Now showing items 1-20 of 6399

    • Women in social housing and the pursuit of entrepreneurship

      Hussain, Sundas; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Carey, Charlotte; Jafari-Sadeghi, Vahid (Inderscience, 2021-12-31)
      Women’s engagement in entrepreneurship from a social housing perspective has scarcely been explored in the literature. Thus, insights into how the social housing system may condition participation in entrepreneurship have been excluded from empirical understanding. In order to address this gap, we assess the entrepreneurial intention of women in a deprived area of one of the UK’s largest cities. Through an inductive analysis, we develop a conceptual model in which attitude towards entrepreneurship, self-efficacy and subjective norms emerge as mediators of entrepreneurial intention. Our findings pose theoretical implications for future variance-based analyses, as well as practical implications for social housing providers and the role of public institutions in fostering entrepreneurial outcomes.
    • Postdigital education in a biotech future

      Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (SAGE, 2021-10-08)
      This paper explores a possible future of postdigital education in 2050 using the means of social science fiction. The first part of the paper introduces the shift from 20th century primacy of physics to 21st century primacy of biology with an accent to new postdigital–biodigital reconfigurations and challenges in and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The second part of the paper presents a fictional speech at the graduation ceremony of a fictional military academy in a fictional East Asian country in 2050. This fictional world is marked by global warfare and militarization, and addressed graduates are the first generation of artificially evolved graduates in human history. The third part of the paper interprets the fictional narrative, contextualizes it into educational challenges of today, and argues for a dialogical, humanistic conception of new postdigital education in a biotech future.
    • The design coordination role at the pre-construction stage of construction project

      Ndekugri, Issaka; Ankrah, Nii; Adaku, Ebenezer (Routledge, 2021-09-07)
      The importance of the concept of prevention through design (PtD) to the alleviation of the problem of poor health and safety (H&S) management in the construction industry is widely acknowledged. It has been adopted in the regulatory framework for H&S in the UK construction industry through the Construction Design and Management Regulations 2015 (CDM 2015) which place on the project client obligations with emphasis on coordination of H&S at the pre-construction stage of the project by a client-appointed ‘Principal Designer’ (PD). Unfortunately, research into the implementation of CDM 2015 into actual practice at the pre-construction stage has been patchy. The paper reports, with respect to the PD role, on part of research undertaken to respond to this gap. It involved surveys of clients and practitioners via fourteen focus group discussion sessions with over eighty participants to develop knowledge and understanding of the PD role. The research issues included: appointments to the role; structures for discharge of the role; day-to-day functions of the PD; remuneration arrangements; and common challenges regarding the PD.
    • Dispute resolution in public private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects in Nigeria: literature review

      Ahatty, Sunday; Ndekugri, Issaka E.; Adaku, Ebenezer; Oladinrin, Olugbenga (IJERT, 2021-09-25)
      Over the past decade, Public Private Partnership (PPP) Policy has increasingly been adopted by governments over the World and the Nigerian Government is no exception. This can be attributed to the fact that the era of government singlehandedly providing infrastructural facilities are long gone. The governments all over the world in this new dispensation now cooperate with the private sectors in the provision and management of various infrastructural facilities in their respective countries. Nigeria has also embraced the Public Private Partnerships (PPP) initiative as a means of addressing the huge infrastructure deficits and challenges. But PPP contracts are long-term, projects tend to be complex in their scope with multiple stakeholders involved and contract documents are complex and subject to interpretation Therefore, unlike the case under traditional procurement system, the proclivity for disputes arising in PPP projects is now very high. In light of this, this paper aims to review existing literature on dispute resolution methods in PPP infrastructure projects in Nigeria. This study adopts the systematic review process as a methodological approach. A total of 100 articles from 20 construction-related journals were identified and reviewed. Among these, only 25 articles focused on dispute resolution in PPP infrastructure projects in Nigeria which were then analysed, synthesised, and summarised. The study found from literature review that dispute resolution methods adopted in PPP contracts relate to binding and non-binding methods i.e. Mediation or conciliation, Negotiation, Dispute Resolution Board (DRB), Expert Determination, Arbitration and Litigation. On the other hand, from redacted PPP contract documents in Nigeria, the different dispute resolution methods identified were mutual consultation, mediation and arbitration, which are more of alternative dispute resolution (ADR). The study highlights the actual state of research into construction dispute resolution methods in PPP infrastructure projects in Nigeria.
    • Rocks and hard places: Exploring educational psychologists’ perspectives on ‘off rolling’ or illegal exclusionary practices in mainstream secondary schools in England

      Done, Elizabeth; Knowler, Helen; Shield, Will; Baynton, Hannah (School of Psychology, University of East London, 2022-03-31)
      Research being undertaken by the Universities of Exeter and Plymouth is exploring Educational Psychologists’ knowledge of, and perspectives on, exclusionary practices in schools in England, particularly illegal practices referred to as ‘off rolling’. Preliminary findings from the survey element of a mixed methods research project are reported here. The role of business models in the provision of Educational Psychology Services to schools is considered through the conceptual lens of Giroux, Agamben and Ball to highlight ambiguities around the client relationship and to recast individualised ethical dilemmas as systemic features that inhibit direct challenges to school practices relating to inclusion. It is suggested that traded and privatised services risk implicating educational psychologists in schools’ management of the (in)visibility of ‘off rolling’ and the manufactured legitimacy of varied exclusionary practices.
    • Exploring nurses’ online perspectives and social networks during a global pandemic COVID-19

      O'Leary, Lisa; Erikainen, Sonja; Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Ahmed, Wasim; Thelwall, Michael; O'Connor, Siobhan (Wiley, 2022-03-31)
      Objectives. Examine the online interactions, social networks, and perspectives of nursing actors on COVID-19 from conversations on Twitter to understand how the profession responded to this global pandemic. Design. Mixed methods. Sample. 10,574 tweets by 2,790 individuals and organisations. Measurements. NodeXL software was used for social network analysis to produce a network visualisation. The betweenness centrality algorithm identified key users who were influential in COVID-19 related conversations on Twitter. Inductive content analysis enabled exploration of tweet content. A communicative figurations framework guided the study. Results. Nursing actors formed different social groupings, and communicated with one another across groups. Tweets covered four themes; 1. outbreak and clinical management of the infectious disease, 2. education and information sharing, 3. social, economic, and political context, and 4. working together and supporting each other. Conclusion. In addition to spreading knowledge, nurses tried to reach out through social media to political and healthcare leadership to advocate for improvements needed to address COVID-19. However, they primarily conversed within their own professional community. Action is needed to better understand how social media is and can be used by nurses for health communication, and to improve their preparedness to be influential on social media beyond the nursing community.
    • Translationese and register variation in English-to-Russian professional translation

      Kunilovskaya, Maria; Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Wang, Vincent; Lim, Lily; Li, Defeng (Springer Singapore, 2021-10-12)
      This study explores the impact of register on the properties of translations. We compare sources, translations and non-translated reference texts to describe the linguistic specificity of translations common and unique between four registers. Our approach includes bottom-up identification of translationese effects that can be used to define translations in relation to contrastive properties of each register. The analysis is based on an extended set of features that reflect morphological, syntactic and text-level characteristics of translations. We also experiment with lexis-based features from n-gram language models estimated on large bodies of originally- authored texts from the included registers. Our parallel corpora are built from published English-to-Russian professional translations of general domain mass-media texts, popular-scientific books, fiction and analytical texts on political and economic news. The number of observations and the data sizes for parallel and reference components are comparable within each register and range from 166 (fiction) to 525 (media) text pairs; from 300,000 to 1 million tokens. Methodologically, the research relies on a series of supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques, including those that facilitate visual data exploration. We learn a number of text classification models and study their performance to assess our hypotheses. Further on, we analyse the usefulness of the features for these classifications to detect the best translationese indicators in each register. The multivariate analysis via text classification is complemented by univariate statistical analysis which helps to explain the observed deviation of translated registers through a number of translationese effects and detect the features that contribute to them. Our results demonstrate that each register generates a unique form of translationese that can be only partially explained by cross-linguistic factors. Translated registers differ in the amount and type of prevalent translationese. The same translationese tendencies in different registers are manifested through different features. In particular, the notorious shining-through effect is more noticeable in general media texts and news commentary and is less prominent in fiction.
    • Technical potential of floating photovoltaic systems on artificial water bodies in Brazil

      Campos Lopes, Mariana Padilha; Nogueira, Tainan; Leandro Santos, Alberto José; Castelo Branco, David; Pouran, Hamid (Elsevier, 2021-09-30)
      Floating photovoltaic systems (FPVs) are an emerging technology where photovoltaic solar panels are placed on the water surface. They are cost-competitive compared to ground-mounted solar farms and provide some additional and unique properties including reduced evaporation of the water from the reservoir, mitigating algae growth; higher efficiency of electricity generation compared to common PV systems because of the cooling effects of water and preventing land-use conflicts. Despite the growing interest in this technology and the opportunities that it could create, there is no systematic assessment of the technical potential of FPVs in Brazil. This work is the first study on the technical potential of FPVs in artificial water bodies applied to Brazil at country and state levels. The country's potential for this purpose was determined based on two criteria: selecting only artificial/man-made water bodies and excluding protected areas. The QGIS software was used to locate water bodies and cross georeferenced meteorological data. The results show that even if FPVs cover only 1% of the identified suitable areas this technology can produce energy equivalent to almost 12.5% of the current national electricity generation and correspond to approximately 16% of Brazil's electricity consumption.
    • Emerging trends in construction law at the confluence of academia and industry

      Chinyio, Ezekiel; Charlson, Jennifer (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
      Engineering UK’s 2018 report on the state of engineering records that in 2016, engineering enterprises generated 23.2% of the UK’s total turnover of £5.3 trillion (£1.23 trillion) and construction had a turnover of £171.91 billion, representing 14.0% of the total turnover produced within the engineering sectorial footprint. The congruence and distinction between the law underpinning construction and engineering in academia and industry is uncertain. The research aim therefore is construction and engineering law compared and contrasted from academia to industry. The author adopted a constructionist or subjective epistemology and relativist ontological stance. Constructivist and pragmatic philosophical paradigms and qualitative methodologies were selected including document analysis, interviews, case studies and focus groups. The construction and engineering law required by professional institutions to be taught in academia to undergraduates were analysed. Some similarity between the legal topics mandated by engineering and construction professional institutions was identified; for example, the legal framework, contract, environmental and health and safety law. The differences are that engineering bodies also require intellectual property awareness and construction institutions incorporate dispute resolution and land law. It was also argued that the importance of European Law should be recognised. Guidance for construction expert witnesses, who are engaged in dispute resolution, arising from three relevant significant documents that were published in 2014 by the Civil Justice Council, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and the Society of Construction Law was researched. The following were suggested as barriers affecting experts: regulations, budgetary controls, availability of evidence and deadlines. Construction-specific legal risks relevant to SMEs in Europe with a view to manage them were identified. The study confirms that the relevant legal risks for construction SMEs in Italy are: procurement, building regulations, construction contract and dispute resolution. The civil engineering SME case study touched on contract terms, regulations and dispute resolution and the additional issue of intellectual property protection was recognised. Environmental law issues surrounding the regeneration of brownfield land including contaminated land, waste management, water pollution, regulators, environmental impact assessment issues were investigated. Contractors’ standard of design responsibility in current standard forms of contract was analysed and recent relevant case law was reviewed. In conclusion, the overlap in academia, between construction and engineering law of legal topics including legal framework, contract, environmental and health and safety law has been identified. They differ in that engineering bodies additionally require intellectual property awareness and construction institutions include dispute resolution and land law. These findings in academia are reflected in industry. Although framed in a construction law context, the research on expert witnesses also applies to engineering expert witnesses. However, as identified by the accrediting professional bodies, there is a greater requirement for dispute resolution in the construction industry. Environmental law is relevant to both engineering and construction industries. Similarly, current standard forms of contract and recent case law are pertinent to both industries. The congruence and distinction between the law underpinning construction and engineering in academia and industry has been clarified. Subsequent research developed a design, manufacture and construct procurement model for volumetric offsite manufacturing in the UK housing sector and examined the introduction of Brownfield Land Registers in England. Topical and timely research examined the impact of BREXIT and the COVID-19 pandemic on construction law
    • Teaching itself: a mythology of learning in theory and practice

      Jopling, Michael; Bennett, Pete (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      What I attempt in this dissertation is to make coherent sense of a body of work produced with others over a period of ten years. This was a decade in which the progressive principles that inform my work were being progressively pushed back by an increasingly nihilistic neoliberalism across the Western world and a peculiarly retrogressive manifestation (The Govist turn) in the UK. In the most extreme case a book that was conceived as creatively and playfully reimaging Media Studies ‘after the subject’ turned out almost to be the subject’s epitaph as its survival at A level turned out to be a close run thing. I hope in passing to consider the impact of this context but also to argue that the context of writing this commentary, at the time of a global pandemic, has probably added more significantly to its value, which I measure only pragmatically, of ideas being produced in a way that is useful to other people. As the pandemic has exposed our flawed models of education far more powerfully than I could myself, indeed have myself, so it has also provided an imperative for affirmative critical action. I hope this work can make a small contribution to that process in suggesting ways in which we might fundamentally perform the educational ‘act’ differently. For that reason there is a more heavily weighted focus on the ways in which my more recent publications constitute a hardly intended deconstruction of the dominant educational paradigm and tentative presentation of an alternative in four steps. As this has been an interpretation of the work inspired by this process alone, I have tried also to make the creation of the commentary an active element of the final version. In this I am partly acknowledging the influence of Barthes’ famous book lengthy critical study of his own work, ‘RB by RB’. I would like to think that the structures, fluidity and playfulness of the commentary also convey something of the whole project.
    • Once a man, twice a child: a phenomenological study of women of Jamaican heritage caring for a relative living with dementia

      Murandu, Moses; Bailey, Janet (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-12)
      Little research has been done into the lived experience of caregivers of Jamaican heritage providing care for family members with dementia. Socio-cultural traditions in Jamaican families assign nurturing and caring roles to women, so that when a family member develops dementia it is females who take up the role. The aim of the present study was to explore the lived experience of caregivers of Jamaican heritage living in both England and Jamaica. This study offers a unique and original contribution to our knowledge base as currently there is no published qualitative study that focuses on dementia caregiving in Jamaican families. Using a phenomenological methodology, data were collected in England and Jamaica over a period of twelve months by semi-structured interviews with ten women of Jamaican heritage caring for a family member living with dementia. Participants were interviewed in Birmingham, England and Kingston, Jamaica. Findings revealed six themes relating to how women of Jamaican heritage experience and understand dementia caregiving. (1) strength and resilience; (2) a labour of love; (3) picking sense out of nonsense; (4) I’m not a carer - I’m family; (5) the role of the Church and (6) Jamaicans don’t do that. The insight gained from these findings provided rich information about the participants’ experiences of caregiving. This study revealed that cultural values and upbringing within Jamaican families are important factors that support caregivers in dealing positively with the demands of caregiving. The main implications for practice from this study suggests is that the willingness and commitment of women of Jamaican heritage to provide long-term care within family units in order to maintain the dignity of their elders, as opposed to admitting them to care facilities, needs affirming and supporting. Also, there is a need for commissioners of services and support in England and Jamaica to recognise the importance of voluntary community groups and Black majority churches, when collating and disseminating information.
    • The top 10 research priorities in diabetes and pregnancy according to women, support networks and healthcare professionals

      Ayman, G; Strachan, JA; McLennan, N; Malouf, R; Lowe-Zinola, J; Magdi, F; Roberts, N; Alderdice, F; Berneantu, I; Breslin, N; et al. (Wiley, 2021-05-05)
      Aims: To undertake a Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) to establish priorities for future research in diabetes and pregnancy, according to women with experience of pregnancy, and planning pregnancy, with any type of diabetes, their support networks and healthcare professionals. Methods: The PSP used established James Lind Alliance (JLA) methodology working with women and their support networks and healthcare professionals UK-wide. Unanswered questions about the time before, during or after pregnancy with any type of diabetes were identified using an online survey and broad-level literature search. A second survey identified a shortlist of questions for final prioritisation at an online consensus development workshop. Results: There were 466 responses (32% healthcare professionals) to the initial survey, with 1161 questions, which were aggregated into 60 unanswered questions. There were 614 responses (20% healthcare professionals) to the second survey and 18 questions shortlisted for ranking at the workshop. The top 10 questions were: diabetes technology, the best test for diabetes during pregnancy, diet and lifestyle interventions for diabetes management during pregnancy, emotional and well-being needs of women with diabetes pre- to post-pregnancy, safe full-term birth, post-natal care and support needs of women, diagnosis and management late in pregnancy, prevention of other types of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes, women's labour and birth experiences and choices and improving planning pregnancy. Conclusions: These research priorities provide guidance for research funders and researchers to target research in diabetes and pregnancy that will achieve greatest value and impact.
    • Source language difficulties in learner translation: Evidence from an error-annotated corpus

      Kunilovskaia, Mariia; Ilyushchenya, Tatyana; Morgoun, Natalia; Mitkov, Ruslan (John Benjamins Publishing, 2022-06-30)
      This study uses an error-annotated, mass-media subset of a sentence-aligned, multi-parallel learner translator corpus, to reveal source language items that are challenging in English-to-Russian translation. Our data includes multiple translations to most challenging source sentences, distilled from a large collection of student translations on the basis of error statistics. This sample was subjected to manual contrastive-comparative analysis, which resulted in a list of English items that were difficult to students. The outcome of the analysis was compared to the topics discussed in dozens of translation textbooks that are recommended to BA and specialist-degree students in Russia at the initial stage of professional education. We discuss items that deserve more prominence in training as well as items that call for improvements to traditional learning activities. This study presents evidence that a more empirically-motivated design of practical translation syllabus as part of translator education is required.
    • Fused deposition modelling: Current status, methodology, applications and future prospects

      Cano-Vicent, Alba; Tambuwala, Murtaza M; Hassan, Sk Sarif; Barh, Debmalya; Aljabali, Alaa AA; Birkett, Martin; Arjunan, Arun; Serrano-Aroca, Ángel (Elsevier, 2021-10-02)
      Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is an advanced 3D printing technique for the manufacture of plastic materials. The ease of use, prototyping accuracy and low cost makes it a widely used additive manufacturing technique. FDM creates 3D structures through the layer-by-layer melt-extrusion of a plastic filament. The production of a printed structure involves the generation of a digital design of the model by 3D design software and its execution by the printer until the complete model is reproduced. This review presents the current status of FDM, how to handle and operate FDM printers, industry standards of printing, the types of filaments that can be used, the post-processing treatments, advantages, and limitations as well as an overview of the increasing application fields of FDM technology. The application areas of FDM are endless, including biomedicine, construction, automotive, aerospace, acoustics, textiles, and occupational therapy amongst others. Even during the current Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, FDM has helped to fabricate face masks, ventilators and respiratory systems, respiratory valves, and nasopharyngeal swabs for COVID-19 diagnosis. FDM 3D and 4D printing can produce polymeric and composite structures of various designs, and compositions in a range of materials according to the desired application. The review concludes by discussing the future prospects for FDM.
    • Mixture of piperazine and potassium carbonate to absorb CO2 in the packed column: Modelling study

      N.Borhani, Tohid; Babamohammadi, Shervan; Khallaghi, Navid; Zhang, Zhein (Elsevier, 2021-09-27)
      A rate-based non-equilibrium model is developed for CO2 absorption with the mixture of piperazine and potassium carbonate solution. The model is based on the mass and heat transfer between the liquid and the gas phases on each packed column segment. The thermodynamic equilibrium assumption (physical equilibrium) is considered only at the gas–liquid interface and chemical equilibrium is assumed in the liquid phase bulk. The calculated mass transfer coefficient from available correlations is corrected by the enhancement factor to account for the chemical reactions in the system. The Extended-UNIQUAC model is used to calculate the non-idealities related to the liquid phase, and the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state is used for the gas phase calculations. The thermodynamic analysis is also performed in this study. The enhancement factor is used to represent the effect of chemical reactions of the piperazine promoted potassium carbonate solution, which has not been considered given the rigorous electrolyte thermodynamics in the absorber. The developed model showed good agreement with the experimental data and similar studies in the literature.
    • Exclusion and the strategic leadership role of Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCos) in England: planning for COVID-19 and future crises

      Done, Elizabeth; Knowler, Helen (Wiley-Blackwell, 2022-05-30)
      A small-scale study funded by the British Educational Association (BERA Small Awards 2020) investigated the role of SENCos in England immediately prior to, during and following the first closure of schools nationally in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. A mixed methods research strategy comprising semi-structured interviews and a national online survey generated data related to SENCos’ involvement in strategic planning for crisis conditions, focusing specifically on students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) and concerns around exclusionary practices. Findings suggest that pandemic conditions have exacerbated familiar issues related to the SENCo role and SEND provision in English schools, e.g. engagement in reactive firefighting, onerous workloads, uneven SENCo involvement in strategic planning, and schools’ failure to prioritise students with SEND. Minimal evidence of ‘advocacy leadership’ or of SENCos challenging exclusionary practices was found. Disparities between anecdotal and published data around illegal exclusion found in earlier research were also evidenced.
    • How lesson study is used in initial teacher education: an international review of literature

      Bamfield, Vivienne; Boyle, Chris; Bethel, Alison; Knowler, Helen; Katene, Will; Koutsouris, George; Norwich, Brahm (Taylor & Francis, 2022-05-31)
      This paper focuses on the use of lesson study (LS) in initial teacher education (ITE) from a mapping review of international research published in peer reviewed journals. This method enables identification of characteristic features of the research field along with any gaps in the existing evidence base. We map out variations in ITE LS practices by employing a 7-dimensional framework of LS to illustrate the range and draw conclusions about the design and use of LS in ITE. We conclude that LS is an example of teacher enquiry-based practice; identified by researchers as one of the means of building the capacity for a self-improving education system. LS and related practices play a crucial role in preparing teachers to adopt a research orientation to their own practice. However, the paper also discusses the organisational challenges and the balance between acquiring skills and reflection for beginning teachers when introducing LS into ITE.
    • Associations between CT pulmonary opacity score on admission and clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with COVID-19

      Luo, H; Wang, Y; Liu, S; Chen, R; Chen, T; Yang, Y; Wang, D; Ju, S; Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK. (Springer, 2021-06-30)
      This study investigated associations between chest computed tomography (CT) pulmonary opacity score on admission and clinical features and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The retrospective multi-center cohort study included 496 COVID-19 patients in Jiangsu province, China diagnosed as of March 15, 2020. Patients were divided into four groups based on the quartile of pulmonary opacity score: ≤ 5%, 6–20%, 21–40% and 41% +. CT pulmonary opacity score was independently associated with age, single onset, fever, cough, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, lymphocyte count, platelet count, albumin level, C-reactive protein (CRP) level and fibrinogen level on admission. Patients with score ≥ 41% had a dramatic increased risk of severe or critical illness [odds ratio (OR), 15.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.82–63.53), intensive care unit (ICU)] admission (OR, 6.26, 95% CI 2.15–18.23), respiratory failure (OR, 19.49, 95% CI 4.55–83.40), and a prolonged hospital stay (coefficient, 2.59, 95% CI 0.46–4.72) compared to those with score ≤ 5%. CT pulmonary opacity score on admission, especially when ≥ 41%, was closely related to some clinical characteristics and was an independent predictor of disease severity, ICU admission, respiratory failure and long hospital stay in patients with COVID-19.
    • Bone mineral density in high-level endurance runners: Part B—genotype-dependent characteristics

      Herbert, AJ; Williams, AG; Lockey, SJ; Erskine, RM; Sale, C; Hennis, PJ; Day, SH; Stebbings, GK (Springer, 2021-09-22)
      Purpose: Inter-individual variability in bone mineral density (BMD) exists within and between endurance runners and non-athletes, probably in part due to differing genetic profiles. Certainty is lacking, however, regarding which genetic variants may contribute to BMD in endurance runners and if specific genotypes are sensitive to environmental factors, such as mechanical loading via training. Method: Ten single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from previous genome-wide and/or candidate gene association studies that have a functional effect on bone physiology. The aims of this study were to investigate (1) associations between genotype at those 10 SNPs and bone phenotypes in high-level endurance runners, and (2) interactions between genotype and athlete status on bone phenotypes. Results: Female runners with P2RX7 rs3751143 AA genotype had 4% higher total-body BMD and 5% higher leg BMD than AC + CC genotypes. Male runners with WNT16 rs3801387 AA genotype had 14% lower lumbar spine BMD than AA genotype non-athletes, whilst AG + GG genotype runners also had 5% higher leg BMD than AG + GG genotype non-athletes. Conclusion: We report novel associations between P2RX7 rs3751143 genotype and BMD in female runners, whilst differences in BMD between male runners and non-athletes with the same WNT16 rs3801387 genotype existed, highlighting a potential genetic interaction with factors common in endurance runners, such as high levels of mechanical loading. These findings contribute to our knowledge of the genetic associations with BMD and improve our understanding of why some runners have lower BMD than others.
    • Bone mineral density in high-level endurance runners: part A—site-specific characteristics

      Herbert, AJ; Williams, AG; Lockey, SJ; Erskine, RM; Sale, C; Hennis, PJ; Day, SH; Stebbings, GK; School of Health Sciences, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UK. (Springer, 2021-09-12)
      Purpose: Physical activity, particularly mechanical loading that results in high-peak force and is multi-directional in nature, increases bone mineral density (BMD). In athletes such as endurance runners, this association is more complex due to other factors such as low energy availability and menstrual dysfunction. Moreover, many studies of athletes have used small sample sizes and/or athletes of varying abilities, making it difficult to compare BMD phenotypes between studies. Method: The primary aim of this study was to compare dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) derived bone phenotypes of high-level endurance runners (58 women and 45 men) to non-athletes (60 women and 52 men). Our secondary aim was to examine the influence of menstrual irregularities and sporting activity completed during childhood on these bone phenotypes. Results: Female runners had higher leg (4%) but not total body or lumbar spine BMD than female non-athletes. Male runners had lower lumbar spine (9%) but similar total and leg BMD compared to male non-athletes, suggesting that high levels of site-specific mechanical loading was advantageous for BMD in females only and a potential presence of reduced energy availability in males. Menstrual status in females and the number of sports completed in childhood in males and females had no influence on bone phenotypes within the runners. Conclusion: Given the large variability in BMD in runners and non-athletes, other factors such as variation in genetic make-up alongside mechanical loading probably influence BMD across the adult lifespan.