Now showing items 21-40 of 4262

    • Livelihoods, conflict and aid programming: Is the evidence base good enough?

      Mallett, Richard; Slater, Rachel (Wiley, 2015-08-17)
      In conflict-affected situations, aid-funded livelihood interventions are often tasked with a dual imperative: to generate material welfare benefits and to contribute to peacebuilding outcomes. There may be some logic to such a transformative agenda, but does the reality square with the rhetoric? Through a review of the effectiveness of a range of livelihood promotion interventions—from job creation to microfinance—this paper finds that high quality empirical evidence is hard to come by in conflict-affected situations. Many evaluations appear to conflate outputs with impacts and numerous studies fail to include adequate information on their methodologies and datasets, making it difficult to appraise the reliability of their conclusions. Given the primary purpose of this literature—to provide policy guidance on effective ways to promote livelihoods— this silence is particularly concerning. As such, there is a strong case to be made for a restrained and nuanced handling of such interventions in conflict-affected settings.
    • Strengthening links between social protection and disaster risk management for adaptive social protection in Nepal

      Slater, Rachel; Ghimire, Anita; Baur, Dani (World Bank, 2018-11-01)
      A key challenge in Nepal is the intersection of predictable chronic or seasonal poverty andvulnerability, with rapid-onset and acute shocks. Nepal in the last few decades has epitomized the'perfect storm' in which a number of different factors—disasters, conflict, political uncertainty, and challenges to economic growth—coincide with deleterious effects on people's well-being anddevelopment progress. While social protection (SP) is playing an increasing role in tackling chronic and seasonal poverty and wider vulnerability and exclusion, recent disasters in Nepal, particularly in 2015, highlight how making SP more flexible and adaptive could allow a more effective and efficient development and humanitarian response. The World Bank in Nepal contracted the Centre for International Development and Training at the University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom, and the Nepal Institute for Social and Environmental Research, to carry out the technical assistance (TA) project 'Review of policies, systems and programs in social protection and shock response for adaptive social protection in Nepal'. The overall objective of the work is to make recommendations on possible policy, programmatic, and institutional measures for more adaptive social protection (ASP). The analysis was delivered using a mixed-methods approach. An analysis of existing data (including the Household Risk and Vulnerability Survey [HRVS] data) was used to understand the scope and coverage of existing programs and their links to disasters and shocks. A desk review of literature explored legislation and policies, program documentation and official implementation guidelines, and evaluations and research. Interviews took place with key informants at the national, district, and local government levels as did focus group discussions (FGDs) and individual interviews, especially with recipients of SP programs, at the ward or village level in the districts of Bardiya, Humla, Saptari, and Sindhupalchok.
    • Recovering from conflict: What matters for livelihoods, economic activity and growth?

      Slater, Rachel; Mallett, Richard (Routledge, 2016-09-01)
      The socio-economic impacts of war and large-scale violence are often devastating, multiple and wide-ranging, and it is with clear justi!cation that violent con ict has come to be identi!ed over the years as a major barrier to development. Yet, despite increased interest in con ict-a ected situations – or, to use the more common (and more contested) terminology, ‘fragile states’ – our understanding of the realities of, and the processes occurring within, such places remains limited. Researchers and policymakers continue to struggle to make sense of the heterogeneity of the impact of war – for example, among di erent population groups or over time – and basic questions regarding the e ectiveness of recovery policies remain. This is of particular concern given the recent escalation in bilateral funding to states a ected by con ict.
    • Tools for interpreters: the challenges that lie ahead

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (University of Helsinki, 2018-12-31)
      This paper intends to outline the state of the art of language tools applied to interpreting and discusses the challenges and new opportunities ahead. Unlike translators, interpreters have rarely benefited from language technologies and tools to make their work more efficient. However, nowadays there are some tools and resources already available. Computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) represents a significant new trend for the profession. While CAI tools will definitely reshape interpreters’ work conditions, new skills for the related job profiles will also bring dramatic changes to the training agenda.
    • Simple or not simple? A readability question

      Sjaner, Sanja; Mitkov, Ruslan; Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Springer, 2014-11-12)
      Text Simplification (TS) has taken off as an important Natural Language Processing (NLP) application which promises to offer a significant societal impact in that it can be employed to the benefit of users with limited language comprehension skills such as children, foreigners who do not have a good command of a language, and readers struggling with a language disability. With the recent emergence of various TS systems, the question we are faced with is how to automatically evaluate their performance given that access to target users might be difficult. This chapter addresses one aspect of this issue by exploring whether existing readability formulae could be applied to assess the level of simplification offered by a TS system. It focuses on three readability indices for Spanish. The indices are first adapted in a way that allows them to be computed automatically and then applied to two corpora of original and manually simplified texts. The first corpus has been compiled as part of the Simplext project targeting people with Down syndrom, and the second corpus as part of the FIRST project, where the users are people with autism spectrum disorder. The experiments show that there is a significant correlation between each of the readability indices and eighteen linguistically motivated features which might be seen as reading obstacles for various target populations, thus indicating the possibility of using those indices as a measure of the degree of simplification achieved by TS systems. Various ways they can be used in TS are further illustrated by comparing their values when applied to four different corpora.
    • Measuring post-editing time and effort for different types of machine translation errors

      Zaretskaya, Anna; Vela, Mihaela; Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Seghiri, Miriam (International Association for Translation and Intercultural Studies, 2016-01-01)
      Post-editing (PE) of machine translation (MT) is becoming more and more common in the professional translation setting. However, many users refuse to employ MT due to bad quality of the output it provides and even reject post-editing job offers. This can change by improving MT quality from the point of view of the PE process. This article investigates different types of MT errors and the difficulties they pose for PE in terms of post-editing time and technical effort. For the experiment we used English to German translations performed by MT engines. The errors were previously annotated using the MQM scheme for error annotation. The sentences were post-edited by students in translation. The experiment allowed us to make observations about the relation between technical and temporal PE effort, as well as to discover the types of errors that are more challenging for PE.
    • Acoustic absorption of passive destructive interference cavities

      Arjunan, Arun (Elsevier, 2018-12-20)
      Acoustic products are primarily designed for broadband acoustic absorption. However, frequency-dependent acoustic absorption featuring passive design-based solutions are necessary to combat the growing noise pollution. Accordingly, this research investigates the targeted creation of sound absorption as a function of geometry utilising the principle of Acoustic Interference (AI). A methodology to design freeform geometries that can create targeted acoustic absorption is presented. The effectiveness of this methodology is then experimentally validated while quantifying the influence of length, diameter and geometry orientation. The results establish that AI has the potential to create ‘near perfect’ sound absorption that can be customised depending on the source frequency. The design freedom revealed by this study allows the exploitation of freeform geometries as passive high-efficiency sound absorbing devices.
    • FGFR1 expression and role in migration in low and high grade pediatric gliomas

      Egbivwie, Naomi; Cockle, Julia V.; Humphries, Matthew; Ismail, Azzam; Esteves, Filomena; Taylor, Claire; Karakoula, Katherine; Morton, Ruth; Warr, Tracy; Short, Susan C.; Brüning-Richardson, Anke (Frontiers Media, 2019-03-13)
      The heterogeneous and invasive nature of pediatric gliomas poses significant treatment challenges, highlighting the importance of identifying novel chemotherapeutic targets. Recently, recurrent Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) mutations in pediatric gliomas have been reported. Here, we explored the clinical relevance of FGFR1 expression, cell migration in low and high grade pediatric gliomas and the role of FGFR1 in cell migration/invasion as a potential chemotherapeutic target. A high density tissue microarray (TMA) was used to investigate associations between FGFR1 and activated phosphorylated FGFR1 (pFGFR1) expression and various clinicopathologic parameters. Expression of FGFR1 and pFGFR1 were measured by immunofluorescence and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 3D spheroids in five rare patient-derived pediatric low-grade glioma (pLGG) and two established high-grade glioma (pHGG) cell lines. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) migration assays were performed for migration and inhibitor studies with three FGFR1 inhibitors. High FGFR1 expression was associated with age, malignancy, tumor location and tumor grade among astrocytomas. Membranous pFGFR1 was associated with malignancy and tumor grade. All glioma cell lines exhibited varying levels of FGFR1 and pFGFR1 expression and migratory phenotypes. There were significant anti-migratory effects on the pHGG cell lines with inhibitor treatment and anti-migratory or pro-migratory responses to FGFR1 inhibition in the pLGGs. Our findings support further research to target FGFR1 signaling in pediatric gliomas.
    • Why does the UK need a Human Taphonomy Facility?

      Williams, Anna; Rogers, Christopher James; Cassella, John (Elsevier, 2019-01-21)
      Human Taphonomy Facilities (HTFs) are outdoor laboratories where scientific research is carried out on donated human cadavers in order to understand how human decomposition progresses in a variety of conditions. There are currently eight such facilities in the USA, one in Australia and one on mainland Europe. Forensic scientists in the UK have started to ask the question ‘Does the UK need a Human Taphonomy Facility?’. A review of the literature produced by the existing HTFs, as well as published opinion and commentaries about these facilities and the feasibility of one in the UK has been undertaken. The existing arguments for and against the establishment of a Human Taphonomy Facility in the UK have been examined. Given recent media interest in the possibility of the establishment of a Human Taphonomy Facility in the UK, and the surrounding controversy, it is important to evaluate the potential benefit or harm of the creation of such a facility to Society and the scientific community.
    • New chemical engineering provision: Quality in diversity

      Tizaoui, Chedly; Campbell, Grant; Belton, Daniel; Triñanes, Pablo Garcia; Cox, Phil; Brown, David (Elsevier, 2019-03-05)
      Recent growth in chemical engineering student numbers has driven an increase in the number of UK universities offering the subject. The implications of this growth are described, along with the different challenges facing new providers in the UK compared with established departments. The approaches taken by the various new entrants are reviewed, with reference to recruitment strategies, infrastructure, the use of external facilities, and the particular flavours of chemical engineering being offered by the new providers. Information about the differentiating features of the large number of chemical engineering degree courses now available is somewhat indistinct: this should be rectified in the interests both of prospective students and of employers. Dilemmas facing new providers include the need to address the fundamentals of the subject as well as moving into more novel research-led areas; enabling students to develop the competencies to sustain them for a whole career as well as meeting immediate employer needs; and providing sufficient industry understanding when academics may lack substantial industrial experience. The central importance of practical provision and of the design project, and the approaches taken by new providers to deliver these components, are reviewed, together with the role of software tools in chemical engineering education, and measures to facilitate industry input into courses. As long as it is not used prescriptively or to inhibit innovation, the accreditation process provides constructive guidance and leverage for universities developing new chemical engineering programmes.
    • The way to analyse ‘way’: A case study in word-specific local grammar

      Hanks, Patrick; Može, Sara (Oxford Academic, 2019-02-11)
      Traditionally, dictionaries are meaning-driven—that is, they list different senses (or supposed senses) of each word, but do not say much about the phraseology that distinguishes one sense from another. Grammars, on the other hand, are structure-driven: they attempt to describe all possible structures of a language, but say little about meaning, phraseology, or collocation. In both disciplines during the 20th century, the practice of inventing evidence rather than discovering it led to intermittent and unpredictable distortions of fact. Since 1987, attempts have been made in both lexicography (Cobuild) and syntactic theory (pattern grammar, construction grammar) to integrate meaning and phraseology. Corpora now provide empirical evidence on a large scale for lexicosyntactic description, but there is still a long way to go. Many cherished beliefs must be abandoned before a synthesis between empirical lexical analysis and grammatical theory can be achieved. In this paper, by empirical analysis of just one word (the noun way), we show how corpus evidence can be used to tackle the complexities of lexical and constructional meaning, providing new insights into the lexis-grammar interface.
    • An interpretative phenomenological analysis investigation into the subjective experience of being diagnosed with dyslexia in adulthood

      Njoku, Chinenye (2018-04-01)
      A large number of adults remain unaware that the difficulties they encounter may be related to dyslexia. Diagnosing dyslexia in adulthood may provide the means to reasonable accommodation to help in areas of difficulties but may also impact on the individual’s sense of self. To date, little research attention has been paid to idiographic experiences of adulthood diagnosis of dyslexia and subsequent adjustment issues related to the diagnosis. The aim of this study is to develop indepth understandings on subjective conceptualisations, meaning making and adjustments issues to the experience of adulthood diagnosis of dyslexia. Semistructured interviews were conducted with seven individuals diagnosed with dyslexia in adulthood to explore this experience. Interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) from which five superordinate themes emerged: ‘De-constructing the past to make sense of the present’, ‘Roller coaster of emotions to dyslexia and diagnosis’, ‘Stigma, stereotypes and stereotypical attitudes towards dyslexics’, ‘The Paradox of self-disclosure’ and ‘Support following dyslexia diagnosis’. These superordinate themes, with their associated subordinate themes, are expanded into a narrative account of adults’ experiences. The findings revealed that adulthood diagnosis of dyslexia entailed a range of experiential processes that culminated to ‘identity transformation’. These findings can help in deepening understandings of the effect of adult dyslexia diagnosis on identity; contribute to existing practices in counselling psychology, educational institutions and employment agencies providing supportive services for individuals with dyslexia. Keywords: Dyslexia, dyslexia diagnosis, adulthood, adult dyslexia, dyslexic experience, diagnosing dyslexia in adults, dyslexia disclosure, dyslexia and impact and dyslexia support.
    • The cytotoxicity and synergistic potential of aspirin and aspirin analogues towards oesophageal and colorectal cancer

      Kilari, R.S.; Bashir, A.I.J.; Devitt, A.; Perry, C.J.; Safrany, C.J.; Nicholl, Iain D. (Bentham, 2018-11-12)
      BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer (OC) is a deadly cancer because of its aggressive nature with survival rates that have barely improved in decades. Epidemiologic studies have shown that low-dose daily intake of aspirin can decrease the incidence of OC. METHODS: The toxicity of aspirin and aspirin derivatives to OC and a colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line were investigated in the presence and absence of platins. RESULTS: The data in this study show the effects of a number of aspirin analogues and aspirin on OC cell lines that originally presented as squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC). The aspirin analogues fumaryldiaspirin (PN517) and the benzoylsalicylates (PN524, PN528 and PN529), were observed to be more toxic against the OC cell lines than aspirin. Both quantitative and qualitative apoptosis experiments reveal that these compounds largely induce apoptosis, although some necrosis was evident with PN528 and PN529. Failure to recover following the treatment with these analogues emphasized that these drugs are largely cytotoxic in nature. The OE21 (SSC) and OE33 (ADC) cell lines were more sensitive to the aspirin analogues compared to the Flo-1 cell line (ADC). A non-cancerous oesophageal primary cells NOK2101, was used to determine the specificity of the aspirin analogues and cytotoxicity assays revealed that analogues PN528 and PN529 were selectively toxic to cancer cell lines, whereas PN508, PN517 and PN524 also induced cell death in NOK2101. In combination index testing synergistic interactions of the most promising compounds, including aspirin, with cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin against the OE33 cell line and the SW480 CRC cell line were investigated. Compounds PN517 and PN524, and to a lesser extent PN528, synergised with cisplatin against OE33 cells. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin synergised with aspirin and PN517 when tested against the SW480 cell line. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate the potential and limitations of aspirin and aspirin analogues as chemotherapeutic agents against OC and CRC when combined with platins.
    • Emotional intelligence in binge eating disorder among the obese population

      Gnanaiah, Raj (2019-02-10)
      This research sought to investigate several differences between obese individuals with a Binge Eating Disorder (BED-O) and obese individuals without a Binge Eating Disorder (Non-BED-O). The first focus was on investigating whether these two groups of participants have differing levels of (a) the global Emotional Intelligence (EI) trait and its constituting dimensions, (b) the engagement in overeating behaviours (i.e., Emotional, External, and Restrained Eating), and (c) the engagement in different Coping styles. The research further sought to establish whether the global EI trait and its constituting dimensions predict the engagement in overeating behaviours, and whether coping styles mediate this relationship after controlling for depression scores. The sample consisted of 109 individuals who were recruited at a diabetic clinic in Wales. Sixteen participants (14.7%) were classified as BED-O and 90 participants (82.6%) as non-BED-O. Results revealed that BED-O and non-BED-O participants did not differ on global EI scores, although there were some differences on certain constructs and dimensions of EI. BED-O group displayed lower levels of the self-control construct and higher levels of the sociality construct. This group also had lower levels on the dimensions of self-esteem, emotional regulation, stress management, and higher levels of impulsivity, emotional management, and social awareness. BED-O individuals were also found to engage in more emotional, external, and restrained eating. Emotional eating was predicted by global EI trait and self-control; external eating by self- control; and restrained eating by emotionality and emotion regulation. BED-O individuals were additionally found to engage in less adaptive coping, more emotional coping, and less rational and detached coping when compared to Non-BED-O individuals. Finally, adaptive and maladaptive coping scores were found to mediate the relationship between global EI trait and emotional eating, after controlling for depression scores. The obtained findings are discussed in relation to both the literature and practice.
    • Exploring the mental health help-seeking experiences of British South Asian women and using these findings in the development of an intervention

      Ashiq, Mehmoona (2017-05-01)
      Research has shown that a high number of South Asian people suffer with mental health problems and that South Asian women specifically, are at high risk of attempting self -harm or suicide. However, there seems to be a low uptake of the mainstream services offered by the South Asian community as a whole, compared to their white counterparts. Furthermore, the existing literature in this area is scarce and focuses on identifying barriers that South Asian women face in accessing help. This mixed methods study explored the mental health help seeking experiences of British born South Asian women. For the first part of the study, six (N=six) women who had successfully accessed therapy were interviewed and the qualitative data was analysed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) framework for thematic analysis. The main superordinate themes identified included: therapy as a positive experience, perseverance and persistence, need to know basis, fears about being judged, the need for more publicising and awareness, recovery as an ongoing process, medical professionals needing to be more proactive, developing autonomy and putting your own needs first, developing understanding and the importance of the first step. Various subordinate themes were identified for some of these main superordinate themes. The second part of this study involved delivering a psycho educational workshop (which was partly based on the qualitative data generated in the first part of the study) to a group of South Asian women (N=25). Their attitude towards help seeking was measured before, immediately after and four weeks after the workshop using Fischer and Farina’s (1995) Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale. An ANOVA Test indicated a statistically significant difference in attitudes to help seeking before, immediately after and four weeks after the workshop. This study helped to get a better understanding of the experiences of a marginalised group and demonstrated how such information can be used to develop new and innovative interventions that can be used with a client group that appear to have low levels of engagement with and referral to mental health services.
    • Effects of lexical properties on viewing time per word in autistic and neurotypical readers

      Štajner, Sanja; Yaneva, Victoria; Mitkov, Ruslan; Ponzetto, Simone Paolo (Association of Computational Linguistics, 2017-09-08)
      Eye tracking studies from the past few decades have shaped the way we think of word complexity and cognitive load: words that are long, rare and ambiguous are more difficult to read. However, online processing techniques have been scarcely applied to investigating the reading difficulties of people with autism and what vocabulary is challenging for them. We present parallel gaze data obtained from adult readers with autism and a control group of neurotypical readers and show that the former required higher cognitive effort to comprehend the texts as evidenced by three gaze-based measures. We divide all words into four classes based on their viewing times for both groups and investigate the relationship between longer viewing times and word length, word frequency, and four cognitively-based measures (word concreteness, familiarity, age of acquisition and imagability).
    • Classifying referential and non-referential it using gaze

      Yaneva, Victoria; Ha, Le An; Evans, Richard; Mitkov, Ruslan (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2018-10-31)
      When processing a text, humans and machines must disambiguate between different uses of the pronoun it, including non-referential, nominal anaphoric or clause anaphoric ones. In this paper, we use eye-tracking data to learn how humans perform this disambiguation. We use this knowledge to improve the automatic classification of it. We show that by using gaze data and a POS-tagger we are able to significantly outperform a common baseline and classify between three categories of it with an accuracy comparable to that of linguisticbased approaches. In addition, the discriminatory power of specific gaze features informs the way humans process the pronoun, which, to the best of our knowledge, has not been explored using data from a natural reading task.
    • The reading background of Goodreads book club members: A female fiction canon?

      Thelwall, Mike; Bourrier, Karen (Emerald, 2019-12-31)
      Purpose - Despite the social, educational and therapeutic benefits of book clubs, little is known about which books participants are likely to have read. In response, this article investigates the public bookshelves of those that have joined a group within the Goodreads social network site. Design/methodology/approach – Books listed as read by members of fifty large English language Goodreads groups - with a genre focus or other theme - were compiled by author and title. Findings – Recent and youth-oriented fiction dominate the fifty books most read by book club members, while almost half are works of literature frequently taught at the secondary and postsecondary level (literary classics). Whilst JK Rowling is almost ubiquitous (at least 63% as frequently listed as other authors in any group, including groups for other genres), most authors, including Shakespeare (15%), Goulding (6%) and Hemmingway (9%), are little read by some groups. Nor are individual recent literary prize-winners or works in languages other than English frequently read. Research limitations/implications – Although these results are derived from a single popular website, knowing more about what book club members are likely to have read should help participants, organisers and moderators. For example, recent literary prize winners might be a good choice, given that few members may have read them. Originality/value – This is the first large scale study of book group members’ reading patterns. Whilst typical reading is likely to vary by group theme and average age, there seems to be a mainly female canon of about 14 authors and 19 books that Goodreads book club members are likely to have read.
    • Can Google Scholar and Mendeley help to assess the scholarly impacts of dissertations?

      Kousha, Kayvan; Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2019-03-11)
      Dissertations can be the single most important scholarly outputs of junior researchers. Whilst sets of journal articles are often evaluated with the help of citation counts from the Web of Science or Scopus, these do not index dissertations and so their impact is hard to assess. In response, this article introduces a new multistage method to extract Google Scholar citation counts for large collections of dissertations from repositories indexed by Google. The method was used to extract Google Scholar citation counts for 77,884 American doctoral dissertations from 2013 to 2017 via ProQuest, with a precision of over 95%. Some ProQuest dissertations that were dual indexed with other repositories could not be retrieved with ProQuest-specific searches but could be found with Google Scholar searches of the other repositories. The Google Scholar citation counts were then compared with Mendeley reader counts, a known source of scholarly-like impact data. A fifth of the dissertations had at least one citation recorded in Google Scholar and slightly fewer had at least one Mendeley reader. Based on numerical comparisons, the Mendeley reader counts seem to be more useful for impact assessment purposes for dissertations that are less than two years old, whilst Google Scholar citations are more useful for older dissertations, especially in social sciences, arts and humanities. Google Scholar citation counts may reflect a more scholarly type of impact than that of Mendeley reader counts because dissertations attract a substantial minority of their citations from other dissertations. In summary, the new method now makes it possible for research funders, institutions and others to systematically evaluate the impact of dissertations, although additional Google Scholar queries for other online repositories are needed to ensure comprehensive coverage.
    • The Future of Company Voluntary Arrangements – practical recommendations to the Joint Insolvency Committee

      Walton, Peter (Butterworths, 2019-12-31)
      During 2017 and 2018 the author co-produced a research report commissioned by R3 and supported by the ICAEW which looked in some depth at the workings of Company Voluntary Arrangements (CVAs).1 The purposes of the report were to analyse how CVAs operate in practice and to identify issues which might inform Government policy and matters which might be addressed in an updated Statement of Insolvency Practice 3.22 (SIP 3.2). SIP 3.2 is produced and updated by the Joint Insolvency Committee. This article concentrates on the principal findings of the report relevant to those issues which might be addressed in an updated SIP 3.2.3