Now showing items 21-40 of 5326

    • Iron deficiency, immunology and colorectal cancer

      Omar, Hafid; Phipps, Oliver; Brookes, Matthew (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-31)
      Excessive gut luminal iron contributes to the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. However, emerging evidence suggests that reduced iron intake and low systemic iron levels are also associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. This is important because patients with colorectal cancer often present with iron deficiency. Iron is necessary for appropriate immunological functions; hence, iron deficiency may hinder cancer immunosurveillance and potentially modify the tumor immune microenvironment, both of which may assist cancer development. This is supported by studies showing that patients with colorectal cancer with iron deficiency have inferior outcomes and reduced response to therapy. Here, we provide an overview of the immunological consequences of iron deficiency and suggest ensuring adequate iron therapy to limit these outcomes.
    • Body size and shape characteristics for Cooper's 12 minutes run test in 11-13 years old Caucasian children: An allometric approach

      Giuriato, M; Nevill, A; Kawczynski, A; Lovecchio, N; University School of Physical Education, Faculty of Sport Science, Wroklaw, Poland - (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2020-03-20)
      © 2019 EDIZIONI MINERVA MEDICA. BACKGROUND: The Cooper Test, is a field test, simple and useful in the school context. The aim of this research was the definition of the trend in Cooper endurance test along with the growth. In particular, through the scaling method (allometric). METHODS: Atotal of 556 of European sedentary children aged 11-13 years (282 boys; 274 girls) were involved. All subjects were evaluated through the Endurance Cooper test (12 min run test). To identify the most appropriate body size and shape characteristics as well as any categorical differences (sex, age) associated with the measure of the Cooper test, a multiplicative model with allometric body-size components was applied. RESULTS: The multiplicative model relating to the Cooper test and the body-size components was: Cooper test = a mass-0.325 · height0.878 with the mass and height exponents being k1=-0.325 (SEE=0.40) and k2= 0.878 (SEE=0.141), respectively. The adjusted coefficient of determination (adj R2) was 32.3%, with a log-transformed error ratio of 0.136 or 14.5% having taken antilogs. Significant differences in the constant 'a' parameter were identified by sex (P<0.001) and age (P<0.001) while the interaction of sex per age was not significant (P=0.761). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested that the scaling method identified the optimal height-to-body mass ratios associated with Cooper endurance test corresponding to ectomorph body shape. Furthermore, growth fluctuations become important to avoid alarming judgment in case children will be poorly evaluated.
    • The dose–response association between V̇O<inf>2peak</inf> and self-reported physical activity in children

      Nevill, AM; Duncan, MJ; Sandercock, G; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton , Walsall, UK. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-05-13)
      © 2020, © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Background: Previous research into the association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children is equivocal. However, previous research has always assumed that such an association was linear. This study sought to characterize the dose–response association between physical activity and aerobic fitness and to assess whether this association is linear or curvilinear and varies by sex, age and weight status. Methods: Physical activity (assess using the Physical Activity Questionnaire), aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle-run), BMI, screen-time and socio-demographic data were collected at ages 12, 14 and 16 years in (n = 1422) volunteers from 9 English schools. Multilevel-regression modelling was used to analyse the longitudinal data. Results: The analysis identified a significant inverted “u-shaped” association between VO2max and PAQ. This relationship remained having controlling for the influences of sex, age and weight status. Daily screen time >4 hours and deprivation were also associated with being less fit (P < 0.01). Conclusions: This longitudinal study suggests that the dose–response relationship between PA and aerobic fitness in children is curvilinear. The health benefits of PA are greater in less active children and that sedentary and less active children should be encouraged to engage in PA rather than more active children to increase existing levels of PA.
    • Teaching in the age of Covid-19

      Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2020-12-31)
    • Exercise and inflammation

      Metsios, GS; Moe, RH; Kitas, GD (Elsevier, 2020-04-02)
      © 2020 Based on current knowledge deriving from studies in animals and humans (the general population and patients with non-communicable diseases), there is biological plausibility that exercise may have anti-inflammatory effects. This may be particularly important for patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs). The present review discusses the current state-of-the-art on exercise and inflammation, explores how exercise can moderate inflammation-dependent RMD outcomes and the most prevalent systemic manifestations and addresses the relationship between the dosage (particularly the intensity) of exercise and inflammation. We conclude that present data support potential beneficial effects of exercise on inflammation, however, the evidence specifically in RMDs is limited and inconclusive. More targeted research is required to elucidate the effects of exercise on inflammation in the context of RMDs.
    • Making for Change: an independent evaluation of Making for Change: skills in a fashion training & manufacturing workshop

      Caulfield, Laura; Curtis, Kerry; Simpson, Ella (London College of Fashion, UAL, 2018-01-31)
      Making for Change Fashion Training and Manufacturing Workshop is a partnership between HM Prison Service and London College of Fashion, UAL (LCF). Making for Change takes an innovative approach in prison, linked to improving the engagement of women offenders in prison industries by providing training in fashion production skills and accrediting participants with industry-recognised qualifications; offering a route away from re-offending whilst simultaneously addressing the skills shortage within the UK fashion manufacturing industry.
    • Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Induces a Spatial Bias in Whole-body Position Estimates

      Patel, Mitesh; Roberts, R. E.; Arshad, Qadeer; Ahmed, Maroof; Riyaz, Mohammed U.; Bronstein, Adolfo M. (Elsevier, 2015-07-23)
      Peripheral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been shown to temporarily ameliorate left spatial neglect [ 1 ]. Specifically, anodal (facilitatory) stimulation over the left mastoid bone coupled with cathodal (inhibitory) over the right mastoid reduces visuospatial-neglect scores in line cancellation [ 2 ] and line bisection tasks [ 3 , 4 ]. This montage increases activity in the left vestibular nerve and suppresses activity in the right [ 5 ], which has been shown to focally activate vestibular networks that occupy visuospatial attention mechanisms, primarily in the non-dominant hemisphere [ 5 ]. Thus, it appears that electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system can shift visuospatial attention to the left side of space [ 4 ]. However, whether such a shift of spatial attention in normal subjects can influence perception of spatial position during whole-body spatial translations is unknown. We hypothesized that shifting attention to the left would result in participants underestimating spatial position estimates during rightward whole-body translations and overestimating spatial position estimates during leftward whole-body translations.
    • Quality control perspectives during mass production with a focus on the chemical industry

      Oduoza, Chike; Akdogun, Anil; Vanli, Ali Sendar (InTechOpen, 2020-03-11)
      Mass production was part of the industrial revolution in 1870 and, with it, a huge step change in manufacturing processes. Its impact was ground breaking and became even more remarkable with automation in a business production environment. The chemical industry is one of the manufacturing sectors that has benefited from the technology of mass production achieved through automating the business process. In this era of industry 4.0 and with the associated advanced technologies of smart manufacturing, cloud computing, cyber physical systems and internet of things, mass production has been revolutionised but still faced issues such as quality control of the production process which was affected by supply chain management, customised production of commodity and specialty chemicals and huge demand from other chemical industry manufacturers. This chapter has reviewed the evolution of mass production during traditional manufacturing to the present day and carried out a risk assessment to quality of production in a mass production environment with a view to recommending adequate quality control of the production process. The chapter also included a case study for mass production of a pharmaceutical drug—Amoxicillin which was partly batch produced into dry powder and then mass produced using tableting and encapsulating machine, highlighting sources of contamination and inconsistency in tablet weight if adequate control measures were not put in place.
    • Applying data correction to strap mounted accelerometers

      Smith, Tina; Baker, Michael; Foster, Richard (International Society of Biomechanics, 2017-07-23)
      The tissue underlying skin mounted accelerometers introduces errors to the data they collect [1]. As a consequence various data correction attempts have been made to minimise the effect of local tissue-accelerometer vibration [1,2]. However, accelerometers are not always mounted directly onto the skin. It is often impractical to do so for studies that measure activities during day-to-day living where strap mounting may be a more common attachment method. Therefore an understanding of the response of strap mounted accelerometers is also necessary. As the straps surround irregular shaped body segments strap mounted accelerometers may suffer from poor coupling when compared to skin mounted accelerometers, as well as additional vibration of the strap and pre-loading effects of tissue due to strap tension. This can be especially prevalent for straps around the waist, mounting accelerometers to measure motion at the spine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the damped frequency (fd) and the logarithmic decrement (δ) of the local system (accelerometer, strap and local tissue) can be estimated so that the Smeathers’ method of data correction [2] can be applied to strap mounted accelerometers at the lumbar spine.
    • Osteogenic potential of external mechanical loading during walking in sedentary and non-sedentary adults

      Smith, Tina; Luo, Jin; Metsios, George (International Society of Biomechanics, 2017-07-23)
      Sedentary behaviour is generally regarded as having deleterious effects on cardiometabolic health, although little is known about its specific association with bone health. Impact forces generated as the foot contacts the ground during activity have the potential to act as a stimulus for bone maintenance and development. Therefore, increased sedentary behaviour may reduce the time available to gain osteogenic benefits from impact-based activity. Peak ground reaction force is commonly used as an estimate of loading intensity when determining the osteogenic potential of activity [1]. Dynamic, high impact, high frequency activities have been shown to be most effective at applying an osteogenic stimulus [1], although low level impacts have been shown to beneficially modify bone geometry [2]. Therefore, differences in the characteristics of low impact activity have potential to influence bone health. As impact forces are attenuated as they travel up the body, exploration of mechanical loading at regions such as the spine, require further investigation. External force due to impact is related to acceleration; therefore an accelerometer attached to the spine can provide an estimation of the mechanical loading. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate associations between sedentary and nonsedentary behavior on the osteogenic potential of walking, and bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine.
    • Bacillus subtilis natto: A non-toxic source of poly-γ-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria

      Bhat, AR; Irorere, VU; Bartlett, T; Hill, D; Kedia, G; Morris, MR; Charalampopoulos, D; Radecka, I; University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2013-07-05)
      It is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of γ-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of this study was to test the effect of γ-PGA (produced by B. subtilis natto ATCC 15245) on the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying and to test the toxigenic potential of B. subtilis natto. 10% γ-PGA was found to protect Lactobacillus paracasei significantly better than 10% sucrose, whereas it showed comparable cryoprotectant activity to sucrose when it was used to protect Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum. Although γ-PGA is known to be non-toxic, it is crucial to ascertain the toxigenic potential of its source, B. subtilis natto. Presence of six genes that are known to encode for toxins were investigated: three component hemolysin (hbl D/A), three component non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheB), B. cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), enterotoxin FM (entFM), sphingomyelinase (sph) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase (piplc). From our investigations, none of these six genes were present in B. subtilis natto. Moreover, haemolytic and lecithinase activities were found to be absent. Our work contributes a biodegradable polymer from a non-toxic source for the cryoprotection of probiotic bacteria, thus improving their survival during the manufacturing process. © 2013 Bel-Rhlid et al.
    • UBE2QL1 is disrupted by a constitutional translocation associated with renal tumor predisposition and is a novel candidate renal tumor suppressor gene

      Wake, NC; Ricketts, CJ; Morris, MR; Prigmore, E; Gribble, SM; Skytte, AB; Brown, M; Clarke, N; Banks, RE; Hodgson, S; et al. (Wiley, 2013-09-02)
      Investigation of rare familial forms of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has led to the identification of genes such as VHL and MET that are also implicated in the pathogenesis of sporadic RCC. In order to identify a novel candidate renal tumor suppressor gene, we characterized the breakpoints of a constitutional balanced translocation, t(5;19)(p15.3;q12), associated with familial RCC and found that a previously uncharacterized gene UBE2QL1 was disrupted by the chromosome 5 breakpoint. UBE2QL1 mRNA expression was downregulated in 78.6% of sporadic RCC and, although no intragenic mutations were detected, gene deletions and promoter region hypermethylation were detected in 17.3% and 20.3%, respectively, of sporadic RCC. Reexpression of UBE2QL1 in a deficient RCC cell line suppressed anchorage-independent growth. UBE2QL1 shows homology to the E2 class of ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and we found that (1) UBE2QL1 possesses an active-site cysteine (C88) that is monoubiquitinated in vivo, and (2) UBE2QL1 interacts with FBXW7 (an F box protein providing substrate recognition to the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase) and facilitates the degradation of the known FBXW7 targets, CCNE1 and mTOR. These findings suggest UBE2QL1 as a novel candidate renal tumor suppressor gene. © 2013 The Authors. *Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    • Developments in the United Kingdom road transport from a smart cities perspective

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Jallow, Haddy (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose: Smart city is a city which functions in a sustainable and intelligent way, by integrating all of its infrastructures and services in a cohesive way using intelligent devices for monitoring and control, to ensure efficiency and better quality of life for its citizens. As other countries globally, UK is keen for economic development and investment in smart city missions to create interest in monetary environment and inward investment. This paper explores the driving forces of smart road transport transformation and implementation in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The study involved interviews with sixteen professionals from the UK road transport sector. A semi-structured interview technique was used to collect experts’ perception, which was then examined using content analysis. Findings: The results of the study revealed that the technological advancement is a key driver. The main challenges faced for the implementation of smart city elements in the UK road network are: lack of investment; maintenance; state of readiness and the awareness of the smart road transport concept. The study concludes that an understanding of the concept of smart cities from a road transport perspective is very important to create awareness of the benefits and the way it works. A wider collaboration between every sector is crucial to create a successful smart city. Originality/value: The study contributes to the field of digitalisation of road transport sector. This paper reveals the key driving forces of smart road transport transformation, the current status of smart road transport implementation in UK and challenges of the smart road transport development in the UK.
    • Attitudes to suicide among the West Midlands Police Service: Feedback report

      Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Dhingra, Katie; Fernandes Aguilera, Milea (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-07)
      There is a significant degree and a moderate-high regularity of work-related exposure to suicide among the West Midlands police staff. • Exposure to suicide in a professional capacity is often accompanied by some degree of distress. • Many police staff who have had professional encounters of suicide have also had personal experiences with suicide. • There is a large perceived need for suicide specific training across all police ranks. • Perceived competence to intervene following a suicide attempt is lower among Police constables and Sergeants than higher ranking officers. • Attitudes towards suicide are largely tolerant, compassionate and informed although there are some enduring misconceptions surrounding suicide which may be addressed through tailored training programmes.
    • State of the Walsall voluntary, community and social enterprise sector

      Caulfield, Laura; Massie, Rachel (One Walsall, 2019-03-11)
    • Multiple and complex needs in the West Midlands: individuals with lived experience tell their story

      Caulfield, Laura; Massie, Rachel (University of Wolverhampton/ West Midlands Combined Authority, 2019-04-01)
    • An evaluation of Sandwell Youth Offending Service –a creative approach to working with young people

      Caulfield, Laura; Sojka, Bozena; Massie, Rachel (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-10-14)
      Sandwell Youth Offending Service (YOS) work with young people who have very complex life stories. The young people may have committed very serious offences but are also often highly vulnerable to exploitation and have experienced significant trauma. Their experiences can lead to mistrust or suspicion of those in authority and in turn, for practitioners, the challenge of engagement can seem insurmountable. Sandwell YOS therefore argue that an evolution of the current approach is required to more effectively engage, support, and help young people. The new National Standards for youth justice, underpinned by the Youth Justice Board’s (YJB) helpful focus on a ‘child first’ principle support a change in thinking and encourage YOSs to take local initiatives. Sandwell YOS’ vision is to focus on the use of the arts and increasingly reconceptualise the YOS over time into a ‘Creative YOS’. In January 2019 Sandwell YOS were awarded funding from the YJB’s Serious Youth Violence Grant to help increase the use of arts with the cohort. The Institute for Community Research and Development were commissioned to conduct a process and impact evaluation, combining quantitative data to understand if any change was happening with in-depth qualitative interviews to understand how this change might be happening, foregrounding the voice and experience of participants. Most existing research and evaluation studies have looked at the impact of discrete arts programmes. The new creative programme of work being introduced by Sandwell YOS is innovative in working across the whole service with a range of arts and creative activities, and therefore no similar evaluation has previously been conducted.
    • The mental health of doctors during the COVID-19 pandemic

      Galbraith, Niall; Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Hassan, Tariq; Department of Psychology, University of Wolverhampton, UK. (Royal College of Psychiatrists/Cambridge University Press, 2020-04-28)
      Doctors experience high levels of work stress even under normal circumstances, but many would be reluctant to disclose mental health difficulties or seek help for them, with stigma an often-cited reason. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis places additional pressure on doctors and on the healthcare system in general and research shows that such pressure brings a greater risk of psychological distress for doctors. For this reason, we argue that the authorities and healthcare executives must show strong leadership and support for doctors and their families during the COVID-19 outbreak and call for efforts to reduce mental health stigma in clinical workplaces. This can be facilitated by deliberately adding ‘healthcare staff mental health support process’ as an ongoing agenda item to high-level management planning meetings.
    • A brief review of the clinical anatomy of the vestibular-ocular connections—how much do we know?

      Bronstein, Adolfo M.; Patel, Mitesh; Arshad, Qadeer (Springer Nature, 2014-11-21)
      The basic connectivity from the vestibular labyrinth to the eye muscles (vestibular ocular reflex, VOR) has been elucidated in the past decade, and we summarise this in graphic format. We also review the concept of ‘velocity storage’, a brainstem integrator that prolongs vestibular responses. Finally, we present new discoveries of how complex visual stimuli, such as binocular rivalry, influence VOR processing. In contrast to the basic brainstem circuits, cortical vestibular circuits are far from being understood, but parietal-vestibular nuclei projections are likely to be involved.
    • Extracting nudge test parameters from noisy skin mounted accelerometer data

      Smith, Tina; Foster, Richard; Baker, Michael (International Society of Biomechanics, 2019-07-31)
      To correct for soft tissue artefacts in skin mounted accelerometers a transmissibility function can be applied to the data. This function is quantified by analysis of the acceleration-time data from the response to a nudge test; however this data can often be noisy. An application of Fourier analysis can be used to filter the acceleration-time data of the nudge test response. This allows accurate recreation of the signal to determine the required transmissibility function.