Now showing items 21-40 of 6340

    • Conspicuous practice: self-surveillance and commodification in English education

      Page, Damien (2017-10-23)
      Teachers in England have always been watched; only more recently have they been surveilled, with senior leaders, peers, students and stakeholders all collecting performance data. Yet surveillance in schools and colleges increasingly relies on watching the self, with teachers voluntarily participating in their own surveillance, making their practice visible for easy consumption by interested parties. This article builds on previous work on the surveillance of teachers to argue that this ‘conspicuous practice’ represents a convergence of surveillance and consumerism, with teachers being recreated as commodities and their own marketing agent, embodying the entrepreneurial self to maximise employability. Through social media such as Twitter and LinkedIn to exploiting open plan learning spaces, teachers engage in conspicuous practice for three main reasons: from fear, to avoid sanction; as a result of acculturation into commodified environments; as a means of routine resistance, employing the dramaturgical self for personal gain, to avoid work or re-appropriate professionalism.
    • Whiteliness and institutional racism: hiding behind (un)conscious bias

      Tate, Shirley Anne; Page, Damien (Routledge, 2018-02-01)
      ‘Unconscious bias happens by our brains making incredibly quick judgements and assessments without us realising. Biases are influenced by background, cultural environment and experiences and we may not be aware of these views and opinions, or of their full impact and implications. This article opposes this point of view by arguing that bias is not unconscious but is (un)conscious and linked to Charles Mills’ ‘Racial Contract’ and its ‘epistemologies of ignorance’. These epistemologies emerge from what the Equality Challenge Unit (ECU) calls ‘our background, cultural environment and personal experience’. Asserting that racism stems from ‘unconscious bias’ diminishes white supremacy and maintains white innocence as a ‘will to forget’ institutional racism. In equality and diversity training ‘unconscious bias’ has become a performative act to move beyond racism through training to participate in a constructed ‘post-racial’ reality. The article argues that through decolonizing ‘unconscious bias’, ‘white fragility’ and ‘self-forgiveness’ we can begin to see hidden institutional whiteliness at the base of (un)conscious bias.
    • The academic as consumed and consumer

      Page, Damien (Taylor & Francis, 2019-03-29)
      In an increasingly competitive environment that positions students as consumers, universities have become ever more marketised, responding to policy contexts that foreground value for money, consumer choice and competition. The intensity of marketisation is argued to have profoundly affected the nature of academic work and scholars themselves, recreating academics as commodities to be weighed and measured, becoming corporatised, alienated and inauthentic in their practice. Yet with the majority of accounts of the commodification of higher education focusing on students, the actual process of how academics become consumed is under-theorised. This article therefore begins with a discussion of the historical context, providing evidence of the familiar indices of marketisation such as rampant self-promotion, the scramble for external funding and intense competition. It argues that this commodified DNA of the university provides the context for the seduction of the modern academic within the consumer society, a movement from the gratification of needs to the perpetual frustration of desires through the ‘Diderot Effect’ of policy shifts. It concludes with an examination of how contemporary academic work can be viewed through the lens of consumerism and how academics themselves have become consumers.
    • Family engagement in alternative provision

      Page, Damien (Wiley, 2020-11-06)
      This article presents findings from research focusing on family engagement within alternative provision. With the existing literature on alternative provision scant, this article analyses the extensive assemblage of family engagement within settings as practitioners navigate complex family environments often characterised by poverty, crime and substance abuse. While settings create formalised structures of family engagement that prioritise a collaborative approach to children’s development—such as family learning days and daily positive phone calls—equally they work to attenuate the isolation and loneliness of families who feel as excluded as their child. Yet as important as structured engagement is, practitioners within alternative provision also engage in the improvised pragmatism of micro-work—the work that other agencies won’t or can’t do, such as escorting parents to medical appointments, sourcing furniture to fill empty houses or talking a child out from under their bed. The article argues that family engagement in alternative provision is cyclical, with families informing staff of behavioural incidents or learning opportunities, information that rapidly personalises communicative and pedagogical strategies within schools. In return, teachers update parents at the end of the day, offering ideas for home learning or approaches to managing challenging behaviours. The article concludes by identifying six domains of family engagement—behavioural, emotional, safeguarding, functional, pedagogic and capacity building—that can be used within alternative provision settings to ensure a holistic approach that provides deep support to families to maximise the successful re-engagement of children.
    • Fun, lifelong relationships and a safer community: understanding collective leadership practice in a grassroots association

      Jacklin-Jarvis, Carol; Rees, James (Bristol University Press, 2021-08-31)
      The relational processes and practices that create and sustain grassroots associations have received limited attention from researchers. This article addresses this gap, exploring collective leadership of grassroots associations through a ‘leadership-as-practice’ lens (Raelin, 2016a; 2016b). It adopts the concept of ‘bundles’ of leadership practice (Schatzki, 2005) to analyse data from a single ethnographic case study. Adopting this conceptual lens, we identify a set of ‘bundles’ of related practices – organising, engaging and accounting – that constitute the enduring reality of the grassroots association’s collective leadership.
    • Public Twitter data and transport network status

      Almohammad, A; Georgakis, P (IEEE, 2020-09-22)
      Twitter data can be collected and analysed to be used for predicting the status of a transport network at a given time and geographic location (e.g. forecasting disruptions, congestions, or road closures). However, this requires geolocating the tweets to define the parts of the transport network which may be related to these tweets. This paper investigates the relationship between the actual transport network status, with that being synthesised using public Twitter data in the Greater Manchester conurbation. Therefore, it answers the following question: are the sentiments of tweets around the incidents and accidents areas (or bounding boxes) different from the sentiments of tweets in the seamless traffic areas?. According to the used research methodology, analysis techniques, and sentiment detection APIs, it has been concluded that there is no significant difference between the sentiments in the tweets regardless the prevailing traffic conditions of the locations the tweets refer to.
    • Robust fragment-based framework for cross-lingual sentence retrieval

      Trijakwanich, Nattapol; Limkonchotiwat, Peerat; Sarwar, Raheem; Phatthiyaphaibun, Wannaphong; Chuangsuwanich, Ekapol; Nutanong, Sarana (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021-12-31)
      Cross-lingual Sentence Retrieval (CLSR) aims at retrieving parallel sentence pairs that are translations of each other from a multilingual set of comparable documents. The retrieved parallel sentence pairs can be used in other downstream NLP tasks such as machine translation and cross-lingual word sense disambiguation. We propose a CLSR framework called Robust Fragment-level Representation (RFR) CLSR framework to address Out-of- Domain (OOD) CLSR problems. In particular, we improve the sentence retrieval robustness by representing each sentence as a collection of fragments. In this way, we change the retrieval granularity from the sentence to the fragment level. We performed CLSR experiments based on three OOD datasets, four language pairs, and three base well-known sentence encoders: m-USE, LASER, and LaBSE. Experimental results show that RFR significantly improves the base encoders’ performance for more than 85% of the cases.
    • Linguistic features evaluation for hadith authenticity through automatic machine learning

      Mohamed, Emad; Sarwar, Raheem (Oxford University Press, 2021-12-31)
      There has not been any research that provides an evaluation of the linguistic features extracted from the matn (text) of a Hadith. Moreover, none of the fairly large corpora are publicly available as a benchmark corpus for Hadith authenticity, and there is a need to build a “gold standard” corpus for good practices in Hadith authentication. We write a scraper in Python programming language and collect a corpus of 3651 authentic prophetic traditions and 3593 fake ones. We process the corpora with morphological segmentation and perform extensive experimental studies using a variety of machine learning algorithms, mainly through Automatic Machine Learning, to distinguish between these two categories. With a feature set including words, morphological segments, characters, top N words, top N segments, function words and several vocabulary richness features, we analyse the results in terms of both prediction and interpretability to explain which features are more characteristic of each class. Many experiments have produced good results and the highest accuracy (i.e., 78.28%) is achieved using word n-grams as features using the Multinomial Naive Bayes classifier. Our extensive experimental studies conclude that, at least for Digital Humanities, feature engineering may still be desirable due to the high interpretability of the features. The corpus and software (scripts) will be made publicly available to other researchers in an effort to promote progress and replicability.
    • Relationship between muscle metabolic rate and muscle torque complexity during fatiguing intermittent isometric contractions in humans

      Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark; Endurance Research Group, School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom. (Wiley, 2019-09-25)
      To test the hypothesis that a system's metabolic rate and the complexity of fluctuations in the output of that system are related, thirteen healthy participants performed intermittent isometric knee extensor contractions at intensities where a rise in metabolic rate would (40% maximal voluntary contraction, MVC) and would not (20% MVC) be expected. The contractions had a 60% duty factor (6 sec contraction, 4 sec rest) and were performed until task failure or for 30 min, whichever occurred sooner. Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified using approximate entropy (ApEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) α scaling exponent. Muscle metabolic rate was determined using near-infrared spectroscopy. At 40% MVC, task failure occurred after (mean ± SD) 11.5 ± 5.2 min, whereas all participants completed 30 min of contractions at 20% MVC. Muscle metabolic rate increased significantly after 2 min at 40% MVC (2.70 ± 1.48 to 4.04 ± 1.23 %·s-1 , P < 0.001), but not at 20% MVC. Similarly, complexity decreased significantly at 40% MVC (ApEn, 0.53 ± 0.19 to 0.15 ± 0.09; DFA α, 1.37 ± 0.08 to 1.60 ± 0.09; both P < 0.001), but not at 20% MVC. The rates of change of torque complexity and muscle metabolic rate at 40% MVC were significantly correlated (ApEn, ρ = -0.63, P = 0.022; DFA, ρ = 0.58, P = 0.037). This study demonstrated that an inverse relationship exists between muscle torque complexity and metabolic rate during high-intensity contractions.
    • Family engagement and compassion fatigue in alternative provision

      Page, Damien (Taylor & Francis, 2021-06-09)
      In a sector largely ignored in policy and the public imagination, Alternative Provision works to care for and educate children for whom mainstream schooling does not work. Central to their mission is the engagement of families, often seen as both the cause of their child’s difficulties and the solution to their successful educational re-engagement. Practitioners within Alternative Provision work within sophisticated strategies of family engagement, from regular communication to the more intensive interventions of home visits, supporting families with everything from filling in forms to cleaning, from managing outbursts to sourcing furniture. With the majority of families living within contexts of deprivation, many have life histories containing trauma, trauma that Alternative Provision Practitioners listen to, confront and, often, internalise, risking ‘compassion fatigue’. This article focuses on the potential for compassion fatigue within family engagement in Alternative Provision, beginning with the impact on practitioners. It then discusses the role of leadership in building an assemblage of organisation interventions to both mitigate compassion fatigue and maximise ‘compassion satisfaction’, the fulfilment that comes from empathic work. Finally, it examines how compassion satisfaction could mitigate the deleterious impact of vicarious trauma.
    • Atmospheres, spaces and job crafting: home visits in alternative provision

      Page, Damien (Informa UK Limited, 2021-08-04)
      Neglected in policy and the public consciousness, Alternative Provision is the expanding putty of the education sector, working within the gaps left by other agencies to re-engage children. Yet to engage children, Alternative Provision must first engage families and home visits are crucial to this process. Often triggered by absences or safeguarding concerns, homes visits are inherently risky both to the safety of practitioners but also to the fragile trust that is built with families. Rather than being purely objective practices, home visits are deeply embodied, sensuous experiences: from the apprehension and neighbour-scrutiny of the doorstep to inside homes that are sometimes sealed, sometimes permeable, practitioners engage in ‘way-finding’ through room and histories, spaces of affective atmospheres made and unmade, crafted and destroyed through the interaction of people, artefacts and light. And here, improvising, practitioners craft their jobs as equally as they craft engagement.
    • Guest editorial

      Oloke, David (Emerald, 2020-01-28)
    • Power and resistance in further education: findings from a study of first-tier managers

      Page, Damien (SAGE, 2010-01-01)
      This article presents findings from a study of first-tier managers in four further education colleges as they attempt to manage perpetual change within a context of performativity and mistrust. It begins with a discussion of power in the sector before presenting findings of routine resistance against ever increasing control and surveillance within colleges. First-tier managers were found to be primarily the audience for routine resistance rather than the target and so faced the dilemma of colluding with resistance to maintain cooperation, or challenging the behaviours. The article concludes that despite the demonisation of critical opinions in the lifelong learning sector, resistance in further education, far from contravening the principles of academic citizenship, is a form of educational fundamentalism and an attempt to prioritise learners in the face of financial and managerial imperatives.
    • Producing the translators of tomorrow: designing a student-centred and competence-based translation curriculum for Saudi universities

      Almugharbil, Sara Mohammed (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      The main aim of this research project is to investigate the extent to which translation courses in Saudi Arabia adequately prepare students to take up careers as professional translators according to current market needs. Saudi Vision 2030 acknowledges that graduates must be able to operate at a professional level of competence in order to be competitive in terms of employability. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the translation skills and competences of graduates of translation courses in Saudi Arabia and, more broadly, in the Arabic-speaking world. Using a Saudi case study, this research explores how competency-based course content can be combined with analysis of multiple stakeholders’ perspectives and a review of research, policies, and best practice to identify potential gaps between undergraduate translator training approaches and the needs of the translation industry. Primary data has been collected by surveying four samples: a sample of staff teaching translation modules at Saudi Universities, a sample of students and graduates of EFL and translation at Saudi universities as well as a sample of some of the top employers in Saudi Arabia. The data gathered is intended to help the course designers and educational practitioners in developing translation skills curricula through evidence-based recommendations. By implementing them, universities can more closely align the translation components of undergraduate degree programmes with the needs of the market, thereby enhancing graduates’ employability. The results shed light on the changes that have to be made in the current provision and existing teaching practices, curricula, and student skill sets in Saudi universities. These changes could improve the course design and teaching of translation so that these universities can produce graduates with the necessary vocationally oriented profile to work in the translation sector. This research can also help to inform education policy in the HE sector in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region overall.
    • Parameterized monads in linguistics

      Le, An Ha; Viet, Ha Bui (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      This dissertation follows the formal semantics approach to linguistics. It applies recent developments in computing theories to study theoretical linguistics in the area of the interaction between semantics and pragmatics and analyzes several natural language phenomena by parsing them in these theories. Specifically, this dissertation uses parameterized monads, a particular theoretical framework in category theory, as a dynamic semantic framework to reinterpret the compositional Discourse Representation Theory(cDRT), and to provide an analysis of donkey anaphora. Parameterized monads are also used in this dissertation to interpret information states as lists of presuppositions, and as dot types. Alternative interpretations for demonstratives and imperatives are produced, and the conventional implicature phenomenon in linguistics substantiated, using the framework. Interpreting donkey anaphora shows that parameterized monads is able to handle the sentential dependency. Therefore, this framework shows an expressive power equal to that of related frameworks such as the typed logical grammar and the dynamic predicate logic. Interpreting imperatives via parameterized monads also provides a compositional dynamic semantic analysis which is one of the main approaches to analysing imperatives.
    • Profiling gene expression dynamics underpinning conventional testing approaches to better inform pre-clinical evaluation of an age appropriate spironolactone formulation

      Russell, C; Hussain, M; Huen, D; Rahman, AS; Mohammed, AR; Aston Pharmacy School, Aston University, Birmingham, UK. (Taylor and Francis, 2020-11-01)
      There is a need to accelerate paediatric formulation evaluation and enhance quality of early stage data in drug development to alleviate the information pinch point present between formulation development and clinical evaluation. This present work reports application of DNA microarrays as a high throughput screening tool identifying markers for prediction of bioavailability and formulation driven physiological responses. With a focus on enhancing paediatric medicine provision, an oral liquid spironolactone suspension was formulated addressing a paediatric target product profile. Caco-2 cells cultured on transwell inserts were implemented in transport assays in vitro and DNA microarrays were used to examine gene expression modulation. Wistar rats were used to derive in vivo bioavailability data. In vitro, genomic, and in vivo data sets were concurrently evaluated linking drug transport and the genomic fingerprint generated by spironolactone formulation exposure. Significant changes in gene expression are reported as a result of formulation exposure. These include genes coding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, solute carrier (SLC) transporters, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, and carboxylesterase enzymes. Genomic findings better inform pre-clinical understanding of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to spironolactone and its active metabolites than current in vitro drug transport assays alone.
    • The effect of hyperarticulation on speech comprehension under adverse listening conditions

      Kangatharan, Jayanthiny; Uther, Maria; Gobet, Fernand (Springer, 2021-12-31)
      Comprehension assesses a listener’s ability to construe the meaning of an acoustic signal in order to be able to answer questions about its contents, while intelligibility indicates the extent to which a listener can precisely retrieve the acoustic signal. Previous comprehension studies asking listeners for sentence-level information or narrative-level information used native listeners as participants. This is the first study to look at whether clear speech properties (e.g. expanded vowel space) produce a clear speech benefit at the word level for L2 learners for speech produced in naturalistic settings. This study explored whether hyperarticulated speech was more comprehensible than non-hyperarticulated speech for both L1 British English speakers and early and late L2 British English learners in quiet and in noise. Sixteen British English listeners, 16 native Mandarin Chinese listeners as early learners of L2 and 16 native Mandarin Chinese listeners as late learners of L2 rated hyperarticulated samples versus non-hyperarticulated samples in form of words for comprehension under four listening conditions of varying white noise level (quiet or SNR levels of +16dB, +12dB or +8dB) (3x2x4 mixed design). Mean ratings showed all three groups found hyperarticulated speech samples easier to understand than non-hyperarticulated speech at all listening conditions. Results are discussed in terms of other findings (Uther et al., 2012) that suggest that hyperarticulation may generally improve speech processing for all language groups.
    • Analysis of the porous structures from laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

      Wang, Chang; Hazlehurst, Kevin; Arjunan, Arun; Shen, Lida (IOS Press, 2021-09-05)
      Open and closed porous structures with lattice and honeycomb geometry can be built using laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes. The porous structures can be used to tailor the mechanical properties of a component or provide other functionality, such as for bone ingrowth in medical implants. Porous structures were created and analysed in this paper both physically and using finite element modelling. It was found that the accuracy of the built parts was reasonable and within the manufacturing processes general tolerance of +/- 50 μm. However, it was noticeable that the corners of the square shape pores were naturally filleted by the manufacturing process. The finite element model was developed using ANSYS software, stress concentrations were observed in the porous structures under loading. In addition to this, fragments of the material were present on the internal surfaces of the pores, which were formed from partially melted powder particles.
    • NGO-state relations in the monitoring of illegal forest logging and wildlife trafficking in Central Africa

      Mbzibain, Aurelian; Tchoudjen, Teodyl Nkuintchua (Elsevier, 2021-08-28)
      Independent forest monitoring (IFM) by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) emerged in the late 1990s as a forest governance mechanism in response to rising forest crime in Asia and Central Africa. IFM is the use of an independent third party that, by agreement or not with state authorities, provides an assessment of legal compliance, and observation of and guidance on official forest law enforcement systems. The success of IFM by NGOs is therefore, inextricably linked to the nature of the relationship with state authorities yet this relationship has neither been explored nor understood. There is scant empirical research on this mechanism globally. This paper addresses these gaps through participatory observation, documentary analysis and interviews with leaders of five NGOs at the forefront of forest and wildlife monitoring in Central Africa. Using Najam (2000) 4-C framework, we find complex and fluid relationships ranging from cooperation, complementarity, confrontation and instrumentalization. Complementarity and confrontation emerge as the most important relationship types while cooperation is the least prevalent relationship. In response to challenges in the relationships, NGOs use a repertoire of strategies and tactics to influence the state in pursuit of their goals. Unfortunately, significant dependence on a limited stream of intermittent external donor funding and lack of clearly articulated influence and advocacy strategies, limit the potential contribution of IFM to the fight against forest and wildlife crime in Central Africa. The implications for IFM organisations, national governments and donor agencies are discussed.
    • Flood dynamics: A geoecological approach using historical cartography and giscience in the city of petrópolis (Βrazil)

      Fernandes, Manoel do C.; Heesom, David; Fullen, Michael A.; Antunes, Fernando S. (European Association of Geographers, EUROGEO ivzw, 2020-09-18)
      Dynamics, structure and function are geoecological characteristics that define landscapes. These characteristics help explain landscape processes, such as floods. This article analyses geoecological variables to understand flood dynamics in the original historical district of Petrópolis City (Brazil). Concepts and techniques of historical cartography and GIScience were used to analyse geoecological variables in three river basins (Quitandinha, Palatino and Piabanha) within the study area. Each basin had a river island which was excavated and removed. The Quitandinha River Basin had the largest river island (965 m2), the highest Edification Index (44.12%) and the most favourable geomorphological indices for the occurrence of floods. Hence, the basin recorded 93% of flood events within the three basins. Multiple geoecological variables influence flood dynamics. In this urban landscape, changes in the drainage network, intensified by disorderly urbanization and geomorphological processes, are extremely important in understanding flooding processes.