Now showing items 1-20 of 5681

    • Exploring the relationship between the board of directors and the Shari’ah Supervisory Board in Islamic financial institutions in Saudi Arabia

      Machold, Silke; Alasmri, Ahmed Dhaifallah (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-04)
      Shari’ah-based governance has grown in the last three decades to become a unique and exclusive system in Islamic financial institutions (IFIs). Although there has been growing research interest in the topic concerning the need to have an efficient and sound Shari’ah corporate governance (CG) system in IFIs, there are no insights into the role and function of governance bodies within this new framework. Specifically, there is a lack of academic studies that have focused on investigating the relationship between the board of directors (BODs) and Shari’ah supervisory boards (SSBs) in the IFIs in Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this research was to examine how the BODs and the SSBs exercise their roles in the Saudi Islamic banks. In order to address this objective, the thesis sought to provide answers to three questions. First, the research attempted to examine the nature of the relationship between the company directors and the SSBs in Saudi Arabia, focusing especially on the roles and tasks of these governance bodies. Second, the research was designed to identify the factors in the CG structure of IFIs in Saudi Arabia that either support or undermine the deployment of the SSBs. Third, it intended to explore potential areas of convergence or divergence which exist between the BODs and the SSBs. A qualitative research approach was used to collect relevant information from the study participants using interviews for the data collection process. Findings drawn from the interviews revealed that the nature of the current relationship between SSBs and the BODs is initiated and sustained by several factors. Some of the important factors which inform the relationship of these two boards include the growing focus and foundation in Saudi Arabia towards the important role that the boards play, including promoting the achievement of IFIs objectives and stakeholder interests. Results from the study also indicated that several factors have been reported to support or undermine the uptake of SSBs. Some of the important facilitators include increasing public and consumer support for the need to have SSBs, the growing consensus among stakeholders to ensure banks offer legitimate products in line with Shari’ah principles, changing perceptions in the Islamic financial sector towards CG, and the desire to achieve effective governance via compliance with Shari’ah and Islamic laws. Finally, data revealed that the roles which the boards play supplement each other towards achieving the same objective of financial growth and stakeholder interests. Fundamentally, the two boards engage in frequent communication and information exchange regarding banking practices, where the outcome includes improved policy and process formulation and practice for their companies. In conclusion, findings from this study show that the SSBs and the BODs need to be perceived as complementary units that supplement each other as opposed to being perceived as being separate and conflicting boards in the IFIs.
    • Chronic exercise training attenuates prostate cancer-induced molecular remodelling in the testis

      Matos, Barbara; Patricio, Daniela; Henriques, Magda; Freitas, Maria; Vitorino, Rui; Duarte, Iola; Howl, John; Oliveira, Paula; Seixas, Fernanda; Duarte, Jose; et al. (Springer, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose Prostate cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death in males worldwide and, in addition to impairing prostate function, also causes testicular adaptations. In this study, we aim to investigate the preventive effect of exercise training on PCa-induced testicular dysfunction. Methods As a model, we used fifty Wistar Unilever male rats, randomly divided in four experimental groups. Prostate cancer was chemically and hormonally induced in two groups of animals (PCa groups). One control group and one PCa group was submitted to moderate intensity treadmill exercise training. Fifty weeks after the start of the training the animals were sacrificed and sperm, prostate, testes and serum were collected and analyzed. Sperm concentration and morphology, and testosterone serum levels were determined. In addition, histological analysis of the testes was performed, and testis proteomes and metabolomes were characterized. Results We found that prostate cancer negatively affected testicular function, manifested as an arrest of spermatogenesis. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage, arising from reduced testis blood flow, may also contribute to apoptosis of germ cells and consequential spermatogenic impairment. Decreased utilization of the glycolytic pathway, increased metabolism of ketone bodies and the accumulation of branched chain amino acids were also evident in the PCa animals. Conversely, we found that the treadmill training regimen activated DNA repair mechanisms and counteracted several metabolic alterations caused by PCa without impact on oxidative stress. Conclusions These findings confirm a negative impact of prostate cancer on testis function and suggest a beneficial role for exercise training in the prevention of prostate cancer-induced testis dysfunction.
    • Time-dependent thixotropic behaviours of lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (SAC) solder pastes and flux mediums used in electronic assemblies

      Mallik, S; Ekere, Nduka; Depiver, Joshua (Elsevier, 2020-12-31)
      Solder pastes are widely used as crucial joining material in microelectronic assemblies. This study investigates time-depended behaviours of paste materials (solder pastes and flux mediums) in relation to their transportation, storage, handling and applications. Two fluxes and four commercially available lead-free solder pastes prepared from those fluxes were evaluated. Two rheological test methods – ‘hysteresis loop test’ and ‘step shear test’ were adapted, taking account of actual shear profile of solder pastes and flux mediums. Within hysteresis loop tests, samples were sheared for both single and multiple cycles, with increasing and decreasing shear rates. These tests provided a quick and straightforward way of benchmarking time-depended structural breakdown and build-up of paste materials. The test results also provided an effective means of predicting how the pastes will behave during their use, such as at various stages of the stencil printing process. Step shear tests were performed by applying a sequence of stepwise increase in shear rates. The step-wise increase in shear rate has influenced the timedependent behaviours of solder paste samples and flux mediums. The result from the stepshear-test implies that the build-up of solder paste structure depends mainly on both the previous shear history and the intensity of structural break-down.
    • Biophysical, psychrometric and physiological limits for continuous liquid and air-based personal cooling systems in working men: A case for amending ASTM2300-10(2016)

      Bach, Aaron JE; Borg, David N; Minett, Geoffrey M; Maley, Matthew J; Stewart, Ian B (Elsevier, 2020-09-22)
      The ASTM F2300-10 standard testing protocol was implemented for two continuous personal cooling systems (venturi air vest and cold-water perfused vest) with theoretically similar cooling capacities. Secondly, we used the same systems in step-wise increments of either temperature or relative humidity in order to define the upper limit of the prescriptive zone for each (i.e., critical environmental limits method). ASTM F2300-10 standard protocol saw both vests equally effective in reducing cardiovascular and thermal strain relative to a no cooling control. The critical environmental limits method saw the upper limit for humidity significantly increase in both vests, with no differences between the vests. However, the upper limit for temperature was increased in the cold-water vest, with the venturi air vest being no more beneficial than the control. Overall, this study used an evidence-based approach to demonstrate that a single environment, as per ASTM F2300-10, failed to delineate differences between continuous cooling systems promoting discrete mechanisms of heat loss. Most notably, relative to no cooling, the use of the air vest provided no additional evaporative cooling in a low humidity environment, and therefore no increase in the upper limits of critical temperature. This should highlight to end users not to assume that one size fits all for effective personal cooling systems if applied outside of the environment it was tested. Based on these findings, we suggest a range of environments be recommended by the ASTM F2300-10 standard for the evaluation of cooling systems to ensure systems ineffective in certain environments can be identified.
    • Philosophy of education in a new key: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Education and environment after the coronavirus

      Jandrić, Petar; Jaldemark, Jimmy; Hurley, Zoe; Bartram, Brendan; Matthews, Adam; Jopling, Michael; Mañero, Julia; MacKenzie, Alison; Irwin, Jones; Rothmüller, Ninette; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-15)
      This paper explores relationships between environment and education after the Covid-19 pandemic through the lens of philosophy of education in a new key developed by Michael Peters and the Philosophy of Education Society of Australasia (PESA). The paper is collectively written by 15 authors who responded to the question: Who remembers Greta Thunberg? Their answers are classified into four main themes and corresponding sections. The first section, ‘As we bake the earth, let's try and bake it from scratch’, gathers wider philosophical considerations about the intersection between environment, education, and the pandemic. The second section, ‘Bump in the road or a catalyst for structural change?’, looks more closely into issues pertaining to education. The third section, ‘If you choose to fail us, we will never forgive you’, focuses to Greta Thunberg’s messages and their responses. The last section, ‘Towards a new (educational) normal’, explores future scenarios and develops recommendations for critical emancipatory action. The concluding part brings these insights together, showing that resulting synergy between the answers offers much more then the sum of articles’ parts. With its ethos of collectivity, interconnectedness, and solidarity, philosophy of education in a new key is a crucial tool for development of post-pandemic (philosophy of) education.
    • Implementing a HBIM approach to manage the translocation of heritage buildings

      Heesom, David; Boden, Paul; Hatfield, Anthony; De Los Santos Melo, Aneuris; Czarska-Chukwurah, Farida (Emerald, 2020-12-31)
      Purpose The purpose of the paper is to present a study which exploited synergies between the fields of Heritage BIM, conservation and building translocation to develop a new approach to support a digitally enabled translocation process. The translocation (or relocation) of buildings or structures is a niche area of the construction sector and much of the significant work in this field has focused on the relocation of heritage buildings. However, hitherto there was a paucity of work integrating translocation with the process and technology of BIM. Design/Methodology/Approach The study employed a Constructive Research approach to analyse the phenomenon of heritage translocation. As part of this approach, semi structured interviews were undertaken with professionals engaged in heritage translocation projects within the UK and this was supported by a multi-faceted review of literature within the cross cutting themes of translocation and HBIM. Building on the results, a BIM enabled process was implemented to support the translocation of a 19th Century timber framed building in the UK. Findings Following analysis of results of semi structured interviews, and supported by findings from prevailing literature in the field of translocation and HBIM, a HBIM for Translocation Conceptual Framework (TransHBIM) was developed. Building on the key constructs of the framework, a HBIM based workflow was implemented to develop a digitally enabled translocation process which provided a new approach to managing and documenting heritage translocation where disassembly and reconstruction is utilised. The workflow provided a more effective way of documenting individual elements of the building within a digital environment opening up potential for new simulation of the entire process. Originality/Value Current approaches to translocation involve manual methods of recording the building and cataloguing the key heritage elements for all aspects of the process. This new approach implements BIM technologies and processes along with the use of barcode or RFID tags to create a digital bridge between the physical elements of the building and the BIM database. This provides more accurate recording of the heritage and also opens up opportunities to support the process with additional digital simulation techniques enhancing the efficiency of the entire process.
    • Technological unemployment and its educational discontents

      Jandrić, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Helsinki University Press, 2020-08-11)
      This chapter introduces a post-digital perspective to relationships between technological unemployment and its educational discontents. It examines a possible future where digital technologies will destroy more jobs than they will create in three steps. First, an extensive literature overview identifies why people from various historical periods and working in various fields have perceived technological unemployment as a threat. Second, it distils six main areas of educational discontent in current literature: discontent with neoliberalization, discontent with automation, discontent with dehumanization, discontent with acceleration, discontent with content of work and discontent with educationalization. Concluding that educational discontent with technological unemployment identified in our work seems to have surprisingly little to do with either technology or with employment, it returns to the post-digital perspective to explain this result. Finally, it examines educational discontent of technological unemployment as an agent of change, and concludes that the notion of educational discontent with technological unemployment has the potential to help formulate new post-digital critical rage pedagogy.
    • A systematic review of the characteristics and needs of older prisoners

      Wilkinson, Dean; Caulfield, Laura (Emerald, 2020-09-21)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and understand what the existing evidence base concludes about the needs of this population. The older prisoner population is growing faster than the older general population and placing a strain on prisons. Much of the existing literature focusses on the health-care needs of, or in-prison initiatives for, older prisoners. Typically, these are responsive and lacking an evidence-based understanding of the characteristics and needs of this group. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents a systematic review of the existing literature on the needs and characteristics of older people in contact with the criminal justice system. After a thorough search and selection process, 21 papers, from 2002 onwards, were included in the final analysis. The review process was structured through (People, Intervention/Exposure, Comparison, Outcome) and reported using (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). Findings The contradictions within the existing evidence base make it difficult to reach firm conclusions about the needs and characteristics of older prisoners. What is clear from the existing research are the relatively high levels of need. There is also some consensus that where older people commit homicide, the victim is likely to be an intimate partner. Overall, there is a need for consistent recording and reporting of characteristics and demographics and more systematic study design. Originality/value This paper has highlighted the key findings and limitations in the existing literature. Future research should make use of secondary official data sources to provide a clearer understanding of the characteristics of this group, their routes to prison, their needs and challenges they present.
    • Mechanical performance of additively manufactured pure silver antibacterial bone scaffolds

      Arjunan, Arun; Robinson, John; Al Ani, Enas; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2020-09-22)
      Implant infection is a serious complication resulting in pain, mortality, prolonged recovery, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Reducing the risk-of-infection associated with tissue implants require imminent attention, where pure silver (Ag) offers enormous potential. However, the printability, mechanical performance nor microbial resistance of additively manufactured (AM) pure Ag is unavailable in literature. This is critical as Ag is thought to play a vital role in the development of AM patient-specific infection resistant implants in the decade to come. The study therefore additively manufactured 99.9% pure-Ag through selective laser melting (SLM) and systematically investigates its mechanical performance. The validated SLM process parameters were then used to conceive two fully porous bone scaffold each at approximately 68 and 90% (wt.) porosity. While the study brings to attention the potential defects in SLM pure-Ag through X-ray nanotomography (X-ray nCT), the mechanical properties of porous Ag scaffolds were found to be similar to cancellous bone. The study achieved the highest SLM pure-Ag density of 97% with Young’s modulus (E), elastic limit (), yield strength (), ultimate strength () and ultimate strain () in the range of 15.5–17.8 GPa, 50.7–57.7 MPa, 57.6–67.2 MPa, 82.4–95.9 MPa and 0.07–0.10 respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy of printed silver was tested against the common implant infection-causing Staphylococcus aureus and led to 90% and 99.9% kill in 4 and 14 h respectively. The study, therefore, is a first step towards achieving a new generation Ag-based AM infection resistant porous implants.
    • The effects of whole body vibration training on vertical jump height in dancers: A systematic review with meta-analysis

      Donida, Rebeca Gimenes; Delabary, Marcela dos Santos; Bittar, Adriano; Wyon, Matthew; Haas, Aline Nogueira (National Dance Society, 2020-09-16)
      Dancers must be strong and flexible for a balanced body and great performances. However, dance training and fitness methods are quite divergent between dance styles, dance coaches and teachers. It was verified in the scientific literature that whole-body vibration (WBV) training can improve the vertical jump height (VJH) for dancers from different styles when compared to other interventions or no intervention. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of WBV training on VJH in dancers, compared to other interventions or no intervention, in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), through a systematic review with meta-analysis. The search used the databases MEDLINE, LILACS, Cochrane, PEDro, Psycinfo and Google Scholar (between 1985 and September, 2019). RCTs that analyzed the effects of WBV training on vertical jump height in dancers, compared to other models of training or no intervention, were included. Four studies met the eligibility criteria; 56 were excluded. The data from the selected studies were extracted by two independent and blind reviewers. Four RCTs that assessed 84 participants in total were included. WBV training promoted significant improvements in VJH, compared to other interventions such as intense stretching, or extra dance classes. WBV training proved to be beneficial even with a short time intervention.
    • Revisiting the history of the British coal industry: the politics of legacy, memory and heritage

      Gildart, Keith; Perchard, Andrew; Curtis, Ben; Millar, Grace (Waseda University Japan, 2020-12-31)
      This paper revisits the history of the British coal industry in the context of deindustrialisation, ruptures in electoral politics, and attempts by former miners to preserve a mining past. Methodologically it draws on an oral history project that involved over 100 participants in England, Scotland and Wales. The life stories conveyed by the former miners provide entry points to various aspects of the industrial, social and cultural life of coal communities. The specific focus here is on the ways in which the miners themselves are striving to create and curate their own stories and experiences through local heritage projects in the town of Leigh in north west England and the former mining villages of the north Wales coast. The interviews are indicative of the sense of the isolation they continue to experience in the contemporary economic context of deindustrialisation and challenges to their sense of class, community and nation. Tensions between former miners and the wider social and political culture of their communities hinge on narratives and histories of the 1984/5 miners’ strike. Heritage projects developed in both localities have become battlegrounds for what kind of history should be presented to the public, where memorials should be located, and which memories and experiences should be preserved. Miners who took part in the strike understandably want to centre their histories and narratives through the lens of 1984/5, while those who continued to work through the dispute argue that it should be given a more marginal position in commemoration and heritage. The interviews offer more complex readings of the social and cultural politics of the coal industry and challenge some of the prevailing orthodoxies in the historiography
    • Multitude void: the regal mode of imperial legitimation

      Halligan, Benjamin; Penzin, Alexei; Halligan, Benjamin; Pippa, Stefano; Carson, Rebecca (Bloomsbury Academic, 2021-09-01)
    • Open access books in the humanities and social sciences: an open access altmetric advantage

      Taylor, Michael (Springer, 2020-12-31)
      The last decade has seen two significant phenomena emerge in research communication: the rise of open access (OA) publishing, and evidence of online sharing in the form of altmetrics. There has been limited examination of the effect of OA on online sharing for journal articles, and little for books. This paper examines the altmetrics of a set of 32,222 books (of which 5% are OA) and a set of 220,527 chapters (of which 7% are OA) indexed by the scholarly database Dimensions in the Social Sciences and Humanities. Both OA books and chapters have significantly higher use on social networks, higher coverage in the mass media and blogs, and evidence of higher rates of social impact in policy documents. OA chapters have higher rates of coverage on Wikipedia than their non-OA equivalents, and are more likely to be shared on Mendeley. Even within the Humanities and Social Sciences, disciplinary differences in altmetric activity are evident. The effect is confirmed for chapters, although sampling issues prevent the strong conclusion that OA facilitates extra attention at whole book level, the apparent OA altmetrics advantage suggests that the move towards OA is increasing social sharing and broader impact.
    • A systematic review exploring the impact of social media on breastfeeding practices

      Orchard, Lisa; Nicholls, Wendy (Springer Nature, 2020-12-31)
      Social media has potential to promote and support positive health behaviours. This systematic review explores the influence of social media on breastfeeding decision-making, promotion and support. For the purpose of the review, social media was defined as social networking sites and blogs; M-technology and apps were only considered if they included an interactive element, such as a ‘share’ function, or one-to-many communication. Searches were conducted on EBSCO across seven databases (limited to 2007-2019). Of the 1261 papers initially identified, 22 met the inclusion criteria for the current review. Results are mixed, but there is evidence that social media can be used to improve breastfeeding awareness and attitudes. Breastfeeding mothers value pro-breastfeeding online communities. However, the success of such social media groups may be dependent on specific content shared, individual contributors, and group dynamics. Key considerations for practitioners are offered regarding how social media can augment services offered to support breastfeeding. Research in this field is still very much in its infancy. Further investigation of specific social media content is needed, alongside the viewpoints of those who have ceased breastfeeding against their wishes.
    • Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Scopus, Dimensions, Web of Science, and OpenCitations’ COCI: a multidisciplinary comparison of coverage via citations

      Martín-Martín, Alberto; Thelwall, Michael; Orduna-Malea, Enrique; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio (Springer Nature, 2020-09-21)
      New sources of citation data have recently become available, such as Microsoft Academic, Dimensions, and the OpenCitations Index of CrossRef open DOI-to-DOI citations (COCI). Although these have been compared to the Web of Science Core Collection (WoS), Scopus, or Google Scholar, there is no systematic evidence of their differences across subject categories. In response, this paper investigates 3,073,351 citations found by these six data sources to 2,515 English-language highly-cited documents published in 2006 from 252 subject categories, expanding and updating the largest previous study. Google Scholar found 88% of all citations, many of which were not found by the other sources, and nearly all citations found by the remaining sources (89–94%). A similar pattern held within most subject categories. Microsoft Academic is the second largest overall (60% of all citations), including 82% of Scopus citations and 86% of WoS citations. In most categories, Microsoft Academic found more citations than Scopus and WoS (182 and 223 subject categories, respectively), but had coverage gaps in some areas, such as Physics and some Humanities categories. After Scopus, Dimensions is fourth largest (54% of all citations), including 84% of Scopus citations and 88% of WoS citations. It found more citations than Scopus in 36 categories, more than WoS in 185, and displays some coverage gaps, especially in the Humanities. Following WoS, COCI is the smallest, with 28% of all citations. Google Scholar is still the most comprehensive source. In many subject categories Microsoft Academic and Dimensions are good alternatives to Scopus and WoS in terms of coverage.
    • Evaluating the impact of ICT on teaching and learning: A study of Palestinian students’ and teachers’ perceptions

      Qaddumi, Husam; Bartram, Brendan; Qashmar, Ali (Springer Nature, 2020-09-19)
      This study aimed to investigate the impact of ICT on teaching and learning from the point-of-view of Palestinian students and teachers. A total of 207 school teachers and 276 students from 53 schools taking part in an ICT project in Palestine responded to a questionnaire survey. Results indicated that students in Palestinian public schools perceived ICT to have a moderate influence on their learning. Students indicated that they face frequent challenges such as: lesson duration, access to modern devices and issues with information research skills. These results contrasted with school teachers’ views, which reflected a much stronger impression of the influence of ICT on teaching.
    • Aspirin related platelet reactivity as a determinant of ten year survival in high risk non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients

      Khan, Nazish; Mamas, Mamas A; Moss, Alexandra; Gorog, Diana A; Nightingale, Peter; Armesilla, Angel; Smallwood, Andrew; Munir, Shahzad; Khogali, Saib; Wrigley, Ben; et al. (Elsevier, 2020-09-10)
      Background Aspirin forms a cornerstone of management in patients with established cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite proven efficacy, variability of aspirin response has long been recognised, with early studies suggesting rates of high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) as ranging between 5 and 45%. Whether aspirin responsiveness relates to long-term prognosis in patients with CVD is unknown. Methods A prospective, single-centre analysis of 224 troponin positive non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients undergoing coronary angiography. Aspirin-naive patients were loaded with 300 mg aspirin and maintained on 75 mg daily. Blood samples were obtained at the time of angiography and the VerifyNow Aspirin assay utilised to determine aspirin effect. The primary end point was all-cause mortality at 10 years. Results Time from aspirin loading (or admission on aspirin) to angiography was 4.9 ± 2.7 days. Platelet aggregation results, expressed as aspirin reaction units (ARU) were divided into tertiles: T1 (ARU 363–405) ( n = 76), T2 (ARU 406–436) (n = 76), T3 (ARU 437–596) ( n = 72). Higher ARU values were associated with increased mortality (log rank, p = 0.009), with those in the T3 having a 3-fold higher rate of events than those in the T1 (HR 3.03 [95% CI 1.33–6.99], p = 0.009) over a 10-year follow up. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that aspirin responsiveness is directly related to 10-year survival and may identify patients who may benefit from additional antithrombotic therapy. Further, ARU values less than the previously defined cut off 550 are associated with reduced survival at 10 years.
    • ‘Standing in the shadows’?: Reframing homosexuality in musical theatre

      Whitfield, Sarah; Gowland, Gus (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-11)
      This thesis explores how the gay male is represented in musical theatre and considers how musical theatre writing practice can be utilised to create new iterations of the homosexual male character in musicals. The study has three main objectives: to explore the persistent patterns of gay representation in musicals, to investigate dominant heterosexual ideologies with musical theatre practice and to consider how I might create an intervention against the heterosexist, heterogenous norms of the form. Whilst there is existing scholarship that explores the connections between the homosexual male and the musical, both on stage and in the audience, there is little research examining the subject from the perspective of the musical theatre writer. This research addresses this gap by creating an original musical, Pieces of String, and providing an analysis of the creative process and the creative product. Whilst the investigation considers the Broadway/UK musical theatre canon, the primary focus is on contemporary musicals written and produced since 2000 which further contributes to the field and affords academic consideration to newer musicals which have not yet received such scholarly treatment. The study uses Sara Ahmed’s theory of queer fatalism, Daphne Brooks’ ‘occupation’ theory and Miller’s idea of the showtune as denial as frameworks through which to examine the existing texts and also to create an original work. The findings of this research question the cultural assumption that the musical is a gay genre, and conclude that the form actually repeatedly asserts its heterosexual hegemony. Pieces of String locates itself within that hegemony and subverts it through its inclusion of multiple leading gay characters and focus on gay-specific narratives.
    • Not a proper mathematician, like those with a mathematics degree: ‘Subject switchers’ negotiating identities as beginning teachers of mathematics

      Matheson, David; Glendenning, Fay (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-04)
      In the context of a shortage of teachers of mathematics, the introduction of subject knowledge enhancement (SKE) courses has widened participation in initial teacher training (ITT) to include graduates of non-mathematical disciplines. In the absence of a term in the literature, the term ‘subject switcher’ is introduced to represent those whose degree is in a discipline that is not directly related to the subject they are training to teach. In the context of this study, a subject switcher is a participant in mathematics initial teacher training whose degree is in a non-mathematical discipline. This study explores how being a subject switcher might influence the negotiation of identities as a teacher of mathematics. Four participant stories were constructed, from a range of narrative sources, to explore individual journeys to becoming a qualified teacher of mathematics. The subject switchers participating in this study had a range of incoming identities, including existing mathematical identities as well as alternative subject identities from the discipline of their degree studies. The theoretical framework of learning and identity construction within communities of practice (Lave and Wenger, 1991; Wenger, 1998) was used to consider the identities of the participants, drawing on a framework developed from Wenger’s (1998) notion of trajectories. The incoming, transitioning and future-orientated identities of the participants are explored in the context of their trajectories and the communities of practice in which they participate. The findings reveal that the participants relied upon their incoming identities as they negotiated identities as teachers of mathematics. This negotiation of identities included their mathematical identities but, particularly, how they viewed themselves as mathematics teachers compared to those who were mathematics graduates. This study concludes that teacher educators should explore more inclusive strategies to support subject switchers to negotiate mathematical identities in becoming a teacher of mathematics.
    • Breakthroughs and discoveries in theatre rehearsals: an ethnographic study of Close Quarters

      Prior, Ross W.; Marsden, Robert Michael James (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-12)
      This thesis contributes to the emerging field of rehearsal studies by examining the seldom-analysed (yet oft-referenced) moments of a text based theatre rehearsal where breakthroughs occur that advance the creative process. This thesis presents an original framework through which text-based rehearsal breakthroughs which concentrate primarily on the dynamic between the actor, director and text can be viewed, categorised, and ultimately analysed as ‘The Four Lenses of Breakthrough’. An ethnographic methodology is utilised to analyse data collected from a case study observation of the breakthroughs in the rehearsal period of Kate Bowen’s new play Close Quarters (2018). This thesis sharpens the language used to articulate these moments by creating a practical framework for rehearsal observation and analysis. The Four Lenses created are: (1) individual and small recognition moments that occur; (2) individual discoveries for actors and directors; (3) collective discoveries shared by actors and directors; (4) and, finally, a ‘wow’ moment shared by all, where all the variables coalesce. This thesis builds upon the work of scholars and practitioners whose objective has been to demystify the rehearsal period and to break apart the myth that the rehearsal room is a place of magic, and a mysterious place. With the expansion of rehearsal studies as a field within Western theatre, as well as performance studies since the 1970s, this thesis sits within the critical field of rehearsal studies, and argues for the importance of examining moments of breakthrough in rehearsal. The thesis attests that breakthroughs are unpredictable in a rehearsal period. Even with their ubiquitous occurrence in rehearsals, there is nevertheless a paucity in the literature of explicit analysis of breakthroughs; this thesis also draws together the extant literature as well as offering a new method of analysis.