Now showing items 21-40 of 5883

    • Nanocrystalline Mg2Ni for hydrogen storage

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Arjunan, Arun; Ramadan, Mohamad; Alaswad, Abed; Achour, Hussam; Abdelkareem, Mohammad A; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2020-12-14)
      Hydrogen continues to receive increased attention as the most promising energy carrier enabling sustainable and eco-friendly energy systems. Despite the various advantages of hydrogen fuel, storing hydrogen in a light-weight and compact form is the barrier towards the commercialization of the hydrogen technologies. Thus, the availability of a reliable, inexpensive, safe and efficient hydrogen storage technology is crucial to support and foster the transition to a hydrogen-powered world. Among the possible hydrogen storage solutions, storing hydrogen in the solid-state, such as metal hydrides, is the safest and most attractive method for on-board hydrogen storage. The metal hydrides can release highly pure hydrogen, via a low-pressure endothermic process, suitable to be used directly in the hydrogen fuel cell devices. This article presents an overview of using Mg and Mg2Ni-based alloys for solid-state hydrogen storage. A review of the hydrogen storage technologies is presented first and then the most recent developments on Mg and Mg2Ni-based hydrogen storage materials are highlighted.
    • Immersive storytelling in mixed reality environments

      Doyle, Denise (IEEE, 2018-04-26)
      How will we adapt to a future that may see humans as an interplanetary species? The proposed project uses themes of outer space, future worlds and space travel to examine ways in which our future identities may be formed from these new environments, the role/s we may have in future societies; and the relationships that we will form with the people we will meet. The utilization of virtual and mixed reality (AR/VR) technologies can be a powerful tool in which to place the audience in different scenarios, to experience it from different viewpoints, and to allow them to anticipate what the future may look, feel like, and indeed be like, by being placed into a set of future space scenarios. This paper presents ideas from an interdisciplinary team of artists, scientists, and technologists of methodological approaches for art-science-technology and the prototypes anticipated through these dialogues.
    • Special issue: ISEA2017: Bio-creation and peace

      Doyle, D; Heller, L (Intellect, 2017-12-01)
    • Themed issue: Revisiting astronauts and avatars

      Doyle, D; Sharir, Y (Intellect, 2017-06-01)
    • Measuring community resilience using Q method: physical resilience perspective

      Tariq, Hisham; Pathirage, Chaminda; Fernando, Terrence (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose Decision makers, practitioners and community members have a need to assess the disaster resilience of their communities and to understand their own capacities in disaster situations. There is a lack of consensus among researchers as to what resilience means and how it can be measured. This paper proposes a novel technique to achieve consensus among stakeholders on the definitions, objectives and indicators for measuring a key dimension of community disaster resilience, namely Physical Infrastructure (PI). Method This study uses a 5-step approach utilizing Q-methods to contextualize a resilience index for Physical Infrastructure. Interviews, focus groups and Q-sorting workshops were conducted to develop a tool that ranked measures according to stakeholder preference. A total of 84 participants took part in the workshops across four countries (UK, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Findings The initial set of 317 measures was reduced to 128 and divided into the three community capacities of Anticipatory, Absorptive and Restorative. The Physical Infrastructure Capacity Assessment Tool (PI-CAT) was then finalized to encompass 38 indicators that were also ranked in order of importance by the participants. Practical implications The PI-CAT can be useful for local governments and communities to measure their own resilience. The tool allows stakeholders to be confident that the metrics being used are ones that are relevant, important and will meet their requirements. Originality The Q-method approach helps stakeholders to develop and use a community capacity assessment tool that is appropriate for their context. The PI-CAT can be used to identify effective investments that will enhance community disaster resilience.
    • Emerging evidence on the association between COVID-19and Type 2 Diabetes

      Morrissey, Hana; Wara, Bahta; Bibi, Nasreem; Ball, Patrick (Romanian Society of Diabetes Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases, 2020-12-30)
      Objective: Published studies demonstrate that diagnosis with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) places patients at risk of severe symptoms and increased mortality from COVID-19. The literature was reviewed to understand emerging evidence. Method: A review of published studies on COVID-19 in patients with diabetes was conducted to identify the needs and optimal practice for the local population diagnosed with diabetes at risk of COVID-19. Key Findings: The combined sample was n=18746 where all patients were diagnosed with T2DM and COVID-19. The severity of symptoms was reported in n=7646. Most reported were fever, (32%) cough (26%), and chest tightness (8%). The causes of death were reported in n=3260. The main causes of death were: COVID-19 (76%), acute respiratory distress (5%). Other comorbidities were reported in n= 6968. The most reported comorbidities were hypertension (38%), cardiovascular (10%), and pulmonary disease (3%). Other risk factors were reported in n= 6968. Those most reported were diabetes, (80%) cardiovascular abnormalities (10%), hyperglycemia not previously diagnosed as diabetes (9%). The reported effects of antidiabetic medications on COVID-19 disease were reviewed for emerging evidence. Conclusions: Published studies underline the importance of maintaining weight, glycemic control, good hydration, and exercising as much as possible. Patients need to be informed to present to hospital promptly if developing COVID-19 symptoms. Normal T2DM therapy can be maintained in patients with no, or mild, symptoms. On presentation to hospital with severe COVID-19 disease, diabetes control maybe maintained with insulin, concurrent with hydration and metabolic parameters maintenance until the patient is recovered.
    • Synthesis and evaluation of selected benzimidazole derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents

      Alasmary, FAS; Snelling, AM; Zain, ME; Alafeefy, AM; Awaad, AS; Karodia, N; Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11362, Saudi Arabia. fasmari@ksu.edu.sa. (MDPI, 2015-08-20)
      © 2015 by the authors. A library of 53 benzimidazole derivatives, with substituents at positions 1, 2 and 5, were synthesized and screened against a series of reference strains of bacteria and fungi of medical relevance. The SAR analyses of the most promising results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the compounds depended on the substituents attached to the bicyclic heterocycle. In particular, some compounds displayed antibacterial activity against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) comparable to the widely-used drug ciprofloxacin. The compounds have some common features; three possess 5-halo substituents; two are derivatives of (S)-2-ethanaminebenzimidazole; and the others are derivatives of one 2-(chloromethyl)-1Hbenzo[ d]imidazole and (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methanethiol. The results from the antifungal screening were also very interesting: 23 compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity against the selected fungal strains. They displayed equivalent or greater potency in their MIC values than amphotericin B. The 5-halobenzimidazole derivatives could be considered promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial candidates that deserve further study for potential therapeutic applications.
    • Editorial

      Doyle, D (Intellect, 2018-12-01)
    • Infant survival among free-living bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) in South India

      Arlet, Małgorzata E; Balasubramaniam, Krishna N; Saha, Rajarshi; Beisner, Brianne; Marty, Pascal R; Kaburu, Stefano; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Kaasik, Ants; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; McCowan, Brenda (Springer Nature, 2021-12-31)
      Female reproductive success depends to a large extent on infants’ ability to survive to maturity. While most studies of female reproductive success have focused on the effects of individuals’ sociodemographic factors (e.g. age/parity, dominance rank) on offspring survival among wild primates living in less disturbed habitats, little research has focused on offspring survival in urban or peri-urban animals. Here we investigated sociodemographic and anthropogenic determinants of infant survival (up to 1-yr of age) in free-ranging bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) living in a peri-urban environment in Southern India. We conducted the study from November 2016 to May 2018, on two groups of bonnet macaques at the Thenmala tourist site in the state of Kerala. Fifty infants were born across two birth seasons. 29.2% of infants died or disappeared in 2017 and 26.9% died or disappeared in 2018. We found that infant survival was strongly influenced by the mother’s parity: infants of experienced mothers had a better chance of survival than those of first-time mothers. We also found that male infants were more likely to die than female infants. However, we found no effects of mothers’ dominance rank, or of frequency of mothers’ interactions with humans and time spent foraging on anthropogenic food, on infant survival. Our results, consistent with findings from other wild primate species, show that even in challenging human-impacted environments, experienced bonnet macaque mothers have greater success than inexperienced ones.
    • Barriers for Implementing solar energy initiatives in Nigeria: an empirical study

      Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Abdullahi, Dahiru; Oloke, David (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose Despite the abundant renewable energy potential in the Nigeria, power sector stakeholders have not paid attention to the prospect of natural resources that can be utilised when it is properly harnessed. Although, a very negligible fraction of the population has invested in solar photovoltaic (PVs) for home solution, the initiative was only made public commercialised under the public private partnership (PPP) and the objectives of the Power Sector Reform Act. 2005. It is, therefore, aimed to investigate the causes and insight of the barriers that are responsible for the slow implementation of the solar energy initiative in Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study was performed in Nigeria. The study was conducted qualitatively, through semi-structured face-to face interviews of 25 participants. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, interpreted, coded, categorised into themes, and analysed by content analysis. Findings The study reveals technological, financial, political, and social barriers have been the reason for slowing down solar energy development in Nigeria. While the technical barrier is a challenge to the solar energy implementation, socio-cultural issues have also been an obstacle to the implementation process. It is suggested that the stakeholders of the initiatives, to proffer sustainable policies to enable public and private promoters to be able to generate, and distribute electricity through solar PV, to complement the inadequate conventional electricity sources from the grids. Originality/value The paper provides a richer insight into the understanding and awareness of barriers for implementing solar energy strategies in Nigeria.
    • Guest editorial

      Arif, Mohammed; Goulding, Jack; Rankin, Jeff; Pour Rahimian, Farzad (Emerald, 2021-01-04)
    • Blockchain and IoMT against physical abuse: bullying in schools as a case study

      Ersotelos, Nikolaos; Bottarelli, Mirko; Al-Khateeb, Haider; Epiphaniou, Gregory; Alhaboby, Zhraa; Pillai, Prashant; Aggoun, Amar (MDPI AG, 2020-12-29)
      By law, schools are required to protect the well-being of students against problems such as on-campus bullying and physical abuse. In the UK, a report by the Office for Education (OfE) showed 17% of young people had been bullied during 2017–2018. This problem continues to prevail with consequences including depression, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and eating disorders. Additionally, recent evidence suggests this type of victimisation could intensify existing health complications. This study investigates the opportunities provided by Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) data towards next-generation safeguarding. A new model is developed based on blockchain technology to enable real-time intervention triggered by IoMT data that can be used to detect stressful events, e.g., when bullying takes place. The model utilises private permissioned blockchain to manage IoMT data to achieve quicker and better decision-making while revolutionising aspects related to compliance, double-entry, confidentiality, and privacy. The feasibility of the model and the interaction between the sensors and the blockchain was simulated. To facilitate a close approximation of an actual IoMT environment, we clustered and decomposed existing medical sensors to their attributes, including their function, for a variety of scenarios. Then, we demonstrated the performance and capabilities of the emulator under different loads of sensor-generated data. We argue to the suitability of this emulator for schools and medical centres to conduct feasibility studies to address sensor data with disruptive data processing and management technologies.
    • Operation Allied Force as a catalyst for change: Toward Intensified multinational cooperation

      Burczynska, Maria E; Paget, Steven (University Press of Kentucky, 2021-01)
    • BERGAMOT-LATTE submissions for the WMT20 quality estimation shared task

      Fomicheva, Marina; Sun, Shuo; Yankovskaya, Lisa; Blain, Frédéric; Chaudhary, Vishrav; Fishel, Mark; Guzmán, Francisco; Specia, Lucia (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2020-11-30)
      This paper presents our submission to the WMT2020 Shared Task on Quality Estimation (QE). We participate in Task and Task 2 focusing on sentence-level prediction. We explore (a) a black-box approach to QE based on pre-trained representations; and (b) glass-box approaches that leverage various indicators that can be extracted from the neural MT systems. In addition to training a feature-based regression model using glass-box quality indicators, we also test whether they can be used to predict MT quality directly with no supervision. We assess our systems in a multi-lingual setting and show that both types of approaches generalise well across languages. Our black-box QE models tied for the winning submission in four out of seven language pairs inTask 1, thus demonstrating very strong performance. The glass-box approaches also performed competitively, representing a light-weight alternative to the neural-based models.
    • Webometrics: evolution of social media presence of universities

      Sarwar, Raheem; Zia, Afifa; Nawaz, Raheel; Fayoumi, Ayman; Aljohani, Naif Radi; Hassan, Saeed-Ul (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-03)
      This paper aims at an important task of computing the webometrics university ranking and investigating if there exists a correlation between webometrics university ranking and the rankings provided by the world prominent university rankers such as QS world university ranking, for the time period of 2005–2016. However, the webometrics portal provides the required data for the recent years only, starting from 2012, which is insufficient for such an investigation. The rest of the required data can be obtained from the internet archive. However, the existing data extraction tools are incapable of extracting the required data from internet archive, due to unusual link structure that consists of web archive link, year, date, and target links. We developed an internet archive scrapper and extract the required data, for the time period of 2012–2016. After extracting the data, the webometrics indicators were quantified, and the universities were ranked accordingly. We used correlation coefficient to identify the relationship between webometrics university ranking computed by us and the original webometrics university ranking, using the spearman and pearson correlation measures. Our findings indicate a strong correlation between ours and the webometrics university rankings, which proves that the applied methodology can be used to compute the webometrics university ranking of those years for which the ranking is not available, i.e., from 2005 to 2011. We compute the webometrics ranking of the top 30 universities of North America, Europe and Asia for the time period of 2005–2016. Our findings indicate a positive correlation for North American and European universities, but weak correlation for Asian universities. This can be explained by the fact that Asian universities did not pay much attention to their websites as compared to the North American and European universities. The overall results reveal the fact that North American and European universities are higher in rank as compared to Asian universities. To the best of our knowledge, such an investigation has been executed for the very first time by us and no recorded work resembling this has been done before.
    • Implementing a pressure training program to improve decision-making and execution of skill among premier league academy soccer players

      Devonport, Tracey; Kent, Sofie; Lane, Andy; Nicholls, Wendy (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention intended to improve academy players’ performance under pressure. Male academy soccer players (n = 82; mean age = 14.12 years, SD = 2.28) completed a baseline pressure task producing performance scores (A) for decision making and skill execution. By completing a pressure task, players received pressure training (PT) (Wood & Wilson, 2012). Players were then randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 41; receiving PT, three cognitive behavior workshops, and reflective diaries) or comparison group (n = 41; receiving PT only). Sixty-eight players (n = 29; intervention group; n = 39; comparison group) repeated the PT task at a six-week follow up (B), and of these, 26 (n = 15; intervention group; n = 11; PT only) also completed a re-test PT task (A) at 12-week follow up. Due to attrition at follow up, chi-square analysis was conducted across experimental groups A-B only. Analysis indicated intervention players scored significantly higher in their decision-making (p = .028) with a significant main effect of age-group on decision-making (p = .003) and skill execution (p = .005). Four players (highest scoring and lowest scoring player within intervention and comparison groups) from each academy age-group (n = 16) took part in individual interviews to explore intervention effectiveness. Thematic analysis found that some players perceived no benefits of the condition they completed, others perceived benefits to confidence, meta-cognitive skills, and challenge appraisals. Methodological implications for future pressure training interventions are presented.
    • Findings of the WMT 2020 shared task on quality estimation

      Specia, Lucia; Blain, Frédéric; Fomicheva, Marina; Fonseca, Erick; Chaudhary, Vishrav; Guzmán, Francisco; Martins, André FT (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2020-11-30)
      We report the results of the WMT20 shared task on Quality Estimation, where the challenge is to predict the quality of the output of neural machine translation systems at the word, sentence and document levels. This edition included new data with open domain texts, direct assessment annotations, and multiple language pairs: English-German, English-Chinese, Russian-English, Romanian-English, Estonian-English, Sinhala-English and Nepali-English data for the sentence-level subtasks, English-German and English-Chinese for the word-level subtask, and English-French data for the document-level subtask. In addition, we made neural machine translation models available to participants. 19 participating teams from 27 institutions submitted altogether 1374 systems to different task variants and language pairs.
    • The association between training load indices and injuries in elite soccer players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Comyns, Tom; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2020-12-04)
      To investigate the association between contact injuries, noncontact injuries, and training load indices, across different lag periods in elite soccer players. Internal load (session rate of perceived exertion) was collected from 15 elite soccer players over 1 season (40-weeks). Acute (7 days), chronic (28 days), acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) (uncoupled), exponentially weighted moving averages (EWMA) ACWR, and 2-, 3-, and 4-week cumulative load were calculated on a rolling weekly basis. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between contact, noncontact injuries, and training load indices, across different lag periods (5 and 7 days). A player was at a significantly higher risk of a noncontact injury 5 days later, if week-to-week acute load changes increased (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97). An increase in EWMA ACWR was associated with an increased risk of both a contact (OR = 1.30) and noncontact injury (OR = 1.35), 5 days later. An increase in 2-week cumulative load (OR = 1.77) was associated with an increased risk of a contact injury 7 days later and 3-week cumulative load (OR = 1.55) 5 days later. These findings suggest that to reduce the potential risk of a noncontact injury, training load should be gradually increased, avoiding an increase in week-to-week acute load change (≥9%) or EWMA ACWR (>1.20). Findings indicated that EWMA ACWR may be a more sensitive measure for detecting a player at a higher risk of an injury than ACWR. Furthermore, a high 2- and 3-week cumulative load was associated with an increased risk of a contact injury, which may indicate accumulated fatigue. Practitioners must note that this study investigated associations with injury risk and not injury prediction.