Now showing items 21-40 of 6131

    • A deaf translation norm?

      Stone, Christopher; Bielsa, Esperança (Routledge, 2021-10-29)
    • It is like ‘judging a book by its cover’: An exploration of the lived experiences of Black African mental health nurses in England

      Tuffour, Isaac (Wiley, 2021-06-14)
      The aim of this paper was to explore the experiences of perceived prejudices faced in England by Black African mental health nurses. Purposive sampling was used to identify five nurses from sub-Saharan Africa. They were interviewed using face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). The findings were reported under two superordinate themes: Judging a book by its cover and opportunities. The findings showed that Black African nurses experience deep-rooted discrimination and marginalisation. Aside from that, because of their ethnicity and the fact that they speak English as a second language, they face discrimination and have difficulty achieving leadership roles. These findings provide key stakeholders, such as nursing trade unions and professional associations, as well as NHS employers, with the opportunity to act to counter hegemony in the NHS and recognise that discriminatory and racially related barriers hinder Black African nurses from reaching their full professional potential.
    • Managing knowledge in the context of smart cities: a systematic review

      Abdalla, Wala; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Al Nabt, Saeed (Academic Conferences International, 2021-12-31)
      The most recent view on smart city development has recognized that the level of technology adoption in urban contexts is no more able to reflect the real smartness of cities. Smart cities is seen as a centre of knowledge, education, and creativity. The development of smart cities is becoming more and more knowledge based. As a result, knowledge has been perceived as the core component that makes cities smart. Hence, to take advantage of the opportunities that knowledge-based economy and society can bring to the city, leaders and decision makers need to develop cities that take advantage of local knowledge and intellectual capital of the population. Therefore, they need to take initiative to adapt Knowledge Management (KM) in smart cities development. Smart cities KM offers the means to create valuable knowledge that brings consistent and sustainable added value that can therefore be useful in avoiding strategic risk, better-informed decision, and finding smart and effective business solutions. However, smart cities is a relatively new concept that still raises many questions related to its relevance in knowledge management studies. This often calls for the creation, use, capture and exploitation of new knowledge. Therefore, managing this knowledge is considered an important source of sustainable competitive advantage. However, only a few studies in the academic literature on smart city initiatives address issues related to managerial and knowledge management perspectives. This paper investigates the underlying dynamics behind KM and the need for successful implementation of KM strategies within the context of smart cities. The findings are in the main, based on thorough review of literature. It reviews the concept of smart cities and KM. The paper concludes that effectiveness of smart cities knowledge creation, exploitation and management significantly influences on effectiveness of smart city development. Therefore, smart cities governance must be able to exploit and manage knowledge that results from smart cities development.
    • Future directions and requirements for tissue engineering biomaterials

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Praveen, Ayyappan S; Pollard, Andrew; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2021-02-24)
      A wide array of biomaterials are being developed to be used as tissue engineering scaffolds, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. For all biomaterials, the challenge remains to achieve functionality to mimic the biomechanical environment, induce bioactivity, and support critical size tissue reintegration. This calls for a functional evolution in biomaterials to be used as tissue engineering constructs for partial and full tissue reconstruction. When characterizing biomaterials for tissue engineering, the relevant extensions include engineered surfaces, micro-patterns, and porous architectures along with, bioactive, bioresorbable, and infection resistant properties. Accordingly, functional biomaterials will drive the next generation of tissue engineering constructs. This paper, therefore, explores the major concepts, future direction, and recent signs of progress in the field of tissue engineering biomaterials. Traditional materials are not discounted entirely as bioinert materials are still relevant and emerging research offers new functionalities for them to support drug, gene, and cell tissue engineering. Therefore, an attempt is also made to explain how the requirements of biomaterials are changing to facilitate, sustain, control, and proliferate engineered tissue. The article begins with a brief introduction to the evolution of biomaterials followed by a commentary on their functional requirements when applied to tissue engineering. This is followed by an exploratory evaluation of key tissue engineering constructs and their qualifiers while systematically identifying their future direction and potential.
    • A LogitBoost-based algorithm for detecting known and unknown web attacks

      Kamarudin, Muhammad Hilmi; Maple, Carsten; Watson, Tim; Safa, Nader Sohrabi (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017-11-03)
      The rapid growth in the volume and importance of web communication throughout the Internet has heightened the need for better security protection. Security experts, when protecting systems, maintain a database featuring signatures of a large number of attacks to assist with attack detection. However used in isolation, this can limit the capability of the system as it is only able to recognize known attacks. To overcome the problem, we propose an anomaly-based intrusion detection system using an ensemble classification approach to detect unknown attacks on web servers. The process involves removing irrelevant and redundant features utilising a filter and wrapper selection procedure. Logitboost is then employed together with random forests as a weak classifier. The proposed ensemble technique was evaluated with some artificial data sets namely NSL-KDD, an improved version of the old KDD Cup from 1999, and the recently published UNSW-NB15 data set. The experimental results show that our approach demonstrates superiority, in terms of accuracy and detection rate over the traditional approaches, whilst preserving low false rejection rates.
    • Privacy enhancing technologies (PETs) for connected vehicles in smart cities

      Safa, Nader Sohrabi; Mitchell, Faye; Maple, Carsten; Azad, Muhammad Ajmal; Dabbagh, Mohammad (Wiley, 2020-11-18)
      Many Experts believe that the Internet of Things (IoT) is a new revolution in technology that has brought many benefits for our organizations, businesses, and industries. However, information security and privacy protection are important challenges particularly for smart vehicles in smart cities that have attracted the attention of experts in this domain. Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs) endeavor to mitigate the risk of privacy invasions, but the literature lacks a thorough review of the approaches and techniques that support individuals' privacy in the connection between smart vehicles and smart cities. This gap has stimulated us to conduct this research with the main goal of reviewing recent privacy-enhancing technologies, approaches, taxonomy, challenges, and solutions on the application of PETs for smart vehicles in smart cities. The significant aspect of this study originates from the inclusion of data-oriented and process-oriented privacy protection. This research also identifies limitations of existing PETs, complementary technologies, and potential research directions.
    • Smart tribological coating

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2021)
      Materials that can adapt their characteristics favorably to relevant external factors are defined as smart materials. The term “smart tribological coatings” defines a class of coatings that are capable of responding to their environment while offering an advantageous functionality while preserving their tribological property. The latest approach in coatings is to manipulate the material and structural composition of the deposition at submicron scales to develop functional architecture. This sequential fabrication of submicron layers featuring unique material compositions and topography result in unique and exotic properties suitable for the development of smart coatings. Several such smart coating architectures have been conceived and investigated by researchers that are summarized in this study. Notable examples of such coatings include sensing, self-healing, self-lubricating, self-cleaning, and bioactive systems. Surface architectures with enhanced and novel functionalities such as self-stratifying, super-insulating and thermochromic are also emerging and are likely to become part of the smart coating portfolio. This article starts by briefly introducing the primary concepts associated with smart tribological coatings along with their functionalities. The different types of coating structures and their smart characteristics are discussed in subsequent sections. Altogether, the article brings together the various concepts in smart tribological coatings that offer significant potential for a range of functional applications.
    • Nanomaterials theory and applications

      Govindaraman, Loganathan T; Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Ramadan, Mohamad; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2021-06-01)
      The behavior of matter at the nanoscale alters material properties in comparison to their bulk counterparts. Overall, materials at the nano-range demonstrate modified physical behaviors that offer favorable mechanical, thermodynamic, magnetic, optical, and biomedical properties for a range of applications. As such nanomaterials have their prominence in most scientific domains due to their ability to generate varied responses suitable for specific requirements. However, the implementation of nanomaterials in each situation requires a detailed understanding of the chemical and physical properties of the base materials, control parameters, and methods of fabrication. This paper introduces nanomaterials, their classification and measurement techniques followed by synthesis methods, common properties, applications, and prospects.
    • Tissue engineering concept

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2021)
      Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary methodology regarding the development of new tissue that can restore, maintain, or improve damaged tissues or whole organs. The conventional concept in tissue engineering features three distinct elements namely, cells, scaffolds, and bioactive factors, each having its characteristic role. Over the years, new concepts have evolved such as scaffold and cell-free architectures bringing new opportunities and challenges. The cell-free concept uses highly specialized biomaterials to create a bioresponsive scaffold that aids in vivo tissue regeneration. The scaffold-free concept, on the other hand, employs cell sheets, spheroids, or tissue strands as the fundamental building blocks replacing the conventional scaffold. The paper starts by introducing the primary elements associated with tissue engineering along with their functionalities. The various tissue engineering concepts are presented in subsequent sections and upcoming approaches such as bioprinting discussed. As such the paper brings together the various concepts in tissue engineering that offer significant potential for the generation of functional tissues and organs.
    • Las tecnologías de interpretación a distancia en los servicios públicos: uso e impacto

      Gaber, Mahmoud; Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Postigo Pinazo, Encarnación (Peter Lang, 2020-02-27)
      This chapter deals with the use of distance interpreting technologies and their impact on public services interpreters. Remote (or distance) interpreting offers a wide range of solutions in order to successfully satisfy the pressing need for languages services in both the public and private sectors. This study focuses on telephone-mediated and video-mediated interpreting, presenting their advantages and disadvantages. We have designed a survey to gather data about the psychological and physiological impact that remote interpreting technologies generate in community interpreters. Our main aim is to ascertain interpreters’ general view on technology, so as to detect deficiencies and suggest ways of improvement. This study is a first contribution in the direction of optimising distance interpreting technologies. Current demand reveals the enormous potential of distance interpreting, its rapid evolution and generalised presence that this modality will have in the future.
    • Introduction

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Colson, Jean-Pierre (John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2020-05-08)
    • Terrorism

      Kassimeris, George; Featherstone, Kevin; Sotiropoulos, Dimitri A.; University of Wolverhampton (Oxford University Press, 2020-10-08)
      The chapter places Greek terrorism in a broader political and cultural perspective in order to explain why it has become a permanent fixture of Greek contemporary life. Revolutionary terrorism in Greece resulted from a complex series of political conditions and longstanding cultural influences that drew politically active individuals towards the utopian world of revolutionary protest and violence. These conditions and influences provided the foundations upon which extreme Left terrorism took firm root in the mid-1970s and are analysed in depth and placed within the wider context of the evolution of the Greek political culture within the last forty years, especially the years following the Civil War and the collapse of the Colonels’ dictatorial regime in 1974. The chapter also brings up to date the trajectory of Greek terrorism, by analysing the country’s new generation of urban guerrilla groups and defining what these new groups and their leaders seek to achieve, what motivates them, and how they compare with their predecessors.
    • El hablar y el discurso repetido: la fraseología

      Mellado, Carmen; Corpas, Gloria; Berty, Katrin; Loureda, Óscar; Schrott, Angela (De Gruyter, 2021-01-18)
      Este capitulo muestra la interrelacion entre fijacion y variabilidad en las unidades fraseologicas desde distintos puntos de vista. En primer lugar, realizamos un analisis detallado del concepto de «discurso repetido» de Coseriu, que ya considera en su origen la idea de cambio creativo, para despues ofrecer una panoramica de la evolucion de la fraseologia en relacion a la lingilistica textual. En segundo lugar, se presenta una clasificacion de la tipologia de la variacion fraseologica, ilustrada con ejemplos de corpus lingiiisticos y centrada en los niveles del sistema y habla, asi como en la intencionalidad del hablante. En tercer lugar, tratamos el tema de la variabilidad fraseologica y el giro que ha tornado la nocion de «fijacion» desde que se dispone de datos masivos de corpus. En este contexto, las magnitudes de frecuencia absoluta, normalizada y de significacion estadistica desempeiian un papel fundamental para el grado de fijacion.
    • Estrategias heurísticas con corpus para la enseñanza de la fraseología orientada a la traducción

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Hidalgo Ternero, Carlos Manuel; Seghiri, Miriam (Peter Lang, 2020)
      This work presents a didactic proposal carried out in the subject Lengua y cultura “B” aplicadas a la Traducción e Interpretación (II) – inglés, taught in the first year of the Bache-lor’s Degree in Translation and Interpreting, at the University of Malaga. The main objec-tive of this proposal is to teach the possibilities that both monolingual and bilingual corpora can provide for the correct identification and interpretation of phraseological units with regard to their translation, paying special attention to those cases where the ambiguity of phraseological sequences may lead to multiple interpretations. We will focus on somatisms and will mainly use two Spanish monolingual corpora (CORPES XXI and esEuTenTen), an English monolingual corpus (enTenTen) and two parallel corpora (Europarl and Linguee, more specifically its English-Spanish subcorpus). Against this background, this proposal is divided into several learning activities. After a first seminar where the concepts of corpus, phraseology and translation are introduced, in the learning activity 2 we will use parallel corpora to find translation pairings that contain translation mistakes caused by problems with phraseological ambiguity. Then, in the third learning activity, we will teach some disambiguating elements that will facilitate a correct identification and interpretation of the phraseological unit, in order to be able to convey its pragmatic and semantic weight in the target text. It is in this step where corpora can play a decisive role as documentation tools. Nevertheless, the localisation and interpretation of phraseological units is not problem-free. Given the necessity to develop some techniques that will enable a more effective detection of phraseological units, in the fourth learning activity students will learn an array of heuris-tic strategies to refine their searches in the consulted corpora as well as to select adequate equivalences after a correct interpretation of the results produced by these corpora.
    • Teaching idioms for translation purposes: a trilingual corpus-based glossary applied to phraseodidactics (ES/EN/DE)

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Hidalgo Ternero, Carlos Manuel; Bautista Zambrada, María Rosario; Martínez, Florentina Mena; Strohschen, Carola (Peter Lang, 2020)
      Phraseology plays a pivotal role in the development of translation competence as well as in translation quality assessment. Thus far, however, there remains a paucity of research on how to best teach idioms for translation purposes. Against such a background, this study aims to shed some light on the multiple applications of phraseodidactics to translation training. We will follow a corpus-based methodology and, for the sake of the argument, the focus will be on somatisms in Spanish, English and German. The overall structure of this paper takes the form of four sections. Section One begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of phraseology and its convergence with translation. In section two we examine the main components of a corpus-based glossary of somatisms, named Glossomatic, and how it can be employed to establish ad hoc phraseological equivalences in those cases (analysed in section three) where the manipulation of idioms and the absence of one-to-one phraseological correspondence may pose some problems to translation. In this regard, given the importance of accurately conveying the pragmatic, semantic and discursive load of an idiom into a TT and, concomitantly, conveying the manipulation depicted in the ST, section four presents a teaching proposal in which students are prompted with a set of strategies and steps to be implemented with the aid of the glossary in order to solve these issues. Overall, the insights gained from this research will prove useful not only in developing trainees’ phraseological competence but also in giving centre stage to phraseodidactics in Translation Studies.
    • The evolution of Blockchain: a bibliometric study

      Dabbagh, Mohammad; Sookhak, Mehdi; Safa, Nader Sohrabi (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019-01-29)
      Blockchain as emerging technology is revolutionizing several industries, and its abundant privileges have opened up a bunch of research directions in various industries; thereby, it has acquired many interests from the research community. The rapid evolution of blockchain research papers in recent years has resulted in a need to conduct research studies that investigate a detailed analysis of the current body of knowledge in this field. To address this need, a few review papers have been published to report the latest accomplishments and challenges of blockchain technology from different perspectives. Nonetheless, there has not been any bibliometric analysis of the state of the art in blockchain where Web of Science (WoS) has been taken into consideration as a literature database. Hence, a thorough analysis of the current body of knowledge in blockchain research through a bibliometric study would be needed. In this paper, we performed a bibliometric analysis of all Blockchain’s conference papers, articles, and review papers that have been indexed byWoS from 2013 to 2018. We have analyzed those collected papers against five research questions. The results revealed some valuable insights, including yearly publications and citations trends, hottest research areas, top-ten influential papers, favorite publication venues, and most supportive funding bodies. The findings of this paper offer several implications that can be used as a guideline by both fresh and experienced researchers to establish a baseline before initiating a blockchain research project in the future.
    • Managing COVID-19 related knowledge in the UK Infrastructure sector

      Jallow, Haddy; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Algahtani, Khaled (Academic Conferences International, 2021-12-31)
      COVID-19 has caused the most serious economic and health crisis globally that we have witnessed in decades. Millions of people across the world have lost jobs, while the healthcare systems are struggling to cope with the rapid increase in cases. Many sectors have been affected with this pandemic including the construction infrastructure sector which benefits from engineers and different staff members travelling to site and interacting/collaborating with peers. Infrastructure construction organisations have responded well during the pandemic in order to carry on works while minimising risks to their employees and their families, however management styles have had to be updated and the transferring/ storage and collection of knowledge has seen new processes and methods being adopted. The relationship between Knowledge and its management within the infrastructure sector during the COVID-19 Pandemic is a topic that has not been regularly researched. This paper aims to review both the impact that COVID-19 has had within the infrastructure sector and Knowledge Management during these times attempting to gain an output of how knowledge has been managed throughout the pandemic within the sector.
    • Higher education contexts of entrepreneurship education outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa

      Anosike, Uchenna Paschal; Oluwatobi, Stephen (North American Business Press, 2021-06-02)
      Motivated by the growing emphasis to influence young people’s post-study career intentions through entrepreneurship education, particularly in Africa where poverty and conflict have been associated with high youth unemployment, this paper articulates the effect of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial intention amongst students and graduates from two higher education institutions in conflict-torn northern Nigeria. By relying on systematic analysis following semi-structured interviews, the findings showed that newly acquired knowledge and skills in use of market intelligence, business plan writing and record-keeping were not only linked with entrepreneurial intentions, but it also emerged that the volatile context of the business environment influenced strategic decisions related to new business growth and survival. Research and policy implications were considered based on the findings.
    • A person-centered evaluation of subjective well-being using a latent profile analysis: Associations with negative life events, distress, and emotion regulation strategies

      Lazić, Milica; Jovanović, Veljko; Gavrilov-Jerković, Vesna; Boyda, David; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia. (Wiley, 2021-04-25)
      The present study examined the structure of subjective well-being (SWB) using a person-centered approach, and tested whether SWB profiles differed in a number of self-reported negative life events, emotional distress, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies. The sample included a total of 945 undergraduate students from Serbia (78% female, M<sub>age</sub>  = 20.14 years). A 3-step latent profile analysis with partial conditional independence revealed four profiles, which have been tentatively labeled: low SWB (a combination of low life satisfaction, low positive affect, and high negative affect), mixed SWB (moderate to high life satisfaction, moderate to low positive affect, high negative affect), moderately low SWB (low life satisfaction, moderate to low positive affect, moderate negative affect), high SWB (high life satisfaction, high positive affect, low negative affect). A comparison of SWB profiles applied to symptoms of emotional distress, along with the number of self-reported negative life events and emotion regulation strategies, offered support to the validity of four SWB profiles. Our findings suggest that a person-centered perspective might be a valuable tool for understanding the structure of SWB.