Now showing items 21-40 of 6529

    • Scopus 1900-2020: Growth in articles, abstracts, countries, fields, and journals

      Thelwall, Michael; Sud, Pardeep (MIT Press, 2022-01-12)
      Scientometric research often relies on large-scale bibliometric databases of academic journal articles. Long term and longitudinal research can be affected if the composition of a database varies over time, and text processing research can be affected if the percentage of articles with abstracts changes. This article therefore assesses changes in the magnitude of the coverage of a major citation index, Scopus, over 121 years from 1900. The results show sustained exponential growth from 1900, except for dips during both world wars, and with increased growth after 2004. Over the same period, the percentage of articles with 500+ character abstracts increased from 1% to 95%. The number of different journals in Scopus also increased exponentially, but slowing down from 2010, with the number of articles per journal being approximately constant until 1980, then tripling due to megajournals and online-only publishing. The breadth of Scopus, in terms of the number of narrow fields with substantial numbers of articles, simultaneously increased from one field having 1000 articles in 1945 to 308 in 2020. Scopus’s international character also radically changed from 68% of first authors from Germany and the USA in 1900 to just 17% in 2020, with China dominating (25%).
    • Covid-19 refereeing duration and impact in major medical journals

      Kousha, Kayvan; Thelwall, Mike (MIT Press, 2022-01-12)
      Two partly conflicting academic pressures from the seriousness of the Covid-19 pandemic are the need for faster peer review of Covid-19 health-related research and greater scrutiny of its findings. This paper investigates whether decreases in peer review durations for Covid-19 articles were universal across 97 major medical journals, Nature, Science, and Cell. The results suggest that on average, Covid-19 articles submitted during 2020 were reviewed 1.7-2.1 times faster than non-Covid-19 articles submitted during 2017-2020. Nevertheless, whilst the review speed of Covid-19 research was particularly fast during the first five months (1.9-3.4 times faster) of the pandemic (January-May 2020), this speed advantage was no longer evident for articles submitted November-December 2020. Faster peer review also associates with higher citation impact for Covid-19 articles in the same journals, suggesting it did not usually compromise the scholarly impact of important Covid-19 research. Overall, then, it seems that core medical and general journals responded quickly but carefully to the pandemic, although the situation returned closer to normal within a year.
    • Chronic cardiac diseases and patients’ mental health: Exploring the impact of improving mental health on chronic heart failure prognosis and adherence to treatment behaviour in primary care based patients

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Ahmed, Mariam; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-08)
      Introduction: Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome. In this study, the clinical area of focus is chronic heart failure (HF). The average age of chronic HF onset is 77-years-of-age, with most patients likely to be exposed to polypharmacy and to display poor adherence to therapy. HF management depends upon symptomatic treatment and cardiac-respiratory rehabilitation. Chronic conditions are known to increase the risk of mental ill health, which can increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and poor self-caring behaviour including poor adherence to therapy. Aim: This study aimed to explore whether improving mental health and medication adherence behaviour, could improve heart failure prognosis. Methods and design: This was a mixed-methods study, where HF patients were reviewed face to face at 3-monthly intervals. Consultations included screening for medication adherence, depression, and anxiety; diagnostics and laboratory results review, referral to specialist services as required, and conversation with the patients regarding their medical conditions and medications. Results: Non-adherence was present in 28% (n=17) of the cohort. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 31.1% (n=19). There was a 14.7% improvement of baseline blood pressure over the course of 6-months. Smoking was identified to have a significant negative impact on blood pressure over the course of the study (p < 0.05). There was a significant improvement in mental illhealth, and medication adherence behaviour (p < 0.05). Depression was found to have a significant impact on overall wellbeing (p < 0.01). Depression and anxiety were also found to have a significant effect on medication adherence behaviour (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusion: This study draws the attention to the need for introduction of a new pathway for the management of patients diagnosed with HF. It is recommended that there should be concurrent screening and management of the patients’ mental health, wellbeing, and adherence to therapy in addition to the traditional HF management.
    • Improved attentive pairwise interaction (API-Net) for fine-grained image classification

      Yet, Ong Zu; Rassem, Taha H; Rahman, Md Arafatur; Rahman, MM (IEEE, 2022-12-31)
      Fine-grained classification is a challenging problem as one has to deal with a similar class of objects but with various types of variations. For more elaboration, they are almost similar and have subtle differences, and are confusing. In this study, aircraft will be the fine-grained object to be focused on. Aircraft which has almost similar shapes and patterns can be hardly recognized even for humans, especially those who haven not gone through any training. In recent years, a lot of proposed methods addressed to solve the difficulties in fine-grained problems by learning contrastive clues from an image. This study aims to increase the accuracy of the Attentive Pairwise Interaction Network (API-Net) by introducing data augmentation into the network structure. Some of the previous studies proved that data augmentation does help improve a network. So, this study is going to modify the API-Net with different data augmentation settings. In this study, various settings have been introduced to the API-Net. Several experiments had been done with a simple modification where a portion of the train dataset’s images will randomly convert into greyscale images. These settings are, only brightness & contrast 0.2, only grayscale 0.3, only grayscale 0.5, b rightness & contrast 0.2 with grayscale 0.3, and brightness & contrast 0.2 with grayscale 0.5. As a result, the proposed modification achieved with 92.74% with brightness & contrast 0.2, 92.80% on brightness & contrast 0.2 with grayscale 0.5, and 92.86% on brightness & contrast 0.2 with grayscale 0.3. While grayscale 0.3 alone achieve 93.25% and grayscale 0.5 alone achieve 93.46% compared with the original results which reached 92.77%.
    • A secure and intelligent framework for vehicle health monitoring exploiting big-data analytics

      Rahman, Md Arafatur; Rahim, Md Abdur; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Moustafa, Nour; Razzak, Imran; Ahmad, Tanvir; N. Patwary, Mohammad; Rahman (IEEE, 2022-01-04)
      The dependency on vehicles is increasing tremendously due to its excellent transport capacity, fast, efficient, flexible, pleasant journey, minimal physical effort, and substantial economic impact. As a result, the demand for smart and intelligent feature enhancement is growing and becoming a prime concern for maximum productivity based on the current perspective. In this case, the Internet of Everything (IoE) is an emerging concept that can play an essential role in the automotive industry by integrating the stakeholders, process, data, and things via networked connections. But the unavailability of intelligent features leads to negligence about proper maintenance of vehicle vulnerable parts, reckless driving and severe accident, lack of instructive driving, and improper decision, which incurred extra expenses for maintenance besides hindering national economic growth. For this, we proposed a conceptual framework for a central VHMS exploiting IoE-driven Multi-Layer Heterogeneous Networks (HetNet) and a machine learning technique to oversee individual vehicle health conditions, notify the respective owner driver real-timely and store the information for further necessary action. This article transparently portrayed an overview of central VHMS and proposed the taxonomy to achieve such an objective. Subsequently, we unveiled the framework for central VHMS, IoE-driven Multi-tire HetNet, with a secure and trustworthy data collection and analytics system. Finally, anticipating this proposition’s outcome is immense in the automotive sector. It may motivate the researcher to develop a central intelligent and secure vehicular condition diagnostic system to move this sector towards Industry 4.0.
    • Development and validation of the RAFFLE; a measure of reasons and facilitators for loot box engagement

      Lloyd, J; Nicklin, LL; Spicer, SG; Fullwood, C; Uther, M; Hinton, DP; Parke, J; Lloyd, H; Close, J; School of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, UK. (MDPI, 2021-12-18)
      Qualitative studies have identified a diverse array of motivations for purchasing items within video games through chance-based mechanisms (i.e., “loot boxes”). Given that some individuals—particularly those at risk of disordered gaming and/or gambling—are prone to over-involvement with loot box purchasing, it is important to have a reliable, valid means of measuring the role of different motivations in driving purchasing behaviour. Building on prior qualitative re-search, this paper reports the development and validation of the “RAFFLE” scale, to measure the Reasons and Facilitators for Loot box Engagement. A 23-item, seven-factor scale was developed through cognitive interviews (n = 25) followed by two surveys of UK-based gamers who purchase loot boxes; analysed via exploratory (n = 503) and confirmatory (n = 1495) factor analysis, respectively. Subscales encompassed “enhancement’; “progression’; “social pressure’; “distraction/com-pulsion’; “altruism’; “fear of missing out’; and “resale”. The scale showed good criterion and con-struct validity (correlating well with measures of loot box engagement; the risky loot box index (r = 0.63) and monthly self-reported spend (r = 0.38)), and good internal validity (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.84). Parallels with, and divergence from, motivations for related activities of gaming and gambling, and alignment with broader theoretical models of motivation, are discussed.
    • Novel reactive flex configuration in kiwi wing foil surfboard

      Fat Cheung, Adrien M; Bari, Klaudio (MDPI, 2021-12-26)
      The creation of an ideal surfboard is art. The design and construction depend on the individual surfer’s skill level and type of the required performance. In this research, four fuselage concepts were carefully explored to meet the following unique needs: lightweight, strong, and a fast-manufacturing process. The fuselages were manufactured by compression moulding using skin and core materials. The skin material was selected to be unidirectional (UD) carbon fibre, discontinuous carbon fibre (SMC) and Filava quadriaxial fibre impregnated with epoxy, while the core material was selected to be lightweight PVC foam. To assess the mechanical performance, three-point bending has been performed according to BS-ISO 14125 and validated using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) using Ansys software. As expected, the flexural test revealed that the UD carbon fibre fuselage was the strongest and SMC was the weakest, while large deflection was seen in Filava fibre fuselages before failure, showing great reactive flex that promotes projection during surfing. The experimental results show good agreement with FEA simulation, and the locations of the physical failure in the fuselage matches the location of maximum flexural stress obtained from FEA simulation. Although all fuselages were found to carry a surfer weight of 150 kg, including a factor of safety 3, except the SMC fuselage, due to shrinkage. The Filava fibre fuselages were seen to have a large deflection before failure, showing great flexibility to handle high ocean waves. This promotes the potential use of reactive flex in high performance sports equipment, such as surfing boards. A large shrinkage must be taken under consideration during compression moulding that depends on fibre orientation, resin nature, and part geometry.
    • Interpretive structural model of trust factors in construction virtual project teams

      Sagar, Sukhwant Kaur; Oladinrin, Olugbenga Timo; Arif, Mohammed; Rana, Muhammad Qasim (Emerald, 2022-12-31)
      Purpose Organisational dependence on virtual project teams (VPTs) is growing dramatically due to the substantial benefits they offer, such as efficiently achieving objectives and improving organisational performance. One of the major issues that influence the effectiveness of VPTs is trust building. The study aims to determine the key factors of trust in VPTs and design a model by identifying the interrelationships among the trust factors. Design/methodology/approach Focus group discussion was employed to gather data on factors affecting trust in VPTs and their interrelationships. Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) was used to establish the relationship among the factors. MICMAC analysis was conducted to identify the driving power and the dependence power towards effective VPTs in the construction sector. Findings The finding revealed that ‘characteristics of team members’ (such as ability, integrity, benevolence, competence, reliability and professionalism) is the most significant factor for building trust in virtual team members. Some factors were further identified as having high driving power, while others were defined as having high dependence variables. Practical implications The findings will assist construction managers and practitioners dealing with VPTs identify the factors influencing trust among team members. Taking cognisance of the factors that influence 34 trust will enable them to design more effective virtual team arrangements. Originality/value As the first research of its kind using ISM technique, the study offers insights into interrelationships between trust factors in the construction VPTs. It provides guides for construction managers on the effective management of trustworthy VPTs.
    • Exploring factors affecting trust in construction virtual project teams

      Sagar, Sukhwant Kaur; Arif, Mohammed; Oladinrin, Olugbenga Timo; Rana, Muhammad Qasim (OMICS International, 2021-12-10)
      Many organizations have embraced a new reality of virtual working, which poses new challenges for leaders. Virtual teaming has numerous advantages, but it also increases the danger of misalignment and lack of cooperation, which may have a negative impact on team trust and employee engagement if not done correctly. Team leaders and organizations must understand the strategies for establishing and maintaining trust in Virtual Project Teams (VPTs) to maintain team members performance after transitioning to decentralized workplaces. This study examines the process of building trust in VPTs by analyzing the factors that influence trust in virtual teams. Qualitative interviews with ten experienced professionals in the Middle East’s construction sectors were conducted to gain insights for the study. The study results revealed that factors influencing trust among VPTs in the Middle East construction sector show some unique attributes. The effects of prominent factors, including organizational culture, communication, diversity, leadership, and task-technology fit, and team member characteristics on trust-building in VPTs were identified. Understanding the interdependence between these factors and trust will help virtual team members remain focused on achieving effectiveness and efficiency in their work.
    • Which types of online resource support US patent claims?

      Font-Julián, Cristina I.; Ontalba-Ruipérez, José-Antonio; Orduña-Malea, Enrique; Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2022-01-05)
      Patents are key documents to support the commercial exploitation of inventions. Patent documents must claim inventiveness, industrial application, and novelty to be granted and may use citations and URLs to support these claims as well as to explain their ideas. Although there is much research into the citations used to support inventions, almost nothing is known about the cited URLs. This may hinder inventors and evaluators from deciding which URLs are appropriate. To investigate this issue, all 3,133,247 patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from 2008 to 2018 were investigated, and 2,719,705 URLs (patent outlinks) were automatically extracted using heuristics, and analyzed using link analyses techniques. A minority of patents included URLs (17.1%), with the percentage increasing over time. The inclusion of URLs differs between disciplines, with Physics (especially the subcategory Computation) having the most URLs per patent. Patents are generally embedded in the “other citations” patent section (referring to academic publications) and the “description” section (e.g., supplementary information and definitions). Online content-oriented resources (e.g., Wayback Machine, Wikipedia, YouTube), academic bibliographic databases (e.g., IEEE Xplore, Microsoft Academic, PubMed, CiteSeerX) and technological companies (e.g., IBM, Amazon, Microsoft) are often linked from USPTO patents. These findings show the broad roles that URLs can play when supporting a patent claim. Finally, in order to avoid bad practices found in the inclusion of URLs in patents, a list of recommendations to cite online resources from patents is provided.
    • Evaluation of challenges for sustainable transformation of Qatar oil and gas industry: A graph theoretic and matrix approach

      Sarrakh, Redouane; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (Elsevier, 2022-06-30)
      Despite Qatar’s National Vision 2030 implementation, several organisations within the oil and gas sector still have difficulties in embedding sustainability agenda in their systems and processes. There is, also, a paucity of empirical research on the key challenges Qatar oil and gas organisations face in embedding sustainable strategies to improve competitiveness – which is the core raison d’être of this paper. A qualitative approach was adopted to collect and analyze data based on 24 interviewees from eight organizations. Six key challenges hindering the implementation of sustainability strategies. They are: stakeholders’ issues, volatility of price, resistance to change, knowledge and awareness, initial cost and strategic issues. Furthermore, the graph theoretic and matrix approach was applied to evaluate the challenges inhibiting the implementation of sustainability strategies within the Qatar oil and gas industry. The results show that strategic issues represent a greatest challenge when compared to other challenges.
    • This is me: Evaluation of a boardgame to promote social engagement, wellbeing and agency in people with dementia through mindful life-storytelling

      Niedderer, Kristina; Holthoff-Detto, Vjera; van Rompay, Thomas JL; Karahanoğlu, Armağan; Ludden, Geke DS; Almeida, Rosa; Durán, Raquel Losada; Aguado, Yolanda Bueno; Lim, Jennifer NW; Smith, Tina; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-12-15)
      Receiving a dementia diagnosis is a difficult experience for most people and often affects their wellbeing negatively. To support people's wellbeing, in a therapeutic context, life-storytelling, reminiscence and mindfulness are used with people with dementia. In an everyday context, traditional games are used as a resource for stimulating memory, cognition and social activity. While an increasing number of creative strategies are available to support people with dementia, the area of board games design and their effect on wellbeing is underexplored. This paper reports on the evaluation of the This is Me (TIM) mindful life-storytelling board game by the European project MinD. Using a co-design methodology, TIM was developed with and for people with mild to moderate dementia to support their wellbeing by enhancing self-empowerment and social engagement. A focus group methodology was used to evaluate TIM with 50 people with dementia and 19 carers across four countries. TIM was evaluated with regard to the usability and experience of the design as well as people's emotional wellbeing, social engagement and agency. The thematic analysis demonstrated that the combination of life-storytelling and mindfulness allowed players to engage in meaningful social interaction and, as a result, they reported enjoyment, learning, more acceptance of the past and present situation, and that they perceived looking forward into the future together with others as helpful. The study demonstrates that design can be a useful means to support people with dementia in aspects of emotional wellbeing, social engagement and a sense of agency.
    • Bourdieu and teacher education

      Hayes, Sarah; Peters, Michael, A. (Springer, 2019-12-14)
    • A systematic literature review of factors affecting cloud computing adoption internationally

      Ullah, Raja Muhammad Ubaid; A.Buckley, Kevan; Garvey, Mary; Li, Jun (Seventh Sense Research Group, 2019-03-30)
      Context: The adoption of cloud computing in small and medium size organisations has become a significant trend in today’s information technology. Therefore, there is a requirement to identify possible security challenges and guidelines for the researchers based on the adoption. Keeping in view of these elements, a systematic literature review (SLR) of cloud computing adoption in businesses and organisations was conducted. Goal: The main purpose of this research is to identify the possible opportunities, challenges, factors and guidelines for the evaluation and adoption of cloud computing (CC) for organisations intending to adopt or already using CC. Method: ASLR is conducted to achieve the above goals. The search process of this literature review used quality scholarly databases such as ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, Inspec, Springer, Google Scholar, Researchgate, Google Books and Wolverhampton University Online Library(8 types of databases) along with open-access journals for relevant articles. Results: A total of 561articles were found of which 85articles met the included criteria. Nine different categories were identified securing CC adoption in organisation, namely (1) CC adoption (n=30); (2) CC security (n=18); (3) CC overview / Objective (n=8); (4) CC adoption challenges (n=7); (5) CC adoption factor influencing (n=7); (6) CC adoption factor affecting (n=6); (7) CC future forecast (n=4); (8) CC adoption decision (n=3); (9) CC adoption & implementation (n=2); Conclusion: The basis of this SLR can help the development of guidelines to support newcomer companies whether to adopt and migrate to CC, the evaluation of relationship between nine factors and the selection of providers.
    • Cloud computing adoption in enterprise: challenges and benefits

      Ullah, Raja Muhammad Ubaid; A.Buckley, Kevan; Garvey, Mary; Li, Jun (Seventh Sense Research Group, 2019-06-30)
      Loss of the business and downturn of economics are part of almost all types of business activities. There are also new concepts and technologies evolved and entrepreneurs need to keep update accordingly. Therefore, business people have to concentrate on keep exploring new ways to cut down expenses without compromising on the quality. One of the options is to go for the latest technologies. Taking into consideration these problems, the entrepreneurs always choose the right technology to minimise losses, increase efficiency and maximise their profit. In order to help out the entrepreneurs, the IT industries have developed platforms for businesses to use shared resources and online applications through cloud computing. The significant role played by cloud computing in providing a solution to the problems faced by business enterprises to increase business growth and help them to stay alive in a competitive environment. Cloud computing also brings efficiency in managing business resources and make improvements in traditional business practices. It also facilitates the enterprises to avoid unnecessary expenses of procedural and administrative nature, hardware and software costs. Apart from the advantages of cloud computing have certain drawbacks also. The main issue is the security in cloud computing considering the attacks on the cloud too. The primary objective of this paper is to highlight the benefits, challenges in adopting cloud computing and utilizing services offered by cloud computing. Recommendations have also been made to ease the adoption process and how to address security issues.The method has been used is the secondary research, that is collecting the respective data from published journal papers and conference papers.
    • A survey based investigation for cloud computing adoption internationally

      Ubaid Ullah, Raja Muhammad; A.Buckley, Kevan; Garvey, Mary; Li, Jun (Seventh Sense Research Group, 2019-04-30)
      Cloud computing (CC) is a new trend in information technology and has the potential to play a major role, in addressing inefficient resources, make a fundamental growth and competitiveness for large, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) internationally. The main benefits of adoption of CC services by Large and SMEs will be able to use the latest technology, without the need for the upfront cost, but reducing cost, providing a secure information platform and increasing productivity. The main drawback is that most organisations are adopting the CC without properly understanding that information data they are storing in the cloud is secure or not. The primary objective of this paper is to explore the CC adoption from large and SME perspective internationally. The current state of CC information intensity, different levels of external and other support in the organisations, motivations, requirements prevent the intensity of information and various level of external and other support for CC environment, the study findings can provide guidance on how to address the business and technology risks associated by CC adoption. However, a survey is conducted internationally on 107 Large and SMEs through survey monkey website, which shows interest in the CC services adoption. Specifically, in this paper users are evaluated through 6 factors, for instance, external support, competitive pressure, senior management support, employees cloud knowledge, adequate resources and information intensity.Though survey it is revealed that already adopted some cloud services are 84.11%, are in the processes of Implementing 8.41%, intend to adopt cloud services in the next 3 years 6.54% and don't intend to adopt any cloud services in near future 0.93%. The findings are expected to be beneficial for Large and SMEs in their adoption of CC services and may also be useful for service providers with respect to end-users’ concerns.
    • Factors analysis of the adoption of cloud computing in England

      Ullah, Raja Muhammad Ubaid; Buckley, Kevan A; Garvey, Mary; Li, Jun (Seventh Sense Research Group, 2019-06-30)
      The trend in information technology has been changed by cloud computing (CC) services to facilitate the day to day business activities. CC services benefits for business and information technology (IT) includes a secure platform, reducing cost and increasing productivity. There are some challenges for some organisations that adopting CC services without ensuring that the information in the cloud is secure. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the IT and IT professional perception regarding the adoption of CC services as a new generation trend in computing technology. However, the extent of CC adoption services, to identify some of the factors motivating and some challenges affecting the adoption of CC services in England. Still some organisations are struggling, how to create a secure and cost effective CC services environment.The expected finding from this research believe to provide the certain analysis and confirm the significant factors from which perceptions are derived through classification, that can address the business and technology related issues by CC services. Especially, in this study, the CC users analyse the secure platform technologies, compatibility, cost evaluation and some other types of control they assume are beneficial for the deployment of on-premise or in the cloud environment. The interview data are presented, where CC services users reviews are collected to rate the different types of important information’s related to CC services adoption. Then results are used to determine the compatibility, security and cost effectiveness are critical parameter to make this technology as a turning point for the organisation for their day to day business activities.
    • Statistical analysis of factors that influences the evaluation and adoption of multi-tenant databases

      Olumuyiwa, Matthew; Buckley, Kevan; Garvey, Mary (Seventh Sense Research Group, 2016-07-31)
      Multi-tenant Databases (MTD) are implemented in the deployment of database management services to Information Technology (IT) platform users. A database service provider hosts the Multi-tenant Database Management System (MTDMS) and each tenant subscribes to the service through a standard method such as a web service. Improved groupings of the factors that influence the adoption of MTDs are presented in this paper. A survey is presented here that involves forty one experts from the field of databases. A predictive analytical method called Relative Importance Index (RII) and other statistical tools have been adopted in the analysis. The result has led to the new framework in the adoption of MTDs. The research also considers the direction of decisions about MTDs in situations where two or more factors are combined. A new improved MTD framework is presented that improves the decision making process of MTD adoption.
    • Using consumer advertising and promotional marketing materials for historical research: 1960s Heinz baked beans

      Hawkins, Richard (Adam Matthew Digital, 2021-11-30)
      This case study will equip you with the intellectual and practical toolkit necessary to investigate and derive worthwhile information from historical advertising and promotional marketing materials, using the example of a scrapbook of baked beans advertisements from the 1960s. Most of the print advertising from this period has survived in archives around the world in various formats, including the original publications, microfilmed copies, and more recently digitised scans. Not all the reproductions are high quality. Furthermore, while some of the original advertisements were published in colour, many have been reproduced in black and white. Advertising can reveal a lot more than just the product being advertised. The text and images used can reveal information about the advertising agency, the agency’s client, the product being advertised, the consumers being targeted, and how the agency and its client view the society in which they are working. In this case study, you will learn what analytical questions you can ask of such sources and sample the kinds of answers you might expect to find in them. Analysis of the Heinz Baked Beans scrapbook also reveals information about how advertising campaigns, promotions, and competitions evolved during the period 1961–1968.