Now showing items 21-40 of 4994

    • Getting involved in the community—What stops us? Findings from an inclusive research project

      Mooney, F; Rafique, N; Tilly, L (Wiley, 2019-07-08)
      © 2019 John Wiley & Sons Ltd Feeling alone and not connected to other people where you live affects many people and especially people with a learning disability. The government and the newspapers are talking a lot about this, they want to understand who is affected and what can be done. Our group did a research project to find out some of the things that stop us getting involved in local places with local people where we can make and keep friends. The people in the research project mainly lived independently and did not use learning disability services, so needed to use local community organisations. Pictorial cards, made by one of the group members, using photographs were used to sort out all the things we talked about into groups. These included transport, fear and anxiety, limits on our choice and control, risks and personal safety. We then talked about what could be done, this included more easy read information, so people know what is available locally, more support to go to places and advocacy to get involved. There also needs to be better community safety including more Safe Places in the community. Abstract: Background Social isolation is an issue that affects many people and especially people with a learning disability. There is an association between social exclusion and feeling lonely, an issue currently highlighted as a growing concern which needs to be addressed both in the media and by the government. Methods The Building Bridges Research Group do inclusive research projects about the issues that are important to them. Over the summer of 2018, the research group undertook an inclusive research project to identify some of the specific barriers that prevent community inclusion and the opportunity to develop friends. The people involved mainly lived independently and did not use learning disability services, with the exception of evening clubs, so needed to use universal services. Results Pictorial cards, made by one of the group, using photographs were used to organise the data into themes. These included transport, fear and anxiety, limits on choice and control, risks and personal safety. Conclusion The inclusive research design enabled people with a learning disability to contribute to all stages of the research project, from identifying the issue, gathering data, the analysis and writing up. They also made suggestions of ways to increase social networks, friendships and well-being and so decrease loneliness. These include more access to easy read information, more support and advocacy and measures to address community safety including a wider roll-out of the Safe Places scheme. There also needs to be further research undertaken with other people with a learning disability in different areas to widen the understanding of the impact of these barriers on people's lives.
    • ‘Will you walk into our parlour?’: The rise of leagues and their impact on the governance of women’s hockey in England 1895-1939

      Williams, Jean; Porter, Dilwyn; Leflay, Kath; Halpin, Joanne (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-05)
      One of the main aims of this thesis is to supplement and further develop the very sparse body of academic work on hockey, and on women's hockey in particular. Despite being the premier team game for women and girls in England for much of the 20th century – as well as popular with men – the sport has been under-researched by historians. Another aim is to explore how the concept of amateurism influenced, and was moulded by, a team sport played by women. Much has been written about the ethos within British sport, but mostly in relation to men’s athletic pursuits. The AEWHA’s unique position as the first sport governing body in England to be run exclusively by women allows this thesis to redress the balance and offer a female-centric view of amateurism. By focusing on an aspect of hockey in England that has not been explored before – the emergence of women’s league competitions and their impact on the governance of the sport up to World War Two – this thesis makes a valuable contribution to our understanding of the philosophy. It chronicles the foundation of the Lancashire and District Ladies’ Hockey League (LHL) in 1910 and the reaction to this competition of the All England Women’s Hockey Association (AEWHA), which banned its members from taking part in leagues or playing for cups. The uneasy and constantly evolving relationship between those who wished to uphold these amateur ideals and those who wished to compete for points and prizes will be examined over three decades up to 1939. This thesis will posit that – in common with many other sport governing bodies – the AEWHA’s interest in, and attitude towards, leagues and amateurism changed according to its own particular needs. Unlike any other (male-run) governing body, however, its sustained resistance to competitive hockey was less to do with class differences and increasingly to do with a desire to prevent male administrators from being involved in women’s hockey. In support of this overarching narrative, this thesis will take a fresh look at the origins of the AEWHA, and a first look at the emergence of a rival governing body for women’s hockey in England – the English Ladies’ Hockey Leagues Association (ELHLA). New biographical information about many of the members and early administrators of both organisations will be revealed, in support of another aim of this work: to give a profile to women who played a significant role in the history of sport. As well their athletic achievements, this thesis will touch upon hockey players’ involvement in the war effort from 1914- 1918, and their support for the campaign for women’s suffrage. It will also examine the interconnections between women’s and men’s hockey, both nationally and internationally. As an amateur team game of significance to both sexes, hockey is well placed to inform the debates on gender and class in sport – but, surprisingly, it has attracted very little attention from academics. It is hoped that the wealth of new information in this thesis, and the fresh perspective it offers on amateurism, will prompt further research into hockey’s history and the lives of the women and men who played it.
    • In word and deed I am revealed – The subject as teacher in Further Education

      Smith, Rob; Devlin, Linda; Wilde, Julie A. (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-09)
      This thesis centres on a research study into the lived experiences of beginning teachers in Further Education (FE) in England. The study is contextualised by initial teacher education (ITE) in FE. The theoretical concepts underpinning the study derive from Hannah Arendt’s (1958) theory of action. Arendt’s (1958) ‘The Human Condition’ is employed as a basis for discussion and exploration alongside Biesta’s (2013) work on the three domains for the purpose of education. It is widely researched that politically discursive practices and market principles undermine educational values and relationships (Ball 2003, 2016, Coffield 2017, Daley et al 2018). Initially it seems that policy based on marketisation, management and performativity leave no space for an autonomous self (Ball 2003, Daley et al 2018). By using Arendtian theory, this perspective will be explored. A narrative case study derived from a patchwork text approach (PWT) was employed to explore six full time, pre-service PGCE student teachers’ storied experiences of becoming a teacher in FE. The findings from the study illustrate that the participants’ stories identify rifts in the ability to negotiate their subjectification and their emergent pedagogical praxis. A variety of strategies are employed to mediate their worldly views and teaching practices whilst undertaking a PGCE course and during their first year in employment in FE. The study suggests that the beginning teachers value the PGCE classroom experience as a safe space for collaboration and exploration in making sense of the politically discursive nature of FE and their own emerging pedagogical praxis. The beginning teachers’ experience also shows how socialisation into FE, away from the condition of natality (the opportunity to begin a new through initiative), demands a greater expectation to perform according to policy based initiatives albeit through complex human interactions and relational contexts. This dynamic relationship impedes opportunities to negotiate and mediate own judgments informing and initiating subjective actions. Interestingly, the beginning teachers in this study also showed how they provide the condition of natality in their classrooms. It seems that these spaces, within the closed doors of the classroom, offer the opportunities for beginning teachers to appear as subjects of action in ‘word and deed’ (Arendt 1958).
    • Engineering composite particles to overcome the poor pharmaceutical performance of paracetamol

      Kaialy, Waseem; Rose, Ayuk Agbor (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-04)
      Tablets are the most common solid dosage forms because of their several advantages including the ease of administration, precise dosing, ease of manufacturing, good product stability in comparison to liquids, and tamper–proofness in comparison to capsules. Direct compression is the favoured smart choice for tablet manufacturing. The advantages of direct compression: include simplicity, reduced time and the final cost of the product due to fewer processing stages, continuous nature, and elimination of heat and moisture effects, making direct compression an appropriate process for hygroscopic and thermo–sensitive materials. However, it is unfortunate that only less than ~20% of pharmaceutical powders can be compressed into tablets by direct compression due to their inherent poor functional properties required for direct compression. The situation is particularly severe when a high dose of a poorly compactible drug such as paracetamol must be used. Paracetamol is a widely used analgesic drug. The monoclinic form is usually selected in the pharmaceutical industry and is the commercially available form because it is thermodynamically stable at room temperature and pressure. However, the monoclinic form of paracetamol is notorious for exhibiting poor tableting properties by direct compression, reduced plastic deformation during compression, commonly resulting in fragile tablets with a high propensity to cap. This work commences by providing insights into how, current and innovative processing techniques, parameters (milling time, temperature and solvents), and the combination of drugs and/or excipient impact the mechanical properties of paracetamol. The mechanical properties were investigated by applying blending, freeze drying, milling, batch cooling crystallisation, solvent evaporation and cocrystals formation, while, modifying the physicochemical structure of paracetamol crystals to improve tabletability was the rationale. The modified particles, with the desired behaviour acquired, were characterised using FT−IR, PXRD, laser diffraction, SEM, DSC, TGA, Water absorption profile, flowability, stability, content uniformity, dissolution and tabletability. Tabletabilty data demonstrated an immerse enhancement in the drug’s tensile strength upon processing using different blending energy (~8 folds) and preparation techniques (~11 folds), various freezing temperatures (~12 folds) with the polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone using various drugs such as Ibuprofen (~5 folds), aspirin and caffeine (~9 folds), Curcumin (~9 folds) chondroitin sulphate A (~11 folds) and cocrystals with the coformer 5–Nitroisophthalic acid (~12 folds). Regardless, of the co–processing techniques applied with paracetamol in the presence of other drugs and excipient, there was an improvement of the tablettabililty of paracetamol in comparison to the drug alone. In conclusion, the co–engineering of poorly compactable model drug chosen paracetamol with other drugs and excipient influenced the mechanical properties of paracetamol without changes in crystallinity and polymorphic structure.
    • Implementation of smart devices in the construction industry

      Renukappa, Suresh; Silverio Fernández, Manuel Alexander (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-10)
      The construction industry has a fragmented nature, which accounts for the highest degree of decentralisation of information and the highest mobile content access. The exchange of information made possible by smart devices. This creates an opportunity to enhance productivity and communication among stakeholders of the construction industry. Firstly, this thesis explored the concept of smart devices. Secondly, the drivers, challenges and Critical Success Factors for implementing smart devices were investigated. This study adopted a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews. A total of Thirty-nine interviewees which includes professionals from the construction sector of the Dominican Republic (DR) and the United Kingdom (UK) were interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the collected data. The drivers for the adoption of smart devices were grouped into internal and external drivers. The challenges found in the interviews were grouped into three categories, namely, economic, cultural and technological. The Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for implementing smart devices in the construction industry are leadership, training and development, organisational culture, technology awareness, cost, company size and usability. These findings were used to develop a strategic framework which has two sub-frameworks. This study concluded that a specific culture must be adopted on behalf of the government and construction companies to successfully adopt smart devices. Furthermore, this investigation found various similarities and differences regarding the drivers, challenges and CSFs for implementing smart devices in the UK and the DR. This study recommends integrating smart devices in data collection techniques in academia. Also, for construction companies to embrace technological innovation it is recommended to be willing to start new ventures, to be open to the participation of all members of the company, and be creative and client-oriented.
    • Evaluation of renewable energy strategies in the Dominican Republic

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Sosa, Angelines Daihana Donastorg (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-10)
      Dominican Republic electricity sector has been in crisis for decades, because of the ageing grid system, technical and nontechnical losses and the dependency of around 85% of its electricity from fossil fuel. However, the situation in the Dominican Republic is contradicting; the country has high renewable energy potential for generation, the international support, aid and funds, the willingness of the private sector, and the 57-07 law for incentives for renewable energy projects yet out of 200 renewable projects approved only 4 have been successfully implemented and are in operation. Why did so many projects fail? Why has the country had so difficulties making the transition? Those were some of the questions that drove this research. To answer those questions an exploratory qualitative research was undertaken with a pragmatism ideology at its core, due to the lack of documentation on the subject. The research focused on the energy sector especially electricity from renewable sources. To understand the environment for renewables in the country and lack of success in the area twenty-five key stakeholders representing the renewable sector in the country were chosen and through purpose and snowball sampling were interviewed in a semi-structured manner, as to allow for the participants to express the knowledge they possess. Through the literature review and the content and interpretive structural modelling analysis of the interviews, key drivers, challenges, critical success factors, benefits, financial tools and business model were identified, and their interlinking relationship was discovered. This identification and interconnectivity of the parameters aid in the creation of a successful framework for the implementation of renewable energy projects in the country, that could be used be the private and public sector of the country, the auto producers and local and international investors, which was the aim of the research.
    • Evaluating critical success factors for implementing renewable energy strategies in the Dominican Republic

      Suresh, Subashini; Renukappa, Suresh; Donastorg, Angelines (Elsevier, 2019-12-12)
      Global awareness and commitment, in regards to climate change, access to water and renewable energy deployment has risen in the last decade. However, many countries are still locked in unsustainable practices, specifically in regards to energy, this results in damaging consequences not just for the country but the world. Case in point of the Dominican Republic (DR), an island with an immense renewable energy potential, a growing economy and the financial aid of many international entities. Regardless of all this, “the business as usual” decision for the energy strategies is based on fossil foil. As a result, thousands of people are still without energy, the infrastructure itself is unreliable, and the cost of fossil fuel is 6-8% of the country’s GDP. The country also suffers from blackouts, the expensive tariff and unstable energy grid. Therefore, this paper discusses and critically evaluates critical success factors (CSF) for implementing renewable energy strategies in the DR. For this purpose, an extensive literature review was done, along with 25 interviews with the key actors in the renewable energy market of the DR, that were analysed using content analysis and ISM method. These methods provided insight into 6 CSF. These CFS aid the stakeholder’s in the creation and growth of the RE market in the DR.
    • The relationship between vitamin D levels, injury and muscle function in adolescent dancers

      de Rezende Araújo, Iris Iasmine; Sampaio, Lucas Henrique Ferreira; Bittar, Adriano Jabur; da Silva Hamu, Tânia Cristina Dias; Wyon, Matthew; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto (Thieme, 2020-03-31)
      Vitamin D has been shown to benefit a diverse range of health functions including muscle function. The aim of the present study was to identify serum 25(OH)D3 levels in a sample of adolescent dancers and compare them to muscle function and injury incidence. We incorporated a cross-sectional design to study 49 pre-professional male and female dancers (17±4.44yrs, 52.1±6.72kg, 1.63±0.07m) in full-time training in Brazil. Serum 25[OH]D3 was analyzed by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay; quadriceps and hamstring peak torque and muscle fatigue were measured by isokinetic dynamometer at 60 and 300° s-1. Injury type and location in the previous 6- months were determined by self-report questionnaire. Participants were categorized into 2 groups: normal or insufficient/deficient (>or<30 ng/ml 25[OH]D3). Results indicated the normal serum 25[OH]D3 group had significantly lower fatigue rates than the insufficient/deficient group (p<0.05) but not for the other muscle function parameters. Fifty-seven percent of participants reported at least 1 injury. The most common were sprains (33%) and tendinopathies (19%). Injured dancers had significantly lower peak torque at 60°/s. The link between serum 25[OH]D3 and reduced muscle fatigue resistance has not been shown before, though the underlying mechanisms aren’t apparent and the link between muscular strength and injury has been previously evidenced.
    • The visual non-verbal memory trace is fragile when actively maintained but endures passively for tens of seconds

      McKeown, Denis; Mercer, Thomas; Bugajska, Kinga; Duffy, Paul; Barker, Emma (Springer Nature, 2019-12-23)
      Despite attempts at active maintenance in the focus of attention, the rather fragile nature of the visual non-verbal memory trace may be revealed when the retention interval between target memoranda and probed recall on a trial is extended. In contrast, a passively maintained, or unattended visual memory trace may be revealed as persisting proactive interference extending across quite extended intervals between trials in a recent probes task. The present study, comprising five experiments, used this task to explore the persistence of such a passive visual memory trace over time. Participants viewed some target visual items (for example, abstract colored patterns) followed by a variable retention interval and a probe item. The task was to report whether the probe matched one of the targets or not. A decaying active memory trace was indicated by poorer performance as the memory retention interval was extended on a trial. However, when the probe was a member of the target set from the preceding trial, task performance was poorer than a comparison novel probe, demonstrating proactive interference. Manipulations of the inter-trial interval revealed that the temporal persistence of the passive memory trace of an old target was impressive, and proactive interference was largely resilient to a simple ‘cued forgetting’ manipulation. These data support the proposed two-process memory conception (active-passive memory) contrasting fragile active memory traces decaying over a few seconds with robust passive traces extending to tens of seconds.
    • Iron therapy for preoperative anaemia

      Ng, Oliver; Keeler, Barrie D; Mishra, Amitabh; Simpson, JA; Neal, Keith; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Brookes, Matthew J; Acheson, Austin G (Wiley, 2019-12-07)
      Preoperative anaemia is common and occurs in 5% to 76% of patients preoperatively. It is associated with an increased risk of perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion, longer hospital stay, and increased morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is one of the most common causes of anaemia. Oral and intravenous iron therapy can be used to treat anaemia. Parenteral iron preparations have been shown to be more effective in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, chronic heart failure and postpartum haemorrhage due to rapid correction of iron stores. A limited number of studies has investigated iron therapy for the treatment of preoperative anaemia. The aim of this Cochrane Review is to summarise the evidence for iron supplementation, both enteral and parenteral, for the management of preoperative anaemia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of preoperative iron therapy (enteral or parenteral) in reducing the need for allogeneic blood transfusions in anaemic patients undergoing surgery. Search methods We ran the search on 30 July 2018. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In‐Process & Other Non‐Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), Embase Classic and Embase (Ovid), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), PubMed, and clinical trials registries, and we screened reference lists. We ran a top‐up search on 28 November 2019; one study is now awaiting classification. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared preoperative iron monotherapy to placebo, no treatment, standard care or another form of iron therapy for anaemic adults undergoing surgery. We defined anaemia as haemoglobin values less than 13 g/dL for males and 12 g/dL for non‐pregnant females. Data collection and analysis Two review authors collected data and a third review author checked all collected data. Data were collected on the proportion of patients who receive a blood transfusion, the amount of blood transfused per patient (units), quality of life, ferritin levels and haemoglobin levels, measured as continuous variables at the following predetermined time points: pretreatment (baseline), preoperatively but postintervention, and postoperatively. We performed statistical analysis using the Cochrane software, Review Manager 5. We summarised outcome data in tables and forest plots. We used the GRADE approach to describe the quality of the body of evidence. Main results Six RCTs, with a total of 372 participants, evaluated preoperative iron therapy to correct anaemia before planned surgery. Four studies compared iron therapy (either oral (one study) or intravenous (three studies)) with no treatment, placebo or usual care, and two studies compared intravenous iron therapy with oral iron therapy. Iron therapy was delivered over a range of periods that varied from 48 hours to three weeks prior to surgery. The 372 participants in our analysis fall far short of the 819 required ‐ as calculated by our information size calculation ‐ to detect a 30% reduction in blood transfusions. Five trials, involving 310 people, reported the proportion of participants who received allogeneic blood transfusions. Meta‐analysis of iron therapy versus placebo or standard care showed no difference in the proportion of participants who received a blood transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.70; 4 studies, 200 participants; moderate‐quality evidence). Only one study that compared oral versus intravenous iron therapy measured this outcome, and reported no difference in risk of transfusion between groups. There was no difference between the iron therapy and placebo/standard care groups for haemoglobin level preoperatively at the end of the intervention (mean difference (MD) 0.63 g/dL, 95% CI ‐0.07 to 1.34; 2 studies, 83 participants; low‐quality evidence). However, intravenous iron therapy produced an increase in preoperative postintervention haemoglobin levels compared with oral iron (MD 1.23 g/dL, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.65; 2 studies, 172 participants; low‐quality evidence). Ferritin levels were increased by intravenous iron, both when compared to standard care ((MD 149.00, 95% CI 25.84 to 272.16; 1 study, 63 participants; low‐quality evidence) or to oral iron (MD 395.03 ng/mL, 95% CI 227.72 to 562.35; 2 studies, 151 participants; low‐quality evidence). Not all studies measured quality of life, short‐term mortality or postoperative morbidity. Some measured the outcomes, but did not report the data, and the studies which did report the data were underpowered. Therefore, uncertainty remains regarding these outcomes. The inclusion of new research in the future is very likely to change these results. Authors' conclusions The use of iron therapy for preoperative anaemia does not show a clinically significant reduction in the proportion of trial participants who received an allogeneic blood transfusion compared to no iron therapy. Results for intravenous iron are consistent with a greater increase in haemoglobin and ferritin when compared to oral iron, but do not provide reliable evidence. These conclusions are drawn from six studies, three of which included very small numbers of participants. Further, well‐designed, adequately powered, RCTs are required to determine the true effectiveness of iron therapy for preoperative anaemia. Two studies are currently in progress, and will include 1500 randomised participants.
    • Electronic regulation of data sharing and processing using smart ledger technologies for supply-chain security

      Epiphaniou, Gregory; Pillai, Prashant; Bottarelli, Mirko; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Hammoudeh, Mohammad; Maple, Carsten (IEEE, 2020-03-31)
      Traditional centralised data storage and processing solutions manifest limitations with regards to overall operational cost and the security and auditability of data. One of the biggest issues with existing solutions is the difficulty of keeping track of who has had access to the data and how the data may have changed over its lifetime; while providing a secure and easyto-use mechanism to share the data between different users. The ability to electronically regulate data sharing within and across different organisational entities in the supply-chain (SC), is an open issue, that is only addressed partially by existing legal and regulatory compliance frameworks. In this work, we present Cydon, a decentralised data management platform that executes bespoke distributed applications utilising a novel search and retrieve algorithm leveraging metadata attributes. Cydon utilises a smart distributed ledger to offer an immutable audit trail and transaction history for all different levels of data access and modification within a SC and for all data flows within the environment. Results suggest that Cydon provides authorised and fast access to secure distributed data, avoids single points of failure by securely distributing encrypted data across different nodes while maintains an "always-on" chain of custody.
    • Effect of nano-Al2O3 addition on the microstructure and erosion wear of HVOF sprayed NiCrSiB coatings

      Praveen, AS; Arjunan, Arun (IOP Publishing, 2019-12-09)
      Development of nanostructured high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings with low porosity, high strength and increased wear resistance is still in its infancy. Combining nanoparticles with conventional microscale powders are increasingly being investigated to use with feedstock materials for thermal spray processes. Accordingly, this work investigates the addition of nano-Al2O3 particles on the microstructure and erosion wear of NiCrSiB HVOF coating in a stainless steel (AISI 304) substrate. Particle analysis of the NiCrSiB feedstock was conducted and the maximum allowable addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles have been identified using the 'mass mixture ratio' model considering both the particle size and density. Consequently, two cases are considered and their performance analysed: a maximum allowable case of 1.4 wt%, followed by a 0.17 wt% addition of nano-Al2O3 with NiCrSiB. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis were employed to inform the microstructure, material composition and phase spectrum of the resulting coatings. Subsequently, the nanostructured coating was exposed to both a pull-off adhesion strength test and hot air jet (450 °C) hard particle erosion to characterise its performance. It was found that the microhardness of the HVOF NiCrSiB coating improved from 576 HV0.3 to 748 HV0.3 with the addition of 1.4 wt% nano-Al2O3. Furthermore, the nanostructured coating also exhibited high erosion resistance at a 90° erodent impact angle. The increase in erosion wear resistance was due to the increase in the hardness as a result of the nano-Al2O3 addition.
    • Emerging adulthood: ‘Identity crisis’ of a forgotten generation?

      Wilson, J. Chen; Nicholls, Wendy; Platt, Tracey; Gillbanks, Natalie (University of Wolverhampton, 2019)
      Emerging adults are defined by Arnett’s (2000) theory as between the ages of 18-25 with five main features of this developmental period; identity exploration, instability, self-focus, feeling “in-between” and possibilities (Arnett, 2006; Cote, 2014). There is contention within the literature about whether emerging adulthood can be seen as a separate part of the lifespan and be generalised from a student population to across different cultures. There are also concerns about how emerging adults cope with the difficult identity and role transition processes during this period with many thought to turn to health risk behaviours such as using alcohol and drugs in order to cope. The aim of the current study was to see whether the notion of Emerging adulthood can be applicable to young adults in the UK. Another aim of this study was to explore the extent to which emerging adulthood themes would have an impact upon their well-being and health risk behaviour. A total of 227 UK citizens aged between 18 and 29 were recruited In this study. Participants were asked to fill out demographic information and eight questionnaires which included the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA), Dimensions of Identity Scale (DIDS), Alcohol use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Frequency of Drug use (FOD) and Youth Behaviour and Risk Scale (YBRS), Psychological well-being scale (PWS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAADS) and Self-Esteem Scale (SES). A total of 9 hierarchical regressions were used as the analysis to test the current hypotheses. Results showed that the participants in the current UK sample identified with emerging adulthood themes. However, several of these increased with age and did therefore did not support emerging adulthood as a separate part of the lifespan. There was no significant difference between students and non-students across all scales suggesting emerging adulthood themes were experienced similarly across these two groups. Also as previously found those who explored their identity in a ruminative style or re-evaluated their identity had poorer outcomes. These results suggest that explorations into what distinguishes these emerging adults categorically from other lifespan phases is not as informative as examining the process of how they conduct their identity exploration process to promote positive wellbeing.
    • UK landscape ecology: trends and perspectives from the first 25 years of ialeUK

      Young, Christopher; Bellamy, Chloe; Burton, Vanessa; Griffiths, Geoff; Metzger, Marc J; Neumann, Jessica; Porter, Jonathan; Millington, James DA (Springer Nature, 2019-12-03)
      Context The 25th anniversary of the founding of the UK chapter of the International Association for Landscape Ecology (ialeUK) was marked in 2017. Objectives To assess trends in UK landscape ecology research over ialeUK’s first 25 years, to compare these trends to changes elsewhere in the world, and to consider how ialeUK can continue to support landscape ecology research and practice. Methods A database of conference abstracts was compiled and examined in combination with a questionnaire that surveyed existing and former active members of ialeUK. Results Across 1992–2017 we observe noticeable trends including the declining roles of statutory bodies, the development of the ecosystem services concept, and a decrease in use of empirical methods. Analysis of questionnaire results highlighted four key areas: Developing new researchers; Facilitating conferences for networking, learning and discussion; Linking policy with practice; and Driving the continued growth of landscape ecology as a discipline. Challenges were also noted, especially regarding the adoption of a wider understanding of landscape ecological principles in management. Conclusions Increases in qualitative research, decreases in studies explicitly examining connectivity/fragmentation and an absence of landscape genetics studies in the UK are seemingly distinct from US landscape ecology and elsewhere around the world, based on published accounts. ialeUK has had success in increasing the role of landscape ecology in policy and practice, but needs to continue to aim for improved collaboration with other landscape-related professional bodies and contributions to wider sustainability agendas.
    • Workload intensity and rest periods in professional ballet: Connotations for injury

      Kozai, Andrea; Twitchett, Emily; Morgan, Sian; Wyon, Matthew (Thieme, 2020-03-31)
      Fatigue and overwork have been cited as the main cause of injury with the dance profession. Previous research has shown a difference in workload between professional dancers of different rank, but the role of sex has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to determine workload intensity, rest, and sleep profiles of professional ballet dancers. 48 professional ballet dancers (M=25, F=23) took part in an observational design over 7-14 days using triaxial accelerometer devices. Minutes in METS at different intensities, total time asleep and rest breaks were analysed. Significant main effects for rank (p<0.001) and rank by sex (p=0.003) for total PA, working day activity, post work activity and sleep. Sleep ranged between 2.4-9.6 hours per night. All participants spent more time between 1.5-3 METS outside of work. Significant amounts of exercise where carried out outside of their work day, therefore when injury is reported per 1000 hours dance activity, this extra-curricular activity might need to be included. When looking at potential causes of injury in dance, a global perspective of physical activity is required that includes activity outside of work and sleep patterns, all activities that influence physiological recovery.
    • Weight-management in children living with asthma: a qualitative study of the experiences of paediatric healthcare professionals

      Clarke, R; Heath, G; Pattison, H; Farrow, C; Department of Psychology, Aston University , Birmingham , UK. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-11-16)
      © 2018, © 2018 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Objective: Weight loss has been found to improve the symptoms of asthma in children who are overweight. However, many paediatric weight management programmes do not address the challenges associated with living with asthma. The aim of this study was to explore the views and experiences of paediatric healthcare professionals concerning weight management advice and support offered to families of children living with asthma. Methods: In-depth individual interviews with 10 healthcare professionals who work with a paediatric asthma population (n = 4 Respiratory Consultants, 3 Respiratory Nurses, 3 General Paediatricians). Data were analysed using a Framework approach. Results: Healthcare professionals highlighted that families’ perceptions of weight, their approach to physical activity and nutrition, the family’s social context and perceptions of asthma and asthma treatment all influence weight management in children living with asthma. Initiating weight management conversations and referring to weight management support were perceived as challenging. It was thought that tailoring weight management to the needs of children living with asthma and locating support within the community were important to the success of a family-centred intervention. Conclusions: The results highlight the added complexity of responding to excessive weight in a paediatric population with asthma. Training and referral guidance for healthcare professionals may help overcome weight management support challenges. Addressing family beliefs about the factors influencing paediatric asthma and exploring families’ motivations for behaviour change may enhance engagement with weight management.
    • Von der Gstättn nach Auschwitz. Jüdische Kinderzwangsarbeiter 1938-1945

      Steinert, Johannes-Dieter (Vienna Wiesenthal Institute for Holocaust Studies, 2019-12-10)
      This lecture is based on a research project that evaluated – alongside contemporary documents – over 500 autobiographical testimonies in which survivors of the Holocaust reported on their time under German occupation, on ghettos and camps, on the fates of their families, and on forced labour. Jewish children were forced to work in all sectors of industry, mining, and agriculture. They worked in the ghettos, in the concentration and extermination camps, and in the construction of motorways and railways, defensive fortifications, barracks, and airstrips. On the basis of a sample, the lecture traces an arc from the forced labour performed by Jewish children in the Viennese dump in 1938 to the Sonderkommando in Auschwitz. In summary, the lecture focuses on the attempts made in the personal testimonies to explain one’s own survival and the lifelong consequences of forced labour in the shadow of the Holocaust.
    • Sound objects: Towards procedural audio for and as theatre

      Whitfield, Sarah; Dalgleish, Mat (Innovation in Music Conference 2019/University of West London, 2019-12-05)
      Procedural audio has been the subject of significant contemporary interest, but prior examples in relation to theatre sound are limited. After providing background to theatre sound and procedural audio, we introduce two artefacts, RayGun and INTERIOR, that explore issues around theatre sound. RayGun is an augmented prop prototype that uses sensor driven, procedurally generated and locally diffused sound to address prior deficiencies. INTERIOR reimagines Maurice Maeterlinck’s 1895 play Interior as an embedded, generative and largely procedurally generated audio play housed in a shortwave radio-like artefact. Intended to provide an accessible experience, the listener uses a single knob interface to scan through a soundscape of simulated radio stations and ‘find’ the play. We present some initial findings and conclude with suggestions for future work.
    • Perceptions and experiences of the implementation, management, use and optimisation of electronic prescribing systems in hospital settings: Protocol for a systematic review of qualitative studies

      Farre, A; Bem, D; Heath, G; Shaw, K; Cummins, C; Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Research and Development, Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK. (BMJ, 2016-07-08)
      © 2016 Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use. Introduction: There is increasing evidence that electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) or computerised provider/physician order entry (CPOE) systems can improve the quality and safety of healthcare services. However, it has also become clear that their implementation is not straightforward and may create unintended or undesired consequences once in use. In this context, qualitative approaches have been particularly useful and their interpretative synthesis could make an important and timely contribution to the field. This review will aim to identify, appraise and synthesise qualitative studies on ePrescribing/CPOE in hospital settings, with or without clinical decision support. Methods and analysis: Data sources will include the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, MEDLINE In Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Social Policy and Practice via Ovid, CINAHL via EBSCO, The Cochrane Library (CDSR, DARE and CENTRAL databases), Nursing and Allied Health Sources, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts via ProQuest and SCOPUS. In addition, other sources will be searched for ongoing studies (ClinicalTrials.gov) and grey literature: Healthcare Management Information Consortium, Conference Proceedings Citation Index (Web of Science) and Sociological abstracts. Studies will be independently screened for eligibility by 2 reviewers. Qualitative studies, either standalone or in the context of mixed-methods designs, reporting the perspectives of any actors involved in the implementation, management and use of ePrescribing/CPOE systems in hospital-based care settings will be included. Data extraction will be conducted by 2 reviewers using a piloted form. Quality appraisal will be based on criteria from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist and Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research. Studies will not be excluded based on quality assessment. A postsynthesis sensitivity analysis will be undertaken. Data analysis will follow the thematic synthesis method. Ethics and dissemination: The study does not require ethical approval as primary data will not be collected. The results of the study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences.
    • How do stakeholders experience the adoption of electronic prescribing systems in hospitals? A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative studies

      Farre, Albert; Heath, Gemma; Shaw, Karen; Bem, Danai; Cummins, Carole; School of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK. (BMJ, 2019-07-29)
      BACKGROUND:Electronic prescribing (ePrescribing) or computerised provider/physician order entry (CPOE) systems can improve the quality and safety of health services, but the translation of this into reduced harm for patients remains unclear. This review aimed to synthesise primary qualitative research relating to how stakeholders experience the adoption of ePrescribing/CPOE systems in hospitals, to help better understand why and how healthcare organisations have not yet realised the full potential of such systems and to inform future implementations and research. METHODS:We systematically searched 10 bibliographic databases and additional sources for citation searching and grey literature, with no restriction on date or publication language. Qualitative studies exploring the perspectives/experiences of stakeholders with the implementation, management, use and/or optimisation of ePrescribing/CPOE systems in hospitals were included. Quality assessment combined criteria from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Qualitative Checklist and the Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Data were synthesised thematically. RESULTS:79 articles were included. Stakeholders' perspectives reflected a mixed set of positive and negative implications of engaging in ePrescribing/CPOE as part of their work. These were underpinned by further-reaching change processes. Impacts reported were largely practice related rather than at the organisational level. Factors affecting the implementation process and actions undertaken prior to implementation were perceived as important in understanding ePrescribing/CPOE adoption and impact. CONCLUSIONS:Implementing organisations and teams should consider the breadth and depth of changes that ePrescribing/CPOE adoption can trigger rather than focus on discrete benefits/problems and favour implementation strategies that: consider the preimplementation context, are responsive to (and transparent about) organisational and stakeholder needs and agendas and which can be sustained effectively over time as implementations develop and gradually transition to routine use and system optimisation.