Now showing items 21-40 of 6857

    • The impact of sustainability committee characteristics on corporate sustainability performance: Evidence from the FTSE 150 non-financial companies

      Yamak, Sibel; Korzhenitskaya, Anna; Rahimi, Roya; ABDULLAH, ASO; University of Wolverhampton Business School, Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-06)
      Following considerable business and academic interest in sustainability over the last two decades, this study’s aim was to extend previous research by examining through the lens of stakeholder theory, Resource Dependence Theory (RDT) and legitimacy theory: through (1) the impact of sustainability committee characteristics (SCC) on Corporate Sustainability Performance (CSP) and (2) any significant differences between findings when focused and non-focused sustainability committees are compared. This thesis applied positivist methodology and adopted fixed effects regression models on a sample of 112 non-financial companies from FTSE 150 for the period 2010-2018. Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) data was gathered from the Refinitiv database along with data on sustainability committee characteristics collected from Fame database, companies’ annual reports and London Stock Exchange (LSE). The main findings show a positive and significant relationship between organisational factors including firm size, profitability and firm age with Environmental and ESG scores. There is also a positive and significant association between frequency of committee meeting and age diversity with Governance scores only. The empirical finding shows these positively significant relationships under the presence of focused and non-focused committees equally. Additionally, the results show that only social and governance sustainability performance significantly improved from 2016 following the Paris Agreement of 2015 and the publication of the 2030 SDGs. Furthermore, the findings revealed the frequency of committee meetings is negatively and statistically significantly related to the Environmental dimension. The finding shows that firms focused/non-focused committees with greater independent members tend to have a statistically negative relationship to Governance Sustainability Performance. Importantly this research study also provides empirical evidence of the insignificant relationship of independent variables on the sub-dimension of Social Performance, thus, this finding supports the argument that firms act by greenwashing. This study has evidenced that no single theory provides a rationale for how SCCs influence CSP and its conclusions include suggestions for academics as well as businesses in terms of ongoing development and research.
    • ‘Behind the scenes’: Stories of grandmothering in the neonatal intensive care unit. An autoethnographic, narrative study

      Holyoake, Dean-David; Paniagua, Hilary; Lumsden, Hilary; School of Allied Health and Midwifery, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-05)
      This study is concerned with listening to the stories of grandmothers who had a critically ill grandchild in a neonatal intensive care unit. There is a wealth of research on the parents of premature or sick babies, but the parents’ parents are an ignored area in nursing and midwifery literature. In July 2013, my grandson was born seven weeks early and became very unwell on day two of life. This left me questioning what stories other grandmothers would have to tell of having a sick grandchild. As a neonatal nurse, midwife and educator by profession, I felt a duty to explore this neglected area further. Using my own autoethnographic experience as a grandmother as a basis for this study, I interviewed five grandmothers in two inner city neonatal intensive care units in the West Midlands. My position as a grandmother/researcher with my specialist professional antecedents adds a unique insider perspective in this research. Uniquely, I used a theme board to enable me to tell my own story, which then facilitated grandmothers to tell me their own story. From the rich data generated from those narratives, and to allow their stories to breathe, I crafted fictional stories as one stage of the analytical process. A hybrid methodology of performance autoethnography and narrative approaches has been used to explore this hard-to-reach group of women who are silenced when their grandchild is unwell and being cared for in a neonatal intensive care unit. Continuing with a crafts-based analysis, a bricolage of grandmothers’ stories was sewn together creating a patchwork quilt of their words. Their stories tell of ‘getting there’, ‘getting in’ and ‘staying in’. What I discovered was that grandmothers act quietly ‘behind the scenes’, restricted by a ‘border of technology as a barrier’ and emerge as ‘silent heroines’. What grandmothers’ stories tell have the potential to alter the way in which they are seen in the neonatal intensive care unit. I make recommendations for changes in policy and practice to allow these silent heroines to have a voice.
    • Exploring the prevalence of medication errors in Kuwaiti hospitals

      Saada, Mohammed; Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick (Innovare Academic Sciences, 2022-07-15)
      Objective: Reducing medication errors in Kuwaiti government hospitals through pharmacovigilance involves the improvement of medication safety culture achieve the desired outcome. The study explored the medication management practices in Kuwaiti hospitals and made recommendations for the improvement of medication safety practices. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of medication errors in Kuwaiti government hospitals. Methods: Medical records and systems audits, healthcare professionals’ observation study, healthcare professionals survey. Data was collected from paper records, electronic records and systems and the observation study. Data was then analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: The study revealed important results at all five steps of the medication process. The audit revealed nearly half of the errors identified to have occurred during the prescribing stage. Conclusion: The study revealed important results at all five steps of the medication process. The audit revealed nearly half of the errors identified to have occurred during the prescribing stage. The study highlights the need for an IT based, no-blame incident reports to be implemented and utilised in investigating adverse events and medication errors across the multiple sites in the Kuwaiti healthcare setting to guide reduction strategies and further improve standards of medication safety.
    • “You want to know that you’re safe”: Experiences of risk, restriction and resilience online among people with an intellectual disability

      Chadwick, Darren (Masaryk University Press, 2022-06-30)
      People with intellectual and developmental disabilities remain more digital excluded than many other groups within society. Perceived vulnerability of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities by those providing support may increase their digital exclusion and the digital divide. Few studies have considered online risk from the perspective of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Online risks have previously been classified as contact, conduct and content but little is known about how adults with intellectual disabilities experience these specific risks. Underpinned by post-postivist and phenomenological epistemologies, perceptions and meanings of online risks for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities were gathered. Individual interviews were conducted with thirteen adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities who all identified themselves as self advocates. Interview discussions considered online risk experiences of being online and using social media. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Overarching themes of risk experiences, awareness and support to manage salient risks, and developing independence and resilience through online participation were identified. Accounts also identified concerns around online risks and carer gatekeeping as potential instrumental factors in digital exclusion, such exclusion was considered detrimental to wellbeing. Adults with intellectual disabilities with low support needs appeared more able to manage online risk than may be presupposed by a vulnerability-focused perspective. The importance of utilising language salient to the person when discussing risk was also highlighted. Experiential learning to better understand and manage salient online risks appears a way forward for both research and practice.
    • The effect of iron supplementation and tumour location on the mucosal microbiological and immunological environment in colorectal cancer patients with iron deficiency anaemia

      Omar Al-Hassi, Hafid; Brookes, Matthew; Phipps, Oliver; Research Institute in Healthcare Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Iron deficiency is a common complication of colorectal cancer, being present in ~60% of patients and often leading to the manifestation of anaemia. Preoperative anaemia in colorectal cancer patients is associated with inferior clinical outcomes, hence this leads to the requirement of iron supplementation to treat anaemia. The current standard treatment for iron deficiency anaemia is oral iron supplementation. However, this can contribute to an increased gut luminal iron concentration, which has the potential to alter the gut microbiota and mucosal immune system, potentially leading to inferior oncological outcomes. Previous animal studies have supported this association; however, here is provided the first human clinical studies to assess the microbiological and immunological outcomes of iron supplementation, through a colorectal cancer randomised control trial comparing oral and intravenous iron therapy. The results of these studies suggest that oral iron leads to differential bacterial populations, potentially contributing to a more procarcinogenic microbiota, as well as leading to greater tumour immune cell activity and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production, compared to intravenous iron therapy. Furthermore, this research provides an insight into the differences between patients with right- and left-sided colorectal cancer; showing the non-tumour microbiota is significantly different between right- and left-sided colorectal cancer patients, whereas the tumour microbiota is more consistent. Furthermore, the results show that right-sided colorectal tumours are more immunogenic, showing an increase in inflammatory cytokines compared to patients with left-sided colorectal tumours. Finally, presented is the long term clinical data from this cohort of patients, assessing differences in tumour location and iron therapy on survival outcomes. Collectively the results of these studies support the use of intravenous iron therapy preoperatively in colorectal cancer patients with iron deficiency anaemia, in order to limit the potential microbial perturbations and inflammatory outcomes associated with oral iron therapy. As well as supporting the stratification of colorectal cancer based upon tumour location, particularly in regard to studies of probiotic and immune therapies.
    • Microbial poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) as an effective tooth enamel protectant

      Parati, Mattia; Clarke, Louisa; Anderson, Paul; Hill, Robert; Khalil, Ibrahim; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Stanley, Michele S; McGee, Donal; Mendrek, Barbara; Kowalczuk, Marek; et al. (MDPI, 2022-07-20)
      Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a bio-derived water-soluble, edible, non-immunogenic nylon-like polymer with the biochemical characteristics of a polypeptide. This Bacillus-derived material has great potential for a wide range of applications, from bioremediation to tunable drug delivery systems. In the context of oral care, γ-PGA holds great promise in enamel demineralisation prevention. The salivary protein statherin has previously been shown to protect tooth enamel from acid dissolution and act as a reservoir for free calcium ions within oral cavities. Its superb enamel-binding capacity is attributed to the L-glutamic acid residues of this 5380 Da protein. In this study, γ-PGA was successfully synthesised from Bacillus subtilis natto cultivated on supplemented algae media and standard commercial media. The polymers obtained were tested for their potential to inhibit demineralisation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) when exposed to caries simulating acidic conditions. Formulations presenting 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3 and 4% (w/v) γ-PGA concentration were assessed to determine the optimal conditions. Our data suggests that both the concentration and the molar mass of the γ-PGA were significant in enamel protection (p = 0.028 and p < 0.01 respectively). Ion Selective Electrode, combined with Fourier Transform Infra-Red studies, were employed to quantify enamel protection capacity of γ-PGA. All concentrations tested showed an inhibitory effect on the dissolution rate of calcium ions from hydroxyapatite, with 1% (wt) and 2% (wt) concentrations being the most effective. The impact of the average molar mass (M) on enamel dissolution was also investigated by employing commercial 66 kDa, 166 kDa, 440 kDa and 520 kDa γ-PGA fractions. All γ-PGA solutions adhered to the surface of HAp with evidence that this remained after 60 min of continuous acidic challenge. Inductively Coupled Plasma analysis showed a significant abundance of calcium ions associated with γ-PGA, which suggests that this material could also act as a responsive calcium delivery system. We have concluded that all γ-PGA samples tested (commercial and algae derived) display enamel protection capacity regardless of their concentration or average molar mass. However, we believe that γ-PGA D/L ratios might affect the binding more than its molar mass.
    • Bioconversion process of polyethylene from Waste Tetra Pak® packaging to polyhydroxyalkanoates

      Ekere, Itohowo; Johnston, Brian; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline Laure; Townrow, David; Wojciechowski, Szymon; Marek, Adam; Zawadiak, Jan; Duale, Khadar; Zieba, Magdalena; Sikorska, Wanda; et al. (MDPI, 2022-07-12)
      Presented herein are the results of a novel recycling method for waste Tetra Pak® packaging materials. The polyethylene (PE-T) component of this packaging material, obtained via a separation process using a “solvents method”, was used as a carbon source for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by the bacterial strain Cupriavidus necator H16. Bacteria were grown for 48–72 h, at 30 °C, in TSB (nitrogen-rich) or BSM (nitrogen-limited) media supplemented with PE-T. Growth was monitored by viable counting. It was demonstrated that C. necator utilised PE-T in both growth media, but was only able to accumulate 40% w/w PHA in TSB supplemented with PE-T. Only 1.5% w/w PHA was accumulated in the TSB control, and no PHA was detected in the BSM control. Extracted biopolymers were characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The characterisation of PHA by ESI-MS/MS revealed that PHA produced by C. necator in TSB supplemented with PE-T contained 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 3-hydroxyhexanoate co-monomeric units. AMS analysis also confirmed the presence of 96.73% modern carbon and 3.27% old carbon in PHA derived from Tetra Pak®. Thus, this study demonstrates the feasibility of our proposed recycling method for waste Tetra Pak® packaging materials, alongside its potential for producing value-added PHA, and the ability of 14C analysis in validating this bioconversion process.
    • What is the physiological impact of reducing the 2,000 m Olympic distance in rowing to 1,500 m and 1,000 m for French young competitive rowers? Insights from the energy system contribution

      Diry, Allison; Ratel, Sébastien; Nevill, Alan M.; Maciejewski, Hugo (Frontiers Media, 2022-07-18)
      French rowing federation reduced the competition distance to 1,500 and 1,000 m in rowers under 16- (U16) and 14-year-old (U14) respectively, to prepare them progressively to the Olympic 2,000 m distance in under 18-year-old (U18). This study aimed to check the hypothesis that relative aerobic (%EAe) and anaerobic (%EAn) energy contributions would be comparable between the competition distances since the more oxidative profile of younger age categories could offset the greater anaerobic contribution induced by shorter rowing races. Thirty-one 12- to 17-year-old competitive rowers performed a race of 2,000, 1,500, or 1,000 m on a rowing ergometer according to their age category. %EAe and %EAn were estimated from oxygen consumption, changes in blood lactate concentration and their energy equivalents. %EAe was lower in U16 than U18 (84.7 vs. 87.0%, p < 0.01), and in U14 than U16 (80.6 vs. 84.7%, p < 0.001). %EAn was higher in U16 than U18 (15.3 vs. 13.0%, p < 0.01), and in U14 than U16 (19.4 vs. 15.3%, p < 0.01). The results did not confirm our initial hypothesis since %EAe and %EAn were significantly different between the race distances, and thus age categories. However, %EAn in U18, U16 and U14 were found to be in the range of values previously found in adult rowers over the 2,000 m Olympic distance (12–30%). Therefore, on a practical level, the strategy implemented by the French rowing federation to reduce the competition distance in the younger age categories could be relevant to progressively prepare them to the physiological requirements encountered over the Olympic distance.
    • Transpiration cooling in hypersonic turbulent boundary layer

      Cerminara, Adriano (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-05-25)
      The design of new-generation reliable and efficient hypersonic flight vehicles requires analysis and validation of an effective technique to suppress the intense heat loads that generating on the vehicle surface. The purpose of the present contribution is to study the characteristics of a hypersonic turbulent flow over a porous-injecting wall, representative of a transpiration cooling system, and to analyse the pore-size effect on the coolant performance. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are carried out for a Mach 5 flow over a flat plate. A porous injection model has been designed which mimics coolant injection from a bed of equally-spaced circular pores. Rapid transition to turbulence is triggered by high-amplitude disturbances imposed on the wall upstream of the porous region. Results show that a turbulent wedge-shaped flow structure generates just downstream of the injection region, which produces a reduction of the surface coolant concentration. The pore size influences flow features and coolant concentration in the laminar region, however has a marginal effect within the turbulent region, where the wall-cooling performance depends predominantly on the fluid dynamics of the turbulent flow. The present work sheds light on the effects of turbulence and pore size on transpiration-cooling characteristics in hypersonic flow, still poorly understood and not in-detail explored in the literature. Results indicate that the turbulent-wedge flow features must be deeper investigated with focus on the coolant redistribution, and that a parametric-study-informed tailored calibration of different porous injection parameters is vital for controlling the flow features to optimise the cooling performance.
    • Mosquito-borne arboviruses in Brazil: Assessment of apps based on the mobile apps rating scale (MARS)

      Alves Albino, Victor; Dutra Fernandes, Izabelly; Almeida, Ricardo; Santos-Silva, Tais Acácia; Smania-Marques, Roberta; Smith, Matt; Traxler, John; Santos, Silvana (Canadian Center of Science and Education, 2022-07-19)
      Background: In Brazil, the prevalence of arboviral diseases, such as dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya, transmitted mainly by mosquitos, has increased alarmingly. In recent years, numerous free mobile apps tackling this issue have become available for various purposes and users. Objectives: This study aimed to systematically survey and evaluate these apps using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Methods: The survey was performed on Google Play Store and sought to identify these apps adopting the descriptors “Chikungunya”, “Dengue” and “Zika”. The MARS scale was used by two researchers to evaluate the apps following their translation to Portuguese and subsequent validation. Student's T-test, Kappa statistics, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were employed to evaluate the interobserver agreement and the reliability of the scale. Results: Most apps (20 out of 29 or ~70%) were created to disseminate basic information about arboviral diseases to the population or for entertainment. There was an agreement between the two researchers for all parameters of the MARS scale, except for the engagement (p=0.002). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated good reliability. Conclusions: The use of the MARS scale has shown that most of the evaluated apps were developed to share information about arboviral diseases in an interactive way, but they do not necessarily have the purpose of influencing their users to change behaviours related to vector control or the prevention of arboviral diseases, which the authors feel would be a more appropriate aim for future app development.
    • “My parents do not understand my diagnosis… they think it’s not real”: Understandings and perceptions of mental well-being amongst Sikhs in the UK

      Takhar, Opinderjit; Galbraith, Niall; Khutan, Ranjit; Uppal , Supreet; Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-05)
      Background: The United Kingdom is represented as a diverse country in regards to ethnicity and culture. However, research suggests many individuals belonging from ethnic minority communities encounter disadvantages in relation to contemporary issues such as when seeking professional help from healthcare settings. Research has found that traditional and cultural practices within the South Asian community can result in negative influences on attitudes towards mental well-being due to how it is perceived by others. However, there is limited research how individual South Asian subgroups make sense of mental well-being including; defining, understanding causations, attitudes and help seeking for mental health difficulties. The current research study will explore attitudes towards mental health amongst Sikhs living in the UK including investigating how the Sikh faith and teachings contributes to experiences of mental health difficulties. Method: A mixed methodology approach was selected to utilise both diverse techniques from qualitative and quantitative research designs. This allows the current research project to conduct both surveys and interviews. The research study consists of three data collection methods utilising an integrated mixed methods approach referred to as triangulation. The three data collection methods are: (a) The online survey (b) Initial face to face interviews (c) Over 65’s face to face interviews Analysis: The studies were analysed using several types of quantitative and qualitative techniques. For quantitative analysis, SPSS was used to conduct several tests such as; Analysis of variance (ANOVA), Chi-squared and Crosstabs. Transcripts were analysed for the qualitative studies employing Thematic Analysis, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) and Content Analysis. Results and Conclusion: The mixed methodology applied resulted in several themes emerging from the research findings: ‘faith & spirituality’, ‘concept of shame’ and ‘religious coping strategies’. These themes and factors influence the understanding, caution, interpretation and the types of help sought for negative mental well-being by the Sikh community living in the UK. Gender and generational differences were also identified in the data collection from participants. Sikh teachings, referred to as Sikhi are fundamental in the way that the Sikh participants understand mental well-being. The implications of the current study findings include clinical, educational and research factors.
    • Facilitating pedagogical change in online learning in higher education through professional development

      Traxler, John; Lawton, Megan; Miles, Carmen; Institute of Education, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      The onset of Covid-19 gave rise to a huge wake-up call across the higher education sector as it switched to what has been termed ‘emergency remote teaching’ during 2020. This unprecedented rise in the uptake of online learning accentuated the need for lecturers to develop pedagogically-informed online teaching practices. This research used an appreciative inquiry methodology during the first wave of the pandemic to explore enacted TPACK (technology, pedagogy and content knowledge) knowledge of in-service teachers. The research makes an original contribution to research, addressing a gap in knowledge arising from the literature review relating to the use of TPACK to support in-service lecturers. As practice- based research, findings illustrated how teaching practices can be developed using professional development strategies to uncover the potential of online learning to deliver a transformative learning experience. Key findings of the research included a set of indicators for student-centred online teaching practices, examples of core and advanced teacher competences, and a mapping of technology affordances to support student-centred learning (SCL) pedagogies. The findings highlighted the importance of lecturers having permission to experiment, and the relevance of TPACK to support the development of a collective knowledge of SCL pedagogies to create innovation and reflection within communities of practice. The findings include a conceptualisation of the TPACK framework for use by lecturers and programme teams to support the design and development of SCL online pedagogies. In addition, recommendations arising from the research include a framework for supporting communities of practice develop contextual TPACK indicators using appreciative inquiry, and the need for strategic leadership through institutionally-led initiatives that take into consideration elements within the conceptualised TPACK framework.
    • Combined operations in the American War of Independence and the Naval War of 1812 in the North American theatre: a comparative study of strategy, tactics and effectiveness

      Fuller, Howard; Hardman, Michael David; Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-01)
      This thesis examines the use of combined operations in the American War of Independence and the Naval War of 1812, hereafter referred to as the War of 1812. It compares the use of combined operations in both wars and examines the extent to which the use of combined operations contributed to the very different outcomes of the two wars. However, certain factors such as weather or chance referred to in this thesis as thematic constraints intervened to prevent the success of combined operations. By examining combined operations in both of these conflicts, and also the influence of the thematic constraints on combined operations, various lessons and conclusions can be drawn about combined operations as a distinct art of war by the early nineteenth century. The first war resulted in a clear British defeat and the loss of the thirteen colonies in North America. The second war ended in a political stalemate in which neither side lost any territory. This thesis demonstrates that combined operations and the associated thematic constraints were overwhelmingly influential in determining the different outcomes of the two wars. The thesis examines the lexicographical problems which arise in the definition of the term ‘combined operations’ and arrives at a working definition. It then argues that the objective of combined operations was to deliver a victory, but that the fog and friction of war intervened under certain circumstances in the form of the thematic constraints. Their presence could be sufficient to cause the combined operation to fail. The thematic constraints were not all equally important. Some like political constraints or defects in leadership were more important than others. The relative importance of the thematic constraints to each other and the criterion used to assess their relative importance are discussed in detail below. The thematic constraints could operate in isolation, such as weather, or in conjunction with other thematic constraints. They could intervene at the planning level to prevent the successful formulation of a combined operations plan, or more usually, at the operational level to prevent the combined operation from being successfully implemented. This thesis argues that combined operations and the thematic constraints were overwhelmingly influential in determining the outcomes of the two wars. It acknowledges the thematic constraints as a group of factors which overwhelmingly influenced the outcome of combined operations. It does so in a structured format which allows for a comparison of the thematic constraints in the conduct of combined operations and in doing so it develops and builds upon the existing historiography.
    • Author gender identification for Urdu

      Sarwar, Raheem (Springer, 2022-09-30)
      In recent years, author gender identification has gained considerable attention in the fields of computational linguistics and artificial intelligence. This task has been extensively investigated for resource-rich languages such as English and Spanish. However, researchers have not paid enough attention to perform this task for Urdu articles. Firstly, I created a new Urdu corpus to perform the author gender identification task. I then extracted two types of features from each article including the most frequent 600 multi-word expressions and the most frequent 300 words. After I completed the corpus creation and features extraction processes, I performed the features concatenation process. As a result each article was represented in a 900D feature space. Finally, I applied 10 different well-known classifiers to these features to perform the author gender identification task and compared their performances against state-of-the-art pre-trained multilingual language models, such as mBERT, DistilBERT, XLM-RoBERTa and multilingual DeBERTa, as well as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). I conducted extensive experimental studies which show that (i) using the most frequent 600 multi-word expressions as features and concatenating them with the most frequent 300 words as features improves the accuracy of the author gender identification task, and (ii) support vector machines outperforms other classifiers, as well as fine-tuned pre-trained language models and CNN. The code base and the corpus can be found at: https://github.com/raheem23/Gender_Identification_Urdu.
    • The reliability and validity of different jump-test performance metrics for fatigue monitoring in amateur boxing

      Blades, Callum; Wilkinson, Mick (Sport Exercise Science New Zealand, 2022-05-03)
      Jump testing has become widespread practice in sport science for monitoring athletes’ fatigue. The purposes of this study were to determine whether the number of trials performed influenced the reliability of jump-test performance metrics, as well as establish the construct validity of these jump-test performance metrics for monitoring fatigue in amateur boxing. After institutional ethical approval, seven novice (stature 1.81 ± 0.08 m, mass 82.7 ± 12.4 kg, age 20.9 ± 0.8 years, training <6 months) and seven experienced amateur boxers (stature 1.74 ± 0.12 m, mass 71.3 ± 13.5 kg, age 22.0 ± 3.4 years, training >18 months) participated. All boxers completed familiarisation and three experimental trials, involving a standardised warmup and eight jump-tests. These jumptests included countermovement and squat jumps, performed bilaterally and unilaterally as well as vertically and horizontally. For each jump-test, 12 performance metrics were calculated using the maximum, mean or median height or distance, from combinations of the four attempts performed per jump-test, with and without one initial practice. Trial two also involved 3 x 2 min rounds of sparring to induce fatigue. Reliability was calculated for novice and experienced boxers separately using typical error between trials one and two, which ranged from 1.5 to 19 cm across the performance metrics. Construct validity was determined by a 2 x 2 within and between group ANOVA (novice v experienced, trial two v three). Only unilateral vertical squat jump height could discriminate experienced from novice boxers after a fatiguing sparring bout. Jump height of experienced boxers was lower than novices by 2.0 ± 0.2 cm (p = 0.01, 95% CI [1.1, 3.0] cm) when using the mean of two attempts after one practice. As typical error was 1.3 cm, results suggest that this jump-test and performance metric appear reliable and valid for monitoring fatigue in amateur boxing.
    • What socialization experiences influence how high school physical education teachers deliver games?

      Parkes, Craig; O'Leary, Nick (ASAHPERD, 2022-06-06)
      The purpose of the study was to investigate what past and current occupational socialization experiences influenced how high school physical education teachers delivered games lessons. The participants were three high school physical educators who taught in a public school in England. Qualitative data were collected through lesson observations and formal semi-structured interviews. Data analysis techniques included data reduction and inductive analysis. Data suggested all three teachers delivered games using the traditional model. Three main themes were traditional model structure, behaviourist learning approach, and technique development focus. Data suggested teachers were influenced to use this model by parents/teachers/coaches, high level competitive sport participation, university faculty, teaching colleagues, and pupils. Acculturation appeared to be the strongest phase of socialization because the teachers instructed in the same manner they were taught in school. These findings should provide insights for teacher preparation faculty who are charged with the task of challenging the acculturation beliefs of preservice teachers.
    • One for all and all in one: Modified silica kit-based protocol for simultaneous sample-specific extraction of DNA from a variety of source materials

      Schmerer, Wera Margarete (Research Square, 2022-01-10)
      Protocols utilized for the extraction of DNA vary significantly with regards to steps involved and duration of the overall procedure due to material-specific requirements for ensuring the highest possible yield in recovery of DNA. This variation mostly affects aspects of sample preparation and digestion steps required to release the DNA from the sample material. In contexts such as the development of new PCR-based assays - which always includes a test of species-specificity - reference samples from a number of species are utilized, requiring extraction of DNA from a variety of source materials, each with their specific conditions for effective isolation of DNA.The method presented here follows the strategy of synchronizing sample material-specific aspects such as sample preparation and digestion in such a way that one common protocol can be utilized for the actual extraction and purification of the DNA, allowing for an overall more efficient extraction process, while maintaining optimized conditions for DNA recovery.
    • Gum Arabic: past, present and future

      Baldwin, Timothy; Majumdar, D.K.; Govil, J.N.; Singh, V.K. (Studium Press LLC, 2003-01-01)
    • Research data sharing, reuse, and metrics: adoption and challenges across disciplines and repositories

      Thelwall, Mike; Khan, Nushrat; Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2021)
      Data sharing is widely believed to be beneficial to science and is now supported by digitization and new online infrastructures for sharing datasets. Nevertheless, differences in research cultures and the sporadic development of data repositories, support services, guidelines, and policies have resulted in uneven data sharing and reuse practices. An overall understanding of the current situation is therefore needed to identify gaps and next steps. In response, using two case studies and two surveys, this dissertation explores the current landscape and identifies challenges within data sharing and reuse practices. The results demonstrate how present systems and policies could be modified to support and encourage these activities. The researcher survey found that the type and format of data produced, as well as systematic data sharing varied between disciplines, with Physical Sciences and Earth and Planetary Sciences leading and Business and Economics, Engineering, and Medicine lagging in some respects. Surveys and observations were frequently produced in most fields, with samples and simulations being common in science and engineering and qualitative data being more prevalent in the social sciences, business, and humanities. Researchers who had prior data reuse experience shared data more frequently (56.8%, n=1,004) than those who only used their primary data for research (32.6%, n=396). The biodiversity case study and surveys show that secondary data are valuable for many purposes, but most struggle to find datasets to reuse. Data citations can incentivize data sharing, although a lack of appropriate data citations and reliable technologies make it difficult to efficiently track them. In biodiversity, where the sharing and reuse of open data via mature infrastructures is common, citing secondary datasets in references or data access statements has been increasing (48%, n=99). However, users simultaneously exploiting many data subsets in this field complicate the situation. This thesis makes recommendations for handling large numbers of biodiversity data subsets to attribute citations accurately. It also suggests further enhancements for the article-dataset linking service, Scholexplorer, to automatically capture such links. Based on responses from data repository managers, this research further identifies nine objectives for future repository systems. Specifically, 30% (n=34) of the surveyed managers would like integration and interoperability between data and systems, 19% (n=22) want better research data management tools, 16% (n=18) want tools that allow computation without downloading datasets, and 16% (n=18) want automated systems. It also makes 23 recommendations in three categories to support data sharing and promote further data reuse including 1) improved access and usability of data, as well as formal data citations; 2) improved search systems with suggested new features; and 3) cultural and policy-related issues around awareness and acceptance, incentives, collaboration, guidelines, and documentation. Finally, based on researcher feedback, this study proposes an alternative scoring model that combines a dataset quality score and a data reuse indicator that can be incorporated in academic evaluation systems. The outcomes from this research will help funders, policymakers and technology developers prioritize areas of improvement to incentivize data sharing and support data reuse with easily discoverable and usable data.
    • The activity of PHMB and other guanidino containing compounds against acanthamoeba and other ocular pathogens

      Ratnayake, Dharanga; Ansah, Michael; Al Ani, Enas; Heaselgrave, Wayne (MDPI, 2022-07-08)
      In recent years, a rise in the number of contact lens users in the UK and worldwide coincided with an increased incidence of microbial keratitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activities of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB), and guazatine in comparison to the common contact lens disinfectant constituent, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). The study investigated these compounds against a broad range of organisms, including Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. This study demonstrated that PHMG, PAPB, and guazatine are equal in activity to PHMB against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. PHMG and PAPB are also equal in activity to PHMB against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, whereas PHMG shows significantly better activity than PHMB against C. albicans (p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the effectiveness of PHMB, PHMG, PAPB, and guazatine against Acanthamoeba and other ocular pathogens. As alternatives to PHMB, these compounds warrant further investigation for inclusion in contact lens solutions and for the treatment of keratitis.