-up times, lending them particular value for use in portable applications. Efficient current collection and interconnection constitute a bottleneck in the progression of the technology. The development of current collector designs and configuration reported in the literature since the inception of the technology are the focus of this study.
    • Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match

      Draganidis, D; Chatzinikolaou, A; Avloniti, A; Barbero-Álvarez, JC; Mohr, M; Malliou, P; Gourgoulis, V; Deli, CK; Douroudos, II; Margonis, K; et al. (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2015-06-04)
      We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05) at 12h (both limbs) and 36h (dominant limb only), b) eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05) in both limbs for 36h at 60°/s and for 60h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05) reduction than concentric peak torque, c) strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05) at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d) the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level.
    • Age-related responses in circulating markers of redox status in healthy adolescents and adults during the course of a training macrocycle

      Zalavras, A; Fatouros, IG; Deli, CK; Draganidis, D; Theodorou, AA; Soulas, D; Koutsioras, Y; Koutedakis, Y; Jamurtas, AZ; Department of Physical Education & Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Karies, 42100 Trikala, Greece. (Hindawi Limited, 2015-04-06)
      Redox status changes during an annual training cycle in young and adult track and field athletes and possible differences between the two age groups were assessed. Forty-six individuals (24 children and 22 adults) were assigned to four groups: trained adolescents, (TAD, N=13), untrained adolescents (UAD, N=11), trained adults (TA, N=12), and untrained adults (UA, N=10). Aerobic capacity and redox status related variables [total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione (GSH), catalase activity, TBARS, protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid, and bilirubin] were assessed at rest and in response to a time-trial bout before training, at mid- and posttraining. TAC, catalase activity, TBARS, PC, uric acid, and bilirubin increased and GSH declined in all groups in response to acute exercise independent of training status and age. Training improved aerobic capacity, TAC, and GSH at rest and in response to exercise. Age affected basal and exercise-induced responses since adults demonstrated a greater TAC and GSH levels at rest and a greater rise of TBARS, protein carbonyls, and TAC and decline of GSH in response to exercise. Catalase activity, uric acid, and bilirubin responses were comparable among groups. These results suggest that acute exercise, age, and training modulate the antioxidant reserves of the body.