Now showing items 1-20 of 5878

    • MultiModal route planning in mobility as a service

      Georgakis, P; Almohammad, A; Bothos, E; Magoutas, B; Arnaoutaki, K; Mentzas, G; Barnaghi, Payam M; Gottlob, Georg; Katsaros, Dimitrios; Manolopoulos, Yannis; et al. (ACM, 2019-10-31)
      Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a new approach for multimodal transportation in smart cities which refers to the seamless integration of various forms of transport services accessible through one single digital platform. In a MaaS environment there can be a multitude of multi modal options to reach a destination which are derived from combinations of available transport services. Terefore, route planning functionalities in the MaaS era need to be able to generate multi-modal routes using constraints related to a user's modal allowances, service provision and limited user preferences (e.g. mode exclusions) and suggest to the traveller the routes that are relevant for specific trips as well as aligned to her/his preferences. In this paper, we describe an architecture for a MaaS multi-modal route planner which integrates i) a dynamic journey planner that aggregates unimodal routes from existing route planners (e.g. Google directions or Here routing), enriches them with innovative mobility services typically found in MaaS schemes, and converts them to multimodal options, while considering aspects of transport network supply and ii) a route recommender that filters and ranks the available routes in an optimal manner, while trying to satisfy travellers' preferences as well as requirements set by the MaaS operator (e.g. environmental friendliness of the routes or promotion of specific modes of transport).
    • Heuristic-based journey planner for mobility as a service (Maas)

      Georgakis, P; Almohammad, A; Bothos, E; Magoutas, B; Arnaoutaki, K; Mentzas, G (MDPI, 2020-12-04)
      The continuing growth of urbanisation poses a real threat to the operation of transportation services in large metropolitan areas around the world. As a response, several initiatives that promote public transport and active travelling have emerged in the last few years. Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is one such initiative with the main goal being the provision of a holistic urban mobility solution through a single interface, the MaaS operator. The successful implementation of MaaS requires the support of a technology platform for travellers to fully benefit from the offered transport services. A central component of such a platform is a journey planner with the ability to provide trip options that efficiently integrate the different modes included in a MaaS scheme. This paper presents a heuristic that implements a scenario-based journey planner for users of MaaS. The proposed heuristic provides routes composed of different modes including private cars, public transport, bike-sharing, car-sharing and ride-hailing. The methodological approach for the generation of journeys is explained and its implementation using a microservices architecture is presented. The implemented system was trialled in two European cities and the analysis of user satisfaction results reveal good overall performance.
    • Total interpretive structural modelling of graduate employability skills for the built environment sector

      Obi, L; Hampton, P; Awuzie, B (MDPI, 2020-12-08)
      Contemporary practices and future projections in the Built Environment (BE) sector highlight an increasing demand on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) to produce graduates possessing relevant skills aligned to meet workplace demands. This study aims to analyse the key skills influencing BE graduate employability in the United Kingdom (UK) for the benefit of HEIs. This investigation leverages on a critical review of extant literature and an elicitation of the perceptions of targeted macro, meso, and micro level key stakeholders in the BE sector to identify key employability skills. The Total Interpretive Structural Modelling (TISM) technique was used to analyse the contextual interrelationships among the identified skills to develop a hierarchical model that provides HEI with insight for BE curriculum development. Six key employability skillsets hierarchically modelled into four levels were identified as crucial for potential graduates to successfully attract and adapt to contemporary practices in the Built Environment sector. Findings reveal communication and team-working skills as critical, independent skills driving the successful development of the remaining four skillsets. This research extends the literature on employability skills by investigating the interactions of various skills that predominantly predicts graduate employability in the Built Environment sector. The resulting TISM skills model provides hierarchical and logical interdependencies beneficial to assist HEIs to strategically design BE curricular to enhance graduate employability.
    • Attention: there is an inconsistency between android permissions and application metadata!

      Alecakir, Huseyin; Can, Burcu; Sen, Sevil (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-07)
      Since mobile applications make our lives easier, there is a large number of mobile applications customized for our needs in the application markets. While the application markets provide us a platform for downloading applications, it is also used by malware developers in order to distribute their malicious applications. In Android, permissions are used to prevent users from installing applications that might violate the users’ privacy by raising their awareness. From the privacy and security point of view, if the functionality of applications is given in sufficient detail in their descriptions, then the requirement of requested permissions could be well-understood. This is defined as description-to-permission fidelity in the literature. In this study, we propose two novel models that address the inconsistencies between the application descriptions and the requested permissions. The proposed models are based on the current state-of-art neural architectures called attention mechanisms. Here, we aim to find the permission statement words or sentences in app descriptions by using the attention mechanism along with recurrent neural networks. The lack of such permission statements in application descriptions creates a suspicion. Hence, the proposed approach could assist in static analysis techniques in order to find suspicious apps and to prioritize apps for more resource intensive analysis techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves high accuracy.
    • Neonatal ethics and the ANNP: Providing high quality practical support for neonatal intensive care teams

      Pillay, Thillagavathie; Kent, Sarah; McMahon, Robin (Elsevier, 2020-11-10)
    • A fall from grace: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of unemployment in UK university graduates with common mental health issues

      Cockshott, Christopher J.; Kiemle, Gundi; Byrne, Paula; Gabbay, Mark B. (Scientific Research Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      An exploratory investigation into the experiences of unemployed university graduates with common mental health issues (i.e., depression and anxiety) was conducted using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Analysis of semi-structured interviews with 12 graduates in their twenties, all of whom had been unemployed between five and 24 months with common mental health issues, generated themes relating to ‘Loss of Expectation and Disorientation’, ‘Waste, Failure and Blame’, and ‘Stigma and Shame’. Participants had experienced a ‘Fall from Grace’ – a descent from a vaunted position of high-esteem and importance as university graduates, with seemingly bright prospects for a privileged future, into a lowly state of unemployment with mental health issues, leaving them feeling tarnished. These findings are discussed in relation to the literature on graduate unemployment, crisis and stigma, raising some practical issues for universities, including counselling services, and how they can better manage the transition to employment for their graduates.
    • Design of stainless steel cross-sections with outstand elements under stress gradients

      Gkantou, Michaela; Bock, Marina; Theofanous, Marios (Elsevier, 2021-01-09)
      A significant amount of research has been reported on stainless steel tubular sections, while studies on I- and C-sections remain relatively limited. This paper presents a comprehensive numerical study on the response of stainless steel I- and C-sections subjected to minor axis bending, with outstand flanges subjected to stress gradients. Numerical models are developed and validated against reported test data on austenitic stainless steel sections under minor axis bending. Subsequently, parametric studies using standardised material properties on austenitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steel grades, covering a wide variety of cross-section slendernesses, are carried out to expand the structural performance data. The results are used to assess the applicability of the Eurocode slenderness limits, revealing that the Class limit 3 for outstand flanges under stress gradient is overly conservative. Moreover, Eurocode underestimates the predicted bending strengths, whereas the level of accuracy and consistency improves for stocky sections, when the Continuous Strength Method is used. Aiming to address the lack of accuracy and consistency in the design predictions of slender sections, particular focus is placed on their performance. It is demonstrated that outstand elements under stress gradients exhibit significant inelastic behaviour after the compression flanges have locally buckled. Inelastic buckling behaviour is not considered in current design guidance, thus resulting in overly conservative and fundamentally incorrect strength predictions. An alternative design method based on the plastic effective width concept is proposed for slender stainless steel I- and C-sections in minor axis bending, which leads to more favourable and less scattered strength predictions.
    • Bridging the “gApp”: improving neural machine translation systems for multiword expression detection

      Hidalgo-Ternero, Carlos Manuel; Pastor, Gloria Corpas (Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2020-11-25)
      The present research introduces the tool gApp, a Python-based text preprocessing system for the automatic identification and conversion of discontinuous multiword expressions (MWEs) into their continuous form in order to enhance neural machine translation (NMT). To this end, an experiment with semi-fixed verb–noun idiomatic combinations (VNICs) will be carried out in order to evaluate to what extent gApp can optimise the performance of the two main free open-source NMT systems —Google Translate and DeepL— under the challenge of MWE discontinuity in the Spanish into English directionality. In the light of our promising results, the study concludes with suggestions on how to further optimise MWE-aware NMT systems.
    • La tecnología habla-texto como herramienta de documentación para intérpretes: Nuevo método para compilar un corpus ad hoc y extraer terminología a partir de discursos orales en vídeo

      Gaber, Mahmoud; Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Omer, Ahmed (Malaga University, 2020-12-22)
      Although interpreting has not yet benefited from technology as much as its sister field, translation, interest in developing tailor-made solutions for interpreters has risen sharply in recent years. In particular, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is being used as a central component of Computer-Assisted Interpreting (CAI) tools, either bundled or standalone. This study pursues three main aims: (i) to establish the most suitable ASR application for building ad hoc corpora by comparing several ASR tools and assessing their performance; (ii) to use ASR in order to extract terminology from the transcriptions obtained from video-recorded speeches, in this case talks on climate change and adaptation; and (iii) to promote the adoption of ASR as a new documentation tool among interpreters. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to explore the possibility of Speech-to-Text (S2T) technology for meeting the preparatory needs of interpreters as regards terminology and background/domain knowledge.
    • Postdigital Perspectives on the McPolicy of Measuring Excellence

      Hayes, Sarah (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-12-19)
    • The value of postdigital humans as objects, or subjects, in McDonaldised Society

      Hayes, Sarah; Maggi, Savin-Baden (Springer, 2021-03-21)
      Postdigital human encounters could be said to take shape differently depending on how they are either subjectively valued, or objectively evaluated. Digital technologies and humans are now intimately intertwined with shared and sometimes equal capabilities to perform human tasks. Yet still it may be argued that different disciplinary identities prevent computing and the humanities from being thought of as equivalent. Over many decades, humans and computers have been objectively evaluated in McDonaldised society, via rational language and measures where computing techniques are simply applied to improve productivity. Since the Covid-19 lockdown people have described more personal and subjective digital encounters from their homes, with their virtual identities growing as their physical presence has diminished. This chapter speculates on whether new postdigital positionalities are emerging that might finally challenge more dominant, rational interpretations of what computing means in individual lives. If so, perhaps a more subjective analysis of these new forms of postdigital participation will bring the humanities into computing, instead of vice versa. This could help to reveal the unique positionality in each individual postdigital human encounter, where subjective self-description may now be seen to be more appropriate than objective rationality.
    • Biodigital technologies and the bioeconomy: The global new Green Deal?

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-11)
    • Crashworthiness analysis and optimization of standard and windowed multi-cell hexagonal tubes

      Tran, TN; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Estrada, Quirino; Arjunan, Arun; Le, HuuSon; Thien, NP (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2021-01-07)
      Recently, multi-cell structures have received increased attention for crashworthiness applications due to their superior energy absorption capability. However, such structures were featured with high peak collapsing force (PCL) forming a serious safety concern, and this limited their application for vehicle structures. Accordingly, this paper proposes windowed shaped cuttings as a mechanism to reduce the high PCL of the multi-cell hexagonal tubes and systemically investigates the axial crushing of different windowed multi-cell tubes and also seeks for their optimal crashworthiness design. Three different multi-cell configurations were constructed using wall-to-wall (WTW) and corner-to-corner (CTC) connection webs. Validated finite element models were generated using explicit finite element code, LS-DYNA, and were used to run crush simulations on the studied structures. The crashworthiness responses of the multi-cell standard tubes (STs), i.e., without windows, and multi-cell windowed tubes (WTs) were determined and compared. The WTW connection type was found to be more effective for STs and less favorable for WTs. Design of experiments (DoE), response surface methodology (RSM), and multiple objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) tools were employed to find the optimal designs of the different STs and WTs. Furthermore, parametric analysis was conducted to uncover the effects of key geometrical parameters on the main crashworthiness responses of all studied structures. The windowed cuttings were found to be able to slightly reduce the PCL of the multi-cell tubes, but this reduction was associated with a major negative implication on their energy absorption capability. This work provides useful insights on designing effective multi-cell structures suitable for vehicle crashworthiness applications.
    • Biodigital philosophy, technological convergence, and new knowledge ecologies

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Springer, 2021-01-11)
      New technological ability is leading postdigital science, where biology as digital information, and digital information as biology, are now dialectically interconnected. In this article we firstly explore a philosophy of biodigitalism as a new paradigm closely linked to bioinformationalism. Both involve the mutual interaction and integration of information and biology, which leads us into discussion of biodigital convergence. As a unified ecosystem this allows us to resolve problems that isolated disciplinary capabilities cannot, creating new knowledge ecologies within a constellation of technoscience. To illustrate our arrival at this historical flash point via several major epistemological shifts in the post-war period, we venture a tentative typology. The convergence between biology and information reconfigures all levels of theory and practice, and even critical reason itself now requires a biodigital interpretation oriented towards ecosystems and coordinated Earth systems. In this understanding, neither the digital humanities, the biohumanities or the posthumanities sit outside of biodigitalism. Instead, posthumanism is but one form of biodigitalism that mediates the biohumanities and the digital humanities, no longer preoccupied with the tradition of the subject, but with the constellation of forces shaping the future of human ontologies. This heralds a new biopolitics which brings the philosophy of race, class, gender and intelligence, into a compelling dialogue with genomics and information.
    • Postdigital-biodigital: an emerging configuration

      Peters, Michael; Jandric, Petar; Hayes, Sarah (Taylor & Francis, 2021-01-15)
      This dialogue (trilogue) is an attempt to critically discuss the technoscientific convergence that is taking place with biodigital technologies in the postdigital condition. In this discussion Sarah Hayes, Petar Jandrić and Michael A. Peters examine the nature of the convergences, their applications for bioeconomic sustainability and associated ecopedagogies. The dialogue paper raises issues of definition and places the technological convergence (‘nano-bio-info-cogno’) - of new systems biology and digital technologies at the nano level - in an evolutionary context to speculate, on the basis of the latest research, future possibilities. The paper also reviews these developments within familiar landscapes of posthumanism and postmodernism, raises the question of political bioeconomy, and the role of postdigital education within it.
    • Nanocrystalline Mg2Ni for hydrogen storage

      Baroutaji, Ahmad; Arjunan, Arun; Ramadan, Mohamad; Alaswad, Abed; Achour, Hussam; Abdelkareem, Mohammad A; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2020-12-14)
      Hydrogen continues to receive increased attention as the most promising energy carrier enabling sustainable and eco-friendly energy systems. Despite the various advantages of hydrogen fuel, storing hydrogen in a light-weight and compact form is the barrier towards the commercialization of the hydrogen technologies. Thus, the availability of a reliable, inexpensive, safe and efficient hydrogen storage technology is crucial to support and foster the transition to a hydrogen-powered world. Among the possible hydrogen storage solutions, storing hydrogen in the solid-state, such as metal hydrides, is the safest and most attractive method for on-board hydrogen storage. The metal hydrides can release highly pure hydrogen, via a low-pressure endothermic process, suitable to be used directly in the hydrogen fuel cell devices. This article presents an overview of using Mg and Mg2Ni-based alloys for solid-state hydrogen storage. A review of the hydrogen storage technologies is presented first and then the most recent developments on Mg and Mg2Ni-based hydrogen storage materials are highlighted.
    • Immersive storytelling in mixed reality environments

      Doyle, Denise (IEEE, 2018-04-26)
      How will we adapt to a future that may see humans as an interplanetary species? The proposed project uses themes of outer space, future worlds and space travel to examine ways in which our future identities may be formed from these new environments, the role/s we may have in future societies; and the relationships that we will form with the people we will meet. The utilization of virtual and mixed reality (AR/VR) technologies can be a powerful tool in which to place the audience in different scenarios, to experience it from different viewpoints, and to allow them to anticipate what the future may look, feel like, and indeed be like, by being placed into a set of future space scenarios. This paper presents ideas from an interdisciplinary team of artists, scientists, and technologists of methodological approaches for art-science-technology and the prototypes anticipated through these dialogues.
    • Special issue: ISEA2017: Bio-creation and peace

      Doyle, D; Heller, L (Intellect, 2017-12-01)
    • Themed issue: Revisiting astronauts and avatars

      Doyle, D; Sharir, Y (Intellect, 2017-06-01)
    • Measuring community resilience using Q method: physical resilience perspective

      Tariq, Hisham; Pathirage, Chaminda; Fernando, Terrence (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose Decision makers, practitioners and community members have a need to assess the disaster resilience of their communities and to understand their own capacities in disaster situations. There is a lack of consensus among researchers as to what resilience means and how it can be measured. This paper proposes a novel technique to achieve consensus among stakeholders on the definitions, objectives and indicators for measuring a key dimension of community disaster resilience, namely Physical Infrastructure (PI). Method This study uses a 5-step approach utilizing Q-methods to contextualize a resilience index for Physical Infrastructure. Interviews, focus groups and Q-sorting workshops were conducted to develop a tool that ranked measures according to stakeholder preference. A total of 84 participants took part in the workshops across four countries (UK, Malaysia, Pakistan and Sri Lanka). Findings The initial set of 317 measures was reduced to 128 and divided into the three community capacities of Anticipatory, Absorptive and Restorative. The Physical Infrastructure Capacity Assessment Tool (PI-CAT) was then finalized to encompass 38 indicators that were also ranked in order of importance by the participants. Practical implications The PI-CAT can be useful for local governments and communities to measure their own resilience. The tool allows stakeholders to be confident that the metrics being used are ones that are relevant, important and will meet their requirements. Originality The Q-method approach helps stakeholders to develop and use a community capacity assessment tool that is appropriate for their context. The PI-CAT can be used to identify effective investments that will enhance community disaster resilience.