Now showing items 21-40 of 4763

    • Microstructural analysis of TRISO particles using multi-scale X-ray computed tomography

      Lowe, T; Bradley, RS; Yue, S; Barii, K; Gelb, J; Rohbeck, N; Turner, J; Withers, PJ (Elsevier BV, 2015-02-28)
      TRISO particles, a composite nuclear fuel built up by ceramic and graphitic layers, have outstanding high temperature resistance. TRISO fuel is the key technology for High Temperature Reactors (HTRs) and the Generation IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) variant. TRISO offers unparalleled containment of fission products and is extremely robust during accident conditions. An understanding of the thermal performance and mechanical properties of TRISO fuel requires a detailed knowledge of pore sizes, their distribution and interconnectivity. Here 50 nm, nano-, and 1 μm resolution, micro-computed tomography (CT), have been used to quantify non-destructively porosity of a surrogate TRISO particle at the 0.3–10 μm and 3–100 μm scales respectively. This indicates that pore distributions can reliably be measured down to a size approximately 3 times the pixel size which is consistent with the segmentation process. Direct comparison with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) sections indicates that destructive sectioning can introduce significant levels of coarse damage, especially in the pyrolytic carbon layers. Further comparative work is required to identify means of minimizing such damage for SEM studies. Finally since it is non-destructive, multi-scale time-lapse X-ray CT opens the possibility of intermittently tracking the degradation of TRISO structure under thermal cycles or radiation conditions in order to validate models of degradation such as kernel movement. X-ray CT in-situ experimentation of TRISO particles under load and temperature could also be used to understand the internal changes that occur in the particles under accident conditions.
    • Health in the digital era: searching health information online

      Mitu, B; Marinescu, Valentina; Mitu, Bianca (Routledge, 2016-01-01)
      This chapter examines a demanding and rather sensitive topic, specifically the search of health information online. Based on the work of Lustria, Smith and Hinnant who analyse the search of health information online in the United States (US). It reports on a survey conducted from May to July 2015 in the United Kingdom (UK). The chapter investigates the use of web-based technologies for seeking health information and personal health information management in the UK. It helps to understand health literacy' as the ability of people to read and understand health information at large, and to recognize reliable information online, evaluate it and use it to make informed healthcare choices or decisions. It uses Neter and Brainin's theory in measuring people's level of eHealth literacy. The chapter measures eHealth literacy; online health information search strategies, as well as health information sources and evaluation criteria used by consumers.
    • Making the headlines: EU Immigration to the UK and the wave of new racism after Brexit

      Fox, Bianca; Balica, Ecaterina; Marinescu, Valentina (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-10-24)
      This chapter explores the immigration-related topics in the news media during the EU referendum campaign in the UK (April–June 2016) and after (July–September 2016). The chapter argues that attitudes anti-EU immigration are a wave of “new(s)” racism (van Dijk 2000) in the UK and EU immigration is frequently used as an umbrella term for Eastern European immigration being often mixed with non-EU immigration and the refugee crisis. The data shows that the prevalence of negative news stories has led to a distinctive immigration-narrative, confirming the claim of Hoffner and Cohen (2013) that members of minority groups are almost always associated with violent and threatening media content.
    • Loneliness and social media: A qualitative investigation of young people's motivations for use and perceptions of social networking sites

      Fox, Bianca; Fox, Bianca (Palgrave Macmillan, 2020-01-01)
      The democratisation of Internet access has incrementally changed every domain of activity and has created new business and economic models. From answering work emails to learning a new language, shopping, booking medical appointments or managing one’s finances, almost everything is attainable at the click of a button. The added implications of the rapid rise of social networking websites (SNSs), such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or Snapchat, have further contributed to changing the way we communicate and build new friendships. Indeed most of our social relationships are now being ‘increasingly developed and maintained online’ (Nowland, Necka & Cacioppo, 2017: 1). Ostensibly, despite improved Internet access and enhanced social connectedness, modern societies are struggling to combat loneliness. It is reported to affect people of all ages, especially young adults (16-24 and 25-34 years old) who are avid Internet and social media users (see Office for National Statistics, 2018).
    • Tales of migration from the global south. The civilized and uncivilized migrant in the narratives of La Tercera and El Mercurio

      Urbina, Maria L; Balica, E.; Marinescu, V. (Springer International Publishing, 2018-10-24)
      Migration is not a new phenomenon in Chile as the country has long seen migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Colonial views about race and ethnicity adopted by Latin Americans as part of their class structure (Quijano 2000) established an early differentiation between the “civilized migrant” and the “uncivilized migrant” among groups that arrived on Latin America shores. Chilean news media has echoes of this binary vision between the “civilized = good” migrant and the “uncivilized = bad” migrant. The chapter aims to uncover the narratives of the civilized and uncivilized migrant within the printed news media, particularly in the two major newspapers El Mercurio and La Tercera, by focusing on how these ideas frame the way in which they cover migration.
    • Designing an app for managing stress in the construction industry

      Riva, Silvia; Chinyio, Ezekiel; Hampton, Paul (Association of Researchers in Construction Management, 2018-09-05)
      High levels of stress at work, great responsibilities, hazards and lack of balance between tasks and deadlines are common in the daily lives of many construction workers. Changing the patterns of thinking and behaviours is not an easy mission, and it requires constant support, learning and determination. E-health applications can contribute to this change through their ability to foster continuous interaction with the user. Mobile phone apps have shown promising results in the field of ‘e-health and wellbeing’. Accordingly, an App is being designed as a self-help system for stress management which will enable construction workers to 1) detect the onset of stress quite early, 2) track their stress status, 3) empower persons to cope with stressful and/or demanding situations in an adaptive way, 4) improve and streamline the operability of job tasks, and 5) optimise efficient solutions for the construction industry. The development of this innovative app, known as Streblo, is part of a wider research that is studying stress management in the construction industry. Streblo’s blueprint will match personality traits with coping strategies in real-life situations. Its inputs are being generated from a field study that has commenced, where structured interviews have been used to collect data from construction workers on their 1) personality and 2) behaviours while experiencing stress. Results of the data collection and analysis are being used to develop Streblo (an App) with IT experts. The paper reports the detail development and performance of Streblo’s prototype. Ultimately, users will be able to engage Streblo on electronic devices (mobile phones, tablets, computers) through both text and image-based communication to obtain real-time solutions and feedbacks on their stress status. Streblo will enhance and support attitude and behavioural changes in people who suffer from stress symptoms in the construction industry.
    • Rebellion and resistance in French Indochina, 1914-1918

      Krause, Jonathan (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Nearly every major French colony experienced some form of organized anticolonial resistance during, and as a direct result of, the First World War. Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Senegal, Niger, Mali, Chad, Burkina Faso, Madagascar, New Caledonia, and Indochina all experienced rebellion of some notable scope. Similar patterns of unrest also developed in the British, Russian, Italian and Ottoman empires during the First World War, suggesting a global moment for anticolonialism. These rebellions took place for many different reasons, in a wide range of historical, cultural, political and economic contexts. For all their contextual diversity, however, the anticolonial rebellions that erupted from 1914 through to the 1920s could not help but be influenced by the realities presented by the First World War. The two principal realities that influenced and helped spark anticolonial rebellions in the First World War were the reduction of colonial occupation forces across Africa and Asia and the recruitment of Afro-Asians for military and industrial service in Europe, often through coercive means. The direct influence of aspects of the First World War in sparking anticolonial rebellions across large swathes of Africa and Asia demand that we discuss these rebellions as part of both the global experience and legacy of the First World War.
    • From balletics to ballistics: French artillery, 1897-1916

      Krause, Jonathan (BJMH, 2019-12-31)
      The fighting on the Western Front during the First World War was characterized by the mass use of artillery and, thanks to scholarship from recent decades, is now understood as a crucible for learning and innovation. This article follows the trajectory of French artillery capabilities, mental and mechanical, from the late 19th century through to 1916.
    • Can the impact of grey literature be assessed? An investigation of UK government publications cited by articles and books

      Bickley, Matthew; Kousha, Kayvan; Thelwall, Michael (International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, 2019-08-06)
      Grey literature encompasses a range of relatively informal textual outputs that are not indexed in citation databases. Although they are usually ignored in research evaluations, it is important to develop methods to assess their impact so that their contributions can be recognised, and successful types of grey literature can be encouraged. This article investigates the extent to which 97,150 UK government publications were cited by Scopus articles and Google Books during 2013-2017 in eleven broad subject areas. A method was used to semi-automatically extract citations to the UK government publications from articles and books with high recall and precision. The results showed that Scopus citations are more common than Google Books citations to UK government publications, especially for older documents, and for those in Healthcare, Education and Science. Since the difference is not huge, both may provide useful grey literature impact data.
    • Quasi-static, impact and energy absorption of internally nested tubes subjected to lateral loading

      Baroutaji, A; Gilchrist, MD; Olabi, AG (Elsevier BV, 2015-10-20)
      © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents the responses of nested tube systems under quasi-static and dynamic lateral loading. Nested systems in the form of short internally stacked tubes were proposed as energy absorbing structures for applications that have limited crush zones. Three configurations of nested tube systems were experimentally analysed in this paper. The crush behaviour and energy absorbing responses of these systems under various loading conditions were presented and discussed. It was found that the quasi-static and dynamic responses of the nested systems were comparable under an experimental velocity of v=4.5 m/sec. This is due to insignificant strain rate and inertia effects of the nested systems under the applied velocity. The performance indicators, which describe the effectiveness of energy absorbing systems, were calculated to compare the various nested systems and the best system was identified. Furthermore, the effects of geometrical and loading parameters on the responses of the best nested tube system were explored via performing parametric analysis. The parametric study was performed using validated finite element models. The outcome of this parametric study was full detailed design guidelines for such nested tube energy absorbing structures.
    • Talking textiles, making value: Catalysing fashion, dress, and textiles heritage in the Midlands

      Hackney, Fiona; Bloodworth, Jo; Baines, Emily; Howard, Catherine; Anderson, Claire (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      There are hundreds of small museums, archives, and collections in the English Midlands, United Kingdom (UK), many of which are the legacy of the region’s rich industrial heritage. A surprising number of these include dress and textiles in various forms, from the costume collection of Charles Paget-Wade at Berrington Hall (Leominster) to intricately stitched smocks made by local needlewomen in Herefordshire, and the wealth of manufacturers’ samples that comprise the silk ribbon trade archive at the Herbert Museum, Coventry. These are challenging times for many such organisations as they face cutbacks in staff and local authority funding. Yet they offer a unique and largely unexploited resource for staff, students, and researchers in art and design higher education (HE), not only for primary research but also as a catalyst for design innovation. The discussion here, which takes the format of group research practitioner interview, builds on a Knowledge Exchange event that was held December 2017 at the Fashion Lab, University of Wolverhampton (UoW). The event brought together a diverse group of fashion and textiles professionals to talk, exchange ideas, take part in object handling sessions, mind-map, and brain-storm how to catalyse connections between heritage collections and higher education and build value. With seed funding from the Museum-University Partnership Initiative (MUPI) (see National Co-ordinating Centre for Public Engagement - NCCPE 2019), the day built on a series of scoping visits to collections in the region undertaken by Professor Fiona Hackney and Dr Emily Baines. The group involved staff, students and museum professionals including those from UoW, De Montfort University (DMU), Hereford College of Arts (HCA), Nottingham Trent University (NTU), artist Ruth Singer who leads the Arts Council-funded Criminal Quilts project in association with Staffordshire Record Office (Singer 2019), and representatives from Herefordshire Museum Service, the Herbert Gallery (Coventry), Walsall Museums Service, the Lace Guild Stourbridge, and Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust. The following conversation reflects themes that emerged in the project including: the need to embed archival work and primary research in fashion and textiles curricula at all levels, the development of hubs to connect university research with museum practice, the added value of artist-led projects, and the significance of place-based textiles heritage as a catalyst for new business and sustainable design practice.
    • RGCL at IDAT: deep learning models for irony detection in Arabic language

      Ranasinghe, Tharindu; Saadany, Hadeel; Plum, Alistair; Mandhari, Salim; Mohamed, Emad; Orasan, Constantin; Mitkov, Ruslan (IDAT, 2019-12-12)
      This article describes the system submitted by the RGCL team to the IDAT 2019 Shared Task: Irony Detection in Arabic Tweets. The system detects irony in Arabic tweets using deep learning. The paper evaluates the performance of several deep learning models, as well as how text cleaning and text pre-processing influence the accuracy of the system. Several runs were submitted. The highest F1 score achieved for one of the submissions was 0.818 making the team RGCL rank 4th out of 10 teams in final results. Overall, we present a system that uses minimal pre-processing but capable of achieving competitive results.
    • Briefing: US environmental science women are high impact team players

      Thelwall, Mike A (Thomas Telford Ltd., 2019-08-23)
      In the context of continuing gender inequality in environmental science, this briefing investigates the evolution of the share of female first-authored journal articles in US environmental science specialisms in 1996–2018 and whether there are gender differences in average citation impact. The proportion of female first authors has increased by at least 16% in all 11 Scopus environmental science categories in the USA, with none achieving a female majority by 2018. Female last authors were rarer and increased less during the same period. There is a citation (ratio) advantage for female first-authored research of 2–10% that could be partly accounted for by females tending to lead larger teams (up to 8% if team size is factored out). Irrespective of the main author’s gender, extra authors produce expected citation rate increases of between 6% for an ecology second author and 70% for at least five waste management and disposal authors. The female citation advantage in one field might be substantial enough to boost female careers, although collaboration is a much stronger indicator of greater impact.
    • Nurse academics identities and contributions to the clinical practice environment: An appreciative inquiry

      Sque, Magi; Corness-Parr, Clare Elizabeth Mary (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-06)
      Nurse academics have a key role in supporting the Clinical Practice Environment (CPE) where student nurses undertake 50% of their course. Much of the previous literature regarding nurse academics contributions to the CPE has appeared to be quite negative and they have appeared stuck in a no-man’s-land between the HEI and the CPE. Alongside this, the literature indicates that nurse academic identities are complex, fluid and situational. Nurse academic identities appear to have been shaped by a culture of subservience learnt from practice and reinforced by wider society. Appreciative Inquiry was used to explore new perspectives framed in being ‘possibility centred’ rather than ‘problem centred’ to elicit new understandings. The aim of the study was to develop practice guidance through exploring the identities of nurse academics and their contribution to the CPE. Primary data was collected from nurse academics (N=10) and nurses in practice (N=6) using a range of data collection methods, which included individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups and theme board technique. The data was analysed using thematic analysis. Findings indicated that nurse academic identities are derived from CPE engagement, where positive relationships with practice and the ability to draw on their clinical expertise ‘anchor’ nurse academics identities. Nurse academics primarily identified themselves as nurses and were comfortable with that. Nurse academics and nurses in practice identify positively where nurse academic role and practice contributions are harmonised. Nurse academics independence from the CPE was perceived as positive in terms giving advice and guidance to students and nurses in practice. Nurses in practice see education as an intrinsic element of being a nurse and therefore feel affiliated to the HEI and built positive relationships with nurse academics. Nurse academics had positive identities within the Higher Education Institution (HEI) and CPE, viewing themselves as ‘complex hybrids’. Findings also indicated contested areas, which included logistical constraints, competing demands and ‘Queen Mother’ visits to practice (lacking purpose), impacted on nurse academics contribution to the CPE. There was a level of dissonance from nurse academics regarding how ‘practice’ was defined, which influenced perceived contributions to the CPE. This research presents a differing perspective on nurse academic identities, which shows that they are established in the HEI setting and can make meaningful contributions to the CPE using their academic repertoire. Recommendations include that senior managers in HEI's and the CPE should work more closely to retain the highly prized intersection with the CPE. Nurse academics themselves need to confidently assert opportunities to utilise their clinical, educational and research skills explicitly through career planning and should support clinical areas that draw on their expertise.
    • Iron lion or paper tiger? The myth of British naval intervention in the American Civil War

      Fuller, Howard (Virginia Sesquicentennial of the American Civil War Commission, 2015-01-15)
      When it comes to the thought-provoking subject of foreign intervention in the Civil War, especially by Great Britain, much of the history has been more propaganda than proper research; fiction over fact. In 1961, Kenneth Bourne offered up a fascinating article on “British Preparations for War with the North, 1861–1862” for the English Historical Review. While focusing largely on the military defense of Canada during the Trent Affair, Bourne also stressed that Britain’s “position at sea was by no means so bad,” though he potentially confused the twentieth-century reader by referring to “battleships” rather than (steam-powered, sail, and screw-propelled) wooden ships-of-the-line, for example. This blurred the important technological changes that were certainly in play by 1861—and not necessarily in Britain’s favor. The Great Lakes the British considered to be largely a write-off as there were no facilities in place for building ironclads, much less floating wooden gunboats up frozen rivers and canals during the long winter season. American commerce and industrialization in the Midwest, on the other hand, had led to booming local ports like Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, and Cleveland—all facilitated by new railroads. Of course, Parliament had not seen to maximizing the defense of the British Empire’s many frontiers and outposts over the years. If anything, the legendary reputation of the Royal Navy continually undermined that imperative. That left the onus of any real war against the United States to Britain’s ability to lay down a naval offensive. And while Bourne was content to trust the judgment of an anonymous British officer in Colburn’s United Service Magazine that “1273 guns” were available to Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Milne’s North American and West Indies naval forces during the Trent crisis, the same publication also went on to warn its contemporary British readers that “in calculating the power of the Northern States at sea, we must not be deluded by the ships actually in existence, but must reckon on those that may be built.” The author might have added that of the 86 guns of Milne’s flagship, HMS Nile, for example, or the 91 guns of the newer Agamemnon (launched in 1852 and reinforcing the British naval base at Bermuda from Gibraltar), no more than a third were 8-inch (65 cwt. ) shell-firing guns, the rest being 32-pounders in use since the Napoleonic era. In fact, the more deep-draft, screw-propelled ships-of-the-line the Admiralty dispatched to Milne, the more nervous he became. The 101-gun Conqueror ran aground in the Bahamas on December 13, 1861, a total loss. The British admiral pleaded for more shallow-draft paddle steamers, like those in use by the Union navy. Indeed, it was the lighter craft of the Yankees which proved better adapted for warfare in American waters.
    • Black Britain in the weekly music press during the late-1960s and 1970s

      Glen, Patrick (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      Music is a means of communicating and sharing. Sounds and lyrics, even the most abstract or oblique, can document memories, impressions of the present and articulate desires for the future that listeners unpack and reinterpret imposing their own contexts, experiences and prior understandings. Recorded music provided a memory technology that allowed these ideas, sounds and cultures to be articulated, transmitted and interpreted more quickly and further than oral cultures previously allowed. A culture industry and mass media (newspapers, magazines, books television and radio) gave certain—profoundly shaped by capitalism, creating and perpetuating structures of power in society—recorded songs and musics the chance to be shared across and between countries and continents. Within the colonial and post-colonial context Britain after 1945, music made and performed by people who had arrived in Britain from colonies, created in dialogue with those who remained, and the reaction to it by their ‘hosts’, provided an impression of both new arrivals and British society. As Jon Stratton argues regarding Caribbean migration to Britain, ‘[music] offered sites for memory and identity, a refuge from the present and a source of opposition and to and commentary on the migrants’ circumstances. In the new situation cultural exchange with the dominant culture was inevitable.’
    • “Who is Mr. Karlheinz Stockhausen? Introduce Me”: Responses to Krautrock/Kosmische in 1970s Britain

      Glen, Patrick (Taylor & Francis, 2019-12-31)
      During the 1970s, British music fans came to know several West German avant-garde rock or ‘Krautrock’ bands through the music press, radio, television, tours and record releases. This occurred as Britain’s relationship with Europe and West Germany shifted through membership of the Common Market from 1973 and as Cold War allies. This article explores how musical encounters and the broader historical and socio-political context affected British representations of Germany and Germans. It argues that in spite of a changing historical context and space for meaningful, nuanced representations, the myths and memory of the Second World War and general clichés about Germans remained highly resilient. Representations of Germans and Germany in popular music culture, authored by the post-War generation, suggest the importance of Germany as a counterpoint to understandings British national identity and characteristics, and the ways in which ideas of British cultural superiority circulated in popular culture.
    • Data stream ensemble in a new health application for stress management at work: the case of Streblo

      Chinyio, Ezekiel; Riva, Silvia (International Conference on Digital Health, 2019-04-25)
      The negative effects of stress at work in terms of emotional disorders and organisational difficulties have pressed the need for new solutions and especially direct-to-user tools such as mobile applications. While new technology can support the architecture of such tools, adaptive coping behaviours have also been identified as an important factor for promoting new strategies for coping effectively with stress at work. A study being reported in this paper investigates how technology can be used to influence adaptive coping behaviours. The study is synthesizing the key aspects of personality and behavior into a conceptual model for creating a new mobile application. The overall goal of this application (aka Streblo) is to detect: 1) Early signs of stress; that is the mental (personality) and physical state resulting when the resources of the individual are inadequate to cope with the demands and pressures of the situation, 2) Stress consequences that can undermine the achievement of goals; and 3) Propose innovative solutions to cope with stress. A literature review concerning coping behaviours and use of technology was conducted to gather evidence for the foundation of the conceptual model. Primary data is being collected and the empirical findings of the research will be tested and verified using the WEKA software (fig. 1) against the theoretical framework consisting of the ‘Big 5 Theory of Personality, ‘Stress & Coping Theory’ and the concept of ‘Gamification’. Particularly, the following aspects of the theoretical framework are being used to design Streblo: customization to the user, use of relevant and tailored information and feedback and, uses of positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions. Meanwhile, the conceptual model provides further knowledge of key aspects to be considered when developing persuasive tools that aim to encourage more efficient ways of coping with stressful events.
    • A new algorithm for zero-modified models applied to citation counts

      Shahmandi Hounejani, Marzieh; Wilson, Paul; Thelwall, Michael (International Society for Scientometrics and Informetrics, 2019-08-31)
      Finding statistical models for citation count data is important for those seeking to understand the citing process or when using regression to identify factors that associate with citation rates. As sets of citation counts often include more or less zeros (uncited articles) than would be expected under the base distribution, it is essential to deal appropriately with them. This article proposes a new algorithm to fit zero-modified versions of discretised log-normal, hooked power-law and Weibull models to citation count data from 23 different Scopus categories from 2012. The new algorithm allows the standard errors of all parameter estimates to be calculated, and hence also confidence intervals and p-values. This algorithm can also estimate negative zero-modification parameters corresponding to zero-deflation (fewer uncited articles than expected). The results find no universal best model for the 23 categories and a given dataset may be zero-inflated relative to one model, but zero-deflated relative to another
    • Modern foreign language learning: The impact of parental orientations on student motivation

      Martin, Christopher (The International Academic Forum (IAFOR), 2019-09-27)
      This study investigates the possible relationships between parental orientations towards language learning and their child’s motivation to learn a foreign language at school. Data were collected from 495 students and 107 parents in four secondary schools in the wider West Midlands conurbation of England. A mixed-methods research design encompassing both quantitative and qualitative data collection was adopted with the aim of gaining a multidimensional view. Questionnaires were given to both parents and students, measuring six motivational constructs: general motivation; sense of achievement in modern foreign language (MFL) learning, internal/external attribution of performance in MFL learning, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. The mean values for parents and students for each construct were correlated to see if there was a relationship between them. The findings indicate that, for four of the five constructs, there are moderate to strong positive relationships that were statistically significant. Furthermore, the data suggest that parents are less motivated when it comes to MFL learning than their children. This study is part of a wider doctoral research project, the next stage of which involves the collection of qualitative data through semistructured interviews in order to explore the nature of the relationships found in the quantitative analysis.