Now showing items 21-40 of 6003

    • Spectral analysis of body movement during deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease

      Patel, Mitesh; Nilsson, Maria H; Rehncrona, Stig; Tjernström, Fredrik; Magnusson, Måns; Johansson, Rolf; Fransson, Per-Anders (Elsevier, 2021-03-18)
      Background The characteristics of Parkinson’s disease (PD) include postural instability and resting tremor. However, reductions of tremor amplitude do not always improve postural stability. Research question What is the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on spectral analysis of body movement in patients with PD when tested without anti-PD medication? The effect of visual cues was also studied. Methods Ten patients with PD (mean age 64.3 years, range 59−69 years) and 17 control participants (mean age 71.2 years, range 65–79 years) were recruited. Spectral power following a period of quiet stance (35 s) was analysed in three different spectral power bands (0−4 Hz, 4−7 Hz and 7−25 Hz). Motion markers were secured to the head, shoulder, hip, and knee, which recorded movements in two directions, the anteroposterior and lateral. Results DBS STN significantly changed the spectral distribution pattern across the body in the anteroposterior (p = 0.029) and lateral directions (p ≤ 0.003). DBS predominantly reduced spectral power at the head (p ≤ 0.037) and shoulder (p ≤ 0.031) in the lateral direction. The spectral power of the lower and upper body in patients with PD, with DBS ON, were more similar to the control group, than to DBS OFF. Visual cues mainly reduced spectral power in the anteroposterior direction at the shoulder (p ≤ 0.041) in controls and in patients with PD with DBS ON. Significance There is an altered postural strategy in patients with PD with DBS ON as shown by an altered spectral power distribution pattern across body segments and a reduction of spectral power in the lateral direction at the head and shoulder. A reduction of spectral power in controls and in patients with PD with DBS ON suggests that visual cues are able to reduce spectral power to some extent, but not with DBS OFF where postural sway and power are larger.
    • Letter: risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes associated with inflammatory bowel disease medications - reassuring insights from the United Kingdom PREPARE-IBD multi centre cohort study

      Lamb, CA; Sebastian, S; Kent, AJ; Segal, JP; Gonzalez, HA; Brookes, MJ; Mehta, SJ; Subramanian, S; Bhala, N; Hicks, LC; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-12-31)
    • Oral and intravenous iron therapy differentially alter the on- and off-tumor microbiota in anemic colorectal cancer patients

      Phipps, Oliver; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Quraishi, Mohammed Nabil; Dickson, Edward A; Segal, Jonathan; Steed, Helen; Kumar, Aditi; Acheson, Austin G; Beggs, Andrew D; Brookes, Matthew J (MDPI, 2021-03-16)
      Iron deficiency anemia is a common complication of colorectal cancer and may require iron therapy. Oral iron can increase the iron available to gut bacteria and may alter the colonic microbiota. We performed an intervention study to compare oral and intravenous iron therapy on the colonic tumor-associated (on-tumor) and paired non-tumor-associated adjacent (off-tumor) microbiota. Anemic patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma received either oral ferrous sulphate (n = 16) or intravenous ferric carboxymaltose (n = 24). On- and off-tumor biopsies were obtained post-surgery and microbial profiling was performed using 16S ribosomal RNA analysis. Off-tumor α- and β-diversity were significantly different between iron treatment groups. No differences in on-tumor diversity were observed. Off-tumor microbiota of oral iron-treated patients showed higher abundances of the orders Clostridiales, Cytophagales, and Anaeroplasmatales compared to intravenous iron-treated patients. The on-tumor microbiota was enriched with the orders Lactobacillales and Alteromonadales in the oral and intravenous iron groups, respectively. The on- and off-tumor microbiota associated with intravenous iron-treated patients infers increased abundances of enzymes involved in iron sequestration and anti-inflammatory/oncogenic metabolite production, compared to oral iron-treated patients. Collectively, this suggests that intravenous iron may be a more appropriate therapy to limit adverse microbial outcomes compared to oral iron.
    • Physical fitness profile in elite beach handball players of different age categories

      Lemos, LF; Oliveira, VC; Duncan, MJ; Ortega, JP; Martins, CM; Ramirez-Campillo, R; Sanchez, JS; Nevill, AM; Nakamura, FY; Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil - (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2020-06-30)
      BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to compare anthropometric and fitness variables of high-level beach handball players across under-19 (u-19), under-21 (u-21) and senior male categories, and between male and female senior players; and to test the correlations among those measures. MeThodS: a total of 70 high-level players (53 male of different ages) were evaluated for 5-m acceleration, 15-m sprint, horizontal jump, handgrip strength, specific beach handball throwing velocities, and anthropometric variables. Differences between age groups were tested using anoVa. independent t-test was used to compare fitness variables between male and female elite athletes, and Pearson partial correlation coefficients were calculated between each of the fitness variables using BMI and age as covariates. SPSS Software was used, and the level of significance was set at 95%. reSulTS: The u-21 athletes better performed on horizontal jump and 6-m throw than the u-19 athletes. Senior athletes showed better performance on horizontal jump than U-19 athletes (P≤0.05). Positive correlation was seen for handgrip on dominant and non-dominant hands and 6-m throwing speed, and for handgrip on dominant hand and inflight velocity (P≤0.05). Negative correlations were observed between horizontal jump and 5-m acceleration, and 15-m sprint (P≤0.01 and P≤0.05, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Male athletes better performed than women in all the fitness tests. The study, for the first time, showed physical fitness comparisons between beach handball elite male athletes of different ages and between genders. These are key steps for coaches and athletes and may support future beach handball studies and practice.
    • How does foreigner-directed speech differ from other forms of listener-directed clear speaking styles?

      Hazan, Valerie; Uther, Maria; Grunlund, Sonia (University of Glasgow, 2015-08-10)
      Forty talkers participated in problem-solving tasks with another talker in conditions differing in communication difficulty for the interlocutor. A linguistic barrier condition (L2 interlocutor) was compared to acoustic barrier conditions (native interlocutors hearing vocoded or noisy speech). Talkers made acoustic-phonetic enhancements in all barrier conditions compared to the no-barrier condition, but talkers reduced their articulation rate less and showed less increase in vowel hyperarticulation in foreigner-directed speech than in the acoustic barrier condition, even though communicative difficulty was greater in the L2 condition. Foreigner-directed speech was also perceived as less clear. This suggests that acoustic enhancements in clear speech are not simply a function of the level of communication difficulty.
    • Different constellation and shining stars: lesbian parents’ experiences of accessing healthcare for their adopted children in England

      Morgan, Fiona; Cureton, Debra; Kelsall-Knight, Lucille (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
      Introduction: The past few decades have seen significant changes in family demographics. It is now more common for parents to be lesbians, which is due to increased social acceptance and the dissolution of legal barriers to parental responsibility. Adoption transforms the lives of some of the most vulnerable children. In 2019, 1 in 7 children in England were adopted by same-sex parents. Adopted children have an increased incidence of additional health care needs and therefore dental and medical appointments in comparison to children who remain with their biological parents. Aim: This study sought to explore the experiences of lesbian mothers accessing healthcare for their adopted children in England and the rhetoric, language and treatment they encountered. Method: A small scale qualitative study, utilising a Narrative Inquiry approach was the chosen method. The study population gained by purposive sampling was of six lesbian adoptive parents. A combined data analysis tool was utilised which used critical incident recall (Webster and Mertova, 2007) and broadening, burrowing, storying and re-storying (Clandinin and Connelly, 1990). A composite character couple was created to ‘re-story’ the participants’ experiences in healthcare and to maintain anonymity. Results and discussion: The needs and challenges of lesbian adoptive families may be different to those of heterosexual and biological families when accessing healthcare. There was an undercurrent of discriminatory practice, shown by various healthcare professionals, and a lack of understanding of the adoption process, knowledge surrounding the child’s history and legal stance with regards to parental responsibility. Emergent themes were: navigating heteronormativity, navigating healthcare settings and professionals and having an ‘adopted’ status, intersectional identity of lesbian parented adoptive families accessing healthcare, reflective imagery of lesbian parents and adoptive families and professional expectations. Self-imposed strategies instigated by the parents to strengthen and protect their familial identities were also discovered. Implications and recommendations for practice: The findings demonstrated that the healthcare provider must take more proactive steps to ensure that practitioners are adhering to Equality legislation and professional standards and are not discriminating against same-sex parents and adopted children who utilise healthcare services. Practitioners should also receive training to ensure they are aware of the adoption process in England; diversity of the population in which they practice; the importance of appropriate terminology and families seeing positive representation of adoption and same-sex parenting in healthcare settings.
    • The Clinical and legal management of parental alienation in the UK

      Morgan, Angela; Ahmad, Nahid; Webster, Marilyn (Parental Allienation Study Group, 2020-10-29)
    • Socioeconomic factors and health status disparities associated with difficulty in ADLs and IADLs among long-lived populations in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

      Matheson, David; Santos, Silvana; Nobrega, JC; Medeiros, J; Alves, S; Freitas, J; Silva, J; Simões, R; Santos, T; Brito, A; et al. (SAGE, 2021-12-31)
      Objective: To evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors, health status, and Functional Capacity (FC) in the oldest senior citizens in a metropolis and a poor rural region of Brazil. Method: Cross-sectional study of 417 seniors aged ≥80 years, data collected through Brazil’s Health, Well-being and Aging survey. FC assessed by self-reporting of difficulties in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using “R” statistical software. Results: Socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in Brazil can influence FC in seniors aged 80 years and older. Comparatively, urban long-lived people had a higher prevalence of difficulties for ADLs and rural ones showed more difficulties for IADLs. Among urban oldest seniors, female gender and lower-income were correlated with difficulties for IADLs. Among rural oldest seniors, female gender, stroke, joint disease, and inadequate weight independently were correlated with difficulties for ADLs, while the number of chronic diseases was associated with difficulties for IADLs. Conclusion: Financial constraints may favor the development of functional limitations among older seniors in large urban centers. In poor rural areas, inadequate nutritional status and chronic diseases may increase their susceptibility to functional decline.
    • The effects of a zoo environment on free-living, native small mammal species

      Elwell, Emily; Leeson, Christopher; Vaglio, Stefano (Wiley, 2021-03-25)
      One of the main threats to native species conservation is urbanization. It is causing changes to natural habitats and species composition. Urban green spaces have shown to have conservation value for native species by providing safe spaces in urban areas. They typically contain a variety of habitats and plant species which is correlated with greater abundance and diversity of small mammal species. Zoos are a vital resource for animal conservation and, in some instances, could be considered as an urban green space for native species conservation. Their unique environment provides free-living, native species an abundance of resources including food and shelter. This project involved the live trapping of free-living small mammal species (<40 g) between enclosures in Dudley Zoological Gardens to study the effects of the zoo environment. There were no significant differences found between total number of captures and trap proximity to enclosures. There was a significant difference in total captures found between different enclosure trapping areas. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted to the data and there were significant relationships between abundance and both habitat type and enclosure species. Habitats associated with semi-natural woodland had the greatest diversity and total captures of small mammals. Total captures was lower in trapping areas that were associated with predatory species. Similar to research on green spaces, habitat was an important factor determining abundance, but predator enclosures were a factor unique to zoos. This study illustrates the potential of zoos as an urban green space and for the study of small mammals.
    • The effect of HVP training in vowel perception on bilingual speech production

      Kangatharan, Jayanthiny; Giannakopoulou, Anastasia; Uther, Maria (Consentia Beam, 2021-03-10)
      Prior investigations (Giannakopoulou et al., 2013) have indicated high variability phonetic training intervention can help L2 English adult learners change the perception of vowels such that they shift their attention to primary cues (spectral features) rather than secondary cues (e.g. duration) to correctly identify vowels in L2. This experiment explores if high-variability training impacts on L2 adult learners’ production of L2 speech. Production samples from a prior experiment were used to conduct ratings of accuracy (Giannakopoulou, 2012). In the current experiment, the production samples were transcribed and rated for accuracy by twenty native English listeners. The intelligibility levels of L2 learners’ speech samples as indexed by higher accuracy in transcription were observed as having been rated higher following training than prior to training. The implications of the results are considered with regard to theories on the connection between speech production and perception, and Flege’s (1995) Speech Learning Model.
    • Dying from acute stroke: orchestrating an autoethnographic sonata of care

      Walker, Wendy; Paniagua, Hillary; Bagnall, Andrew John (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-02)
      This authoethnographic study draws together the experiences of the researcher and bereaved family members of patients who died in hospital following an acute stroke. It takes the form of a Sonata Framework that mirrors the author’s narrative around the duration and onset of his mother’s stroke, hospital care and ultimate discharge home to die. Although symptoms experienced by individuals with malignant and non-malignant disease are similar, evidence suggests the transition from acute to palliative care remains problematic for patients following an acute stroke, not least when seeking to identify when someone is nearing end of life. A qualitative interview study aimed to explore the personal experiences of family members whose relative had died following admission to an acute stroke ward. In order to do this, six adult relatives of patients who died in hospital following an acute stroke were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were inductively analysed to produce basic, organising and global themes, and presented in the form of thematic networks: The Family Experience and Dying & Death. Further findings were deductively derived through the lens of the Sonata Framework. Findings suggested shortfalls in the provision of palliative and end of life care following acute stroke, although areas of good practice were identified. Overall, participants were complimentary of the care provided to their family member although the transition from acute to palliative was variable. The quality of communication between patients, relatives and staff was patchy, with no evidence of engagement with the hospital palliative care team, nor any discussions instigated by staff relating to preferred place of death. This study provided evidence of some improvement in local palliative and end of life care provision when compared with previous research, although gaps in such provision still exist. Staff should receive palliative and end of life care training, including communication skills training to identify individuals who may be nearing the end of life and to instigate timely conversations with their family members. Further research relating to the provision of palliative and end of life care for individuals following an acute stroke is recommended.
    • Can cruise services satisfy Chinese outbound travelers? An importance–performance analysis

      Kong, Haiyan; Okumus, Fevzi; Rahimi, Roya; Bu, Naipeng; Yin, Zihan (Routledge, 2021-02-26)
      This study aims to explore tourists’ satisfaction with cruise services and the gap between expectation and satisfaction, focusing on Chinese outbound tourists traveling to South Korea. Using a mixed-methods approach, in-depth interviews were conducted to summarize items of cruise services for measurement; importance–performance analysis was performed to simultaneously examine the matching degree between tourists’ perceived importance and performance. Tourists’ expectation is measured by the side of importance, meanwhile, performance represents their satisfaction. This study suggests that cruising is an important way for Chinese tourists to travel abroad, and tourists were generally satisfied with the services provided by immigration, customs, and the cruises. However, a gap remains between the perceived expectation and satisfaction. In terms of cruise service, the most important item was the good language and communication skills of the staff, and the most satisfactory performance was the effective boarding service. The biggest gap was observed in the effective service of handling ticket bookings, cancellations, and confirmations. The results of this study can provide insight into enhancing cruise services and marketing, specifically for companies working with the Chinese market.
    • Developing a consensus-based scoring rubric to enhance practice-based assessment of student nurses' clinical competence: A Delphi study

      Almalkawi, Ibraheim; Jester, Rebecca; Terry, Louise (Elsevier, 2021-03-08)
      Background Concerns about reliability and validity of practice-based assessment of professional competencies are frequently reported in the literature. Difficulty in understanding competency statements or distinguishing different achievement levels has been found to be a major factor. Objectives To develop a consensus-based scoring rubric based on stakeholders' interpretations of level descriptors for student nurses' professional values competencies. Design Two rounds of Classic e-Delphi. Settings This study was conducted in a London based university using Bristol Online Survey website as a host. Participants 100 stakeholders with vested interests in undergraduate pre-registration nurse education were purposefully invited to participate. Method Round one collected free-text interpretations of the United Kingdom Nursing and Midwifery Council professional values competency statements. Round two used a Likert scale questionnaire to measure the level of agreement to the level descriptor statements generated through round one. Responses were analysed through content analysis in round one and consensus measure in round two. A threshold of 70% agreement to determine consensus was set in advance. Results In round one, 47 participants provided their interpretations of the competency statements. In round two, 51 participants completed the questionnaire. All 24 items achieved a strong consensus with 86%–100% of participants agreeing or strongly agreeing with the statements. Conclusions A Delphi study was successfully used to develop a consensus-based scoring rubric with clearly stated descriptors for professional values competency statements. This scoring rubric holds the potential to enhance practice-based assessment across all healthcare professional disciplines.
    • Briefing: Beyond Brexit: trade and procurement implications for the UK construction industry

      Charlson, Jennifer (ICE Publishing, 2021-03-10)
      The UK left the EU, commonly referred to as ‘Brexit’, on 31 January 2020. From 31 December 2020, new EU law does not apply and the European Court of Justice no longer has jurisdiction in the UK. The new EU-UK relationship, which began on 1 January 2021, is explained. The majority of the provisions of the EU-UK Trade and Cooperation Agreement (TCA) came into force in the UK on 31 December 2020. Significant issues for the construction industry are detailed including supply chain concerns, the ‘level playing field’ implications, restrictions on the movement of people, limitations on the recognition of professional qualifications and different product standards. Regarding procurement, the TCA has mandated consideration of environmental, labour and social issues and that UK and EU suppliers must be treated equally in both the UK and EU. The UK is now an independent signatory to the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Government Procurement. Northern Ireland, as an outcome of the Northern Ireland Protocol, has in effect remained in the EU’s single market for goods.
    • This! Identifying new sentiment slang through orthographic pleonasm online: Yasss slay gorg queen ilysm

      Thelwall, Mike (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021-12-31)
      Identifying neologisms is important for natural language processing of social web text when informal language is standard and youth slang is common. For example, failing to identify neologisms can reduce the accuracy of lexical sentiment analysis if opinions are frequently expressed in words that are too new to be in the sentiment dictionary. This article proposes a method based on orthographic pleonasm to identify emotion-related neologisms in the social web: finding words with the most different letter repetition spelling variations. For this method, non-dictionary words are extracted from a large social web corpus, spelling standardisation is applied, and then words are ranked in decreasing order of spelling variation frequency. Words with the most spelling variations are then KWIC-analysed for semantic context. Applied to a collection of comments on YouTube influencers, this method found neologisms like slay and early as positive terms, mixed with traditional sentiment words, exclamations, and nouns. Although orthographic pleonasm was originally used to express the speaker’s rhythm and one of voice, it is also used for initialisms in a way that is difficult to vocalise. The method is therefore a practical method to identify new sentiment slang, including both normal words and initialisms.
    • Cell identity switching regulated by retinoic acid signaling maintains homogeneous segments in the hindbrain

      Addison, M; Xu, Q; Cayuso, J; Wilkinson, DG; Neural Development Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, London NW1 1AT, UK. (Elsevier, 2018-06-04)
      The patterning of tissues to form subdivisions with distinct and homogeneous regional identity is potentially disrupted by cell intermingling. Transplantation studies suggest that homogeneous segmental identity in the hindbrain is maintained by identity switching of cells that intermingle into another segment. We show that switching occurs during normal development and is mediated by feedback between segment identity and the retinoic acid degrading enzymes, cyp26b1 and cyp26c1. egr2, which specifies the segmental identity of rhombomeres r3 and r5, underlies the lower expression level of cyp26b1 and cyp26c1 in r3 and r5 compared with r2, r4, and r6. Consequently, r3 or r5 cells that intermingle into adjacent segments encounter cells with higher cyp26b1/c1 expression, which we find is required for downregulation of egr2b expression. Furthermore, egr2b expression is regulated in r2, r4, and r6 by non-autonomous mechanisms that depend upon the number of neighbors that express egr2b. These findings reveal that a community regulation of retinoid signaling maintains homogeneous segmental identity.
    • EphrinB1/EphB3b coordinate bidirectional epithelial-mesenchymal interactions controlling liver morphogenesis and laterality

      Cayuso, J; Dzementsei, A; Fischer, JC; Karemore, G; Caviglia, S; Bartholdson, J; Wright, GJ; Ober, EA; Division of Developmental Biology, Mill Hill Laboratories, The Francis Crick Institute, London NW7 1AA, UK. (Elsevier, 2016-11-07)
      Positioning organs in the body often requires the movement of multiple tissues, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms coordinating such movements are largely unknown. Here, we show that bidirectional signaling between EphrinB1 and EphB3b coordinates the movements of the hepatic endoderm and adjacent lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), resulting in asymmetric positioning of the zebrafish liver. EphrinB1 in hepatoblasts regulates directional migration and mediates interactions with the LPM, where EphB3b controls polarity and movement of the LPM. EphB3b in the LPM concomitantly repels hepatoblasts to move leftward into the liver bud. Cellular protrusions controlled by Eph/Ephrin signaling mediate hepatoblast motility and long-distance cell-cell contacts with the LPM beyond immediate tissue interfaces. Mechanistically, intracellular EphrinB1 domains mediate EphB3b-independent hepatoblast extension formation, while EpB3b interactions cause their destabilization. We propose that bidirectional short- and long-distance cell interactions between epithelial and mesenchyme-like tissues coordinate liver bud formation and laterality via cell repulsion.
    • A morphogenetic EphB/EphrinB code controls hepatopancreatic duct formation

      Thestrup, MI; Caviglia, S; Cayuso, J; Heyne, RLS; Ahmad, R; Hofmeister, W; Satriano, L; Wilkinson, DG; Andersen, JB; Ober, EA; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-11-19)
      The hepatopancreatic ductal (HPD) system connects the intrahepatic and intrapancreatic ducts to the intestine and ensures the afferent transport of the bile and pancreatic enzymes. Yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms controlling their differentiation and morphogenesis into a functional ductal system are poorly understood. Here, we characterize HPD system morphogenesis by high-resolution microscopy in zebrafish. The HPD system differentiates from a rod of unpolarized cells into mature ducts by de novo lumen formation in a dynamic multi-step process. The remodeling step from multiple nascent lumina into a single lumen requires active cell intercalation and myosin contractility. We identify key functions for EphB/EphrinB signaling in this dynamic remodeling step. Two EphrinB ligands, EphrinB1 and EphrinB2a, and two EphB receptors, EphB3b and EphB4a, control HPD morphogenesis by remodeling individual ductal compartments, and thereby coordinate the morphogenesis of this multi-compartment ductal system.
    • Actomyosin regulation by eph receptor signaling couples boundary cell formation to border sharpness

      Cayuso, J; Xu, Q; Addison, M; Wilkinson, DG; The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom. (eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd, 2019-09-10)
      The segregation of cells with distinct regional identity underlies formation of a sharp border, which in some tissues serves to organise a boundary signaling centre. It is unclear whether or how border sharpness is coordinated with induction of boundary-specific gene expression. We show that forward signaling of EphA4 is required for border sharpening and induction of boundary cells in the zebrafish hindbrain, which we find both require kinase-dependent signaling, with a lesser input of PDZ domain-dependent signaling. We find that boundary-specific gene expression is regulated by myosin II phosphorylation, which increases actomyosin contraction downstream of EphA4 signaling. Myosin phosphorylation leads to nuclear translocation of Taz, which together with Tead1a is required for boundary marker expression. Since actomyosin contraction maintains sharp borders, there is direct coupling of border sharpness to boundary cell induction that ensures correct organisation of signaling centres.
    • The chronotope of walking in the films of Andrea Arnold

      Colbert, Benjamin; Hanson, Lance (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      This thesis proposes that the act of walking functions as a dominant chronotope in the work of British filmmaker Andrea Arnold. Using Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept (1988), it demonstrates how walking mobilises a reading of the landscape and the female body that articulates their combined resistance to hegemonic narratives of exclusion and deprivation. Furthermore, by examining its chronotopicity, the function of walking as a discrete element is analysed to reveal its narrative, aesthetic, and contextual significance. Whilst previous studies of the cinematic flâneuse are restricted mainly to European and art-house cinema and their middle class protagonists, this thesis focuses attention on less affluent female characters whose walking takes place not in the metropolis but in the edgelands, suburbs, and social housing estates that constitute the contemporary built environment, along with Arnold’s depiction of the harsh rural landscape of nineteenth-century Yorkshire in Wuthering Heights (2011). This is a study of walking as depicted in Arnold’s cinematic output, along with the three short films with which she began her career, all of which focus upon strong female characters living in areas of economic and social deprivation. From a feminist perspective, her films are “power-to” narratives (Sutherland and Feltey, 2017) that show how female agency is predicated on emotional, and practical, resilience, and Arnold demonstrates this agency by foregrounding her protagonists’ physical and geographical mobility, using walking as their dominant mode of movement. The textual analysis draws on Laura U. Mark’s theories of haptic cinema to examine Arnold’s visual style, combined with a reading of Michel de Certeau whose work emphasises walking as a form of tactile, urban remapping. From this, a new way of interpreting women and walking emerges, and the term ‘haptic flâneuse’ is proposed to describe women’s sensory investigations, explorations, and encounters with the new urban landscape. The conclusions drawn show how walking scenes provide opportunities for female agency, and that such journeys function in excess of their narrative significance, creating an interpretative space to examine the structural, aesthetic, and contextual elements of the films. In this way, the walking chronotope acts as a lens through which Arnold’s work can be interpreted. In summary, this thesis contributes to knowledge in three ways: by providing the first detailed study of walking in Arnold’s oeuvre; by proposing the figure of the haptic flâneuse as a way of thinking about the experiences of women who walk in marginalised spaces; and by demonstrating how a chronotopic reading of walking scenes elevates them from a narrative means to an end to significant film elements in themselves.