Now showing items 1-20 of 6208

    • Acoustic behaviour of 3D printed titanium perforated panels

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Latif, Ahmad (Elsevier BV, 2021-07-21)
      Titanium alloys such as Ti6Al4V is amongst the most widely studied metallic materials in the broad context of metal 3D printing. Although the mechanical performances are well understood, the acoustic performance of 3D printed Ti6Al4V, and Ti6Al4V ELI (Extra Low Interstitial) has received limited attention in the literature. As such, this study investigates the normal incidence sound absorption coefficient () and Sound Transmission Loss (STL) of both Ti6Al4V and Ti6Al4V ELI samples manufactured using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). The influence of material thickness on acoustic responses and the potential of developing Ti6Al4V micro-perforated panels (MPP) at 400–1600 Hz is also explored. The sound absorption of three aesthetic perforations printed using Ti6Al4V and the influence of a porous back layer was also investigated. The experimental measurements were carried out using an impedance tube following ISO10534-2. The result of the study establishes that 3D printed non-circular perforations featuring porous back-layer can exhibit improved sound absorption coefficient.
    • Robust Deep Identification using ECG and Multimodal Biometrics forIndustrial Internet of Things

      Alkeem, Ebrahim Al; Yeob Yeun, Chan; Yun, Jaewoong; Yoo, Paul D; Chae, Myungsu; Rahman, Arafatur; Asyhari, A Taufiq (Elsevier, 2021-06-12)
      The use of electrocardiogram (ECG) data for personal identification in Industrial Internet of Things can achieve near-perfect accuracy in an ideal condition. However, real-life ECG data are often exposed to various types of noises and interferences. A reliable and enhanced identification method could be achieved by employing additional features from other biometric sources. This work, thus, proposes a novel robust and reliable identification technique grounded on multimodal biometrics, which utilizes deep learning to combine fingerprint, ECG and facial image data, particularly useful for identification and gender classification purposes. The multimodal approach allows the model to deal with a range of input domains removing the requirement of independent training on each modality, and inter-domain correlation can improve the model generalization capability on these tasks. In multitask learning, losses from one task help to regularize others, thus, leading to better overall performances. The proposed approach merges the embedding of multimodality by using feature-level and score level fusions. To the best of our understanding, the key concepts presented herein is a pioneering work combining multimodality, multitasking and different fusion methods. The proposed model achieves a better generalization on the benchmark dataset used while the feature-level fusion outperforms other fusion methods. The proposed model is validated on noisy and incomplete data with missing modalities and the analyses on the experimental results are provided.
    • Review article: faecal transplantation therapy for gastrointestinal disease

      Landy, J; Al-Hassi, HO; McLaughlin, SD; Walker, AW; Ciclitira, PJ; Nicholls, RJ; Clark, SK; Hart, AL; IBD Unit, St Mark's Hospital, Harrow, London, UK. (Wiley, 2011-06-20)
      Summary Background Evidence is emerging regarding the relationship between a dysbiosis of the human gut microbiota and a number of gastrointestinal diseases as well as diseases beyond the gut. Probiotics have been investigated in many gastrointestinal disease states, with variable and often modest outcomes. Faecal transplantation is an alternative approach to manipulate the gut microbiota. Aim To review the use of faecal transplantation therapy for the management of gastrointestinal disorders. Methods Available articles on faecal transplantation in the management of gastrointestinal disorders were identified using a Pubmed search and bibliographies of review articles on the subject were collated. Results A total of 239 patients who had undergone faecal transplantation were reported. Seventeen of 22 studies of faecal transplantation were in fulminant or refractory Clostridium difficile. Studies of faecal transplantation are heterogeneous regarding the patients, donors, screening, methods of administration and definition of response. Faecal transplantation for C. difficile has been demonstrated to be effective in 145/166 (87%) patients. Small numbers of patients are reported to have undergone successful faecal transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions Faecal transplantation has been reported with good outcomes for fulminant and refractory C. difficile. No adverse effects of faecal transplantation have been reported. However, there are no level 1 data of faecal transplantation and reports to date may suffer from reporting bias of positive outcomes and under-reporting of adverse effects. This therapy holds great promise, where a dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is responsible for disease and further studies are necessary to explore this potential.
    • How has Covid-19 affected published academic research? A content analysis of journal articles mentioning the virus

      Thelwall, Michael; Thelwall, Saheeda (De Gruyter Open, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose: Methods to tackle Covid-19 have been developed by a wave of biomedical research but the pandemic has also influenced many aspects of society, generating a need for research into its consequences, and potentially changing the way existing topics are investigated. This article investigates the nature of this influence on the wider academic research mission. Design/methodology/approach: This article reports an inductive content analysis of 500 randomly selected journal articles mentioning Covid-19, as recorded by the Dimensions scholarly database on 19 March 2021. Covid-19 mentions were coded for the influence of the disease on the research. Findings: Whilst two thirds of these articles were about biomedicine (e.g., treatments, vaccines, virology), or health services in response to Covid-19, others covered the pandemic economy, society, safety, or education. In addition, some articles were not about the pandemic but stated that Covid-19 had increased or decreased the value of the reported research or changed the context in which it was conducted. Research limitations: The findings relate only to Covid-19 influences declared in published journal articles. Practical implications: Research managers and funders should consider whether their current procedures are effective in supporting researchers to address the evolving demands of pandemic societies, particularly in terms of timeliness. Originality/value: The results show that although health research dominates the academic response to Covid-19, it is more widely disrupting academic research with new demands and challenges.
    • Enhancing learning opportunities in higher education: best practices that reflect on the themes of the National Student Survey, UK

      Gomis, Muhandiramge Kasun Samadhi; Saini, Mandeep; Pathirage, Chaminda; Arif, Mohammed (Emerald, 2021-12-31)
      Purpose: This study assessed 'Learning Opportunities' provided to the undergraduate students, from level three to six, in Higher Education (HE). A knowledge gap was identified within the current practice relating to learning opportunities for Built Environment (BE) students in HE. The study focused on the themes under section two of the National Student Survey (NSS): how students explore ideas or concepts in-depth, bring information and ideas together from different topics, and apply the learned content in a real-life context. The study aimed to provide recommendations for enhancing 'Learning Opportunities' to the BE students within HE. Methodology: Data collection focused on section two of NSS ‘Learning Opportunities’ and documentary analysis, and a qualitative survey was adopted for this study. A documental analysis of 334 Mid Module Reviews (MMR’s) was carried out. The qualitative data was collected from level three to level six students and academics from Architecture, Construction Management, Civil Engineering and Quantity Surveying disciplines representing BE context. A sample of 40 students and 15 academics, including a Head of school, a Principal lecturer, Subject leads and lecturers, participated in interviews as part of a qualitative survey. Twelve drivers were developed using the data obtained through literature, documental analysis, and interviews. These drivers were analysed using manual content analysis to identify their influence on the specified themes under NSS section two and circulated among academics to be ranked by identifying its’ influence to promote learning opportunities to BE students in HE. Findings: This study highlighted twelve drivers which promote learning opportunities in HE within BE curriculum. Findings established that topics should be explained with more real-life or industry-orientated concepts such as simplification integrated into module delivery. Contrary to the literature, the use of physical materials (i.e. handouts and whiteboard) in addition to Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) for detailed explanations were considered effective in exploring concepts. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, context-based learning needs to be promoted by integrating videos of practical implementation for better understanding. The study recognised that lab, fieldwork and tutorials were essential to apply what students have learned in BE curricula to a real-life context. Originality/Value: This study identified current learning approaches and provided recommendations to improve the BE students learning experience in HE. The identified twelve drivers would significantly help academics and academic institutions to understand how learning opportunities should be facilitated in the BE curriculum to enhance student performances in HE. Conclusion: Study identified twelve drivers that significantly contribute towards enhancing learning opportunities for BE students in the current HE context. It concludes that certain drivers should be prioritised in enhancing learning opportunities provided in BE curriculum. The study recommends that using traditional and VLE is essential to implement identified drivers and enhance the learning opportunities provided.
    • Participatory co-design and normalisation process theory with staff and patients to implement digital ways of working into routine care: the example of electronic patient-reported outcomes in UK renal services

      Knowles, SE; Ercia, A; Caskey, F; Rees, M; Farrington, K; van der Veer, SN (BMC, 2021-07-18)
      Background: Successful implementation of digital health systems requires contextually sensitive solutions. Working directly with system users and drawing on implementation science frameworks are both recommended. We sought to combine Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) with participatory co-design methods, to work with healthcare stakeholders to generate implementation support recommendations for a new electronic patient reported outcome measure (ePRO) in renal services. ePROs collect data on patient-reported symptom burden and illness experience overtime, requiring sustained engagement and integration into existing systems. Methods: We identified co-design methods that could be mapped to NPT constructs to generate relevant qualitative data. Patients and staff from three renal units in England participated in empathy and process mapping activities to understand ‘coherence’ (why the ePRO should be completed) and ‘cognitive participation’ (who would be involved in collecting the ePRO). Observation of routine unit activity was completed to understand ‘collective action’ (how the collection of ePRO could integrate with service routines). Results: The mapping activities and observation enabled the research team to become more aware of the key needs of both staff and patients. Working within sites enabled us to consider local resources and barriers. This produced ‘core and custom’ recommendations specifying core needs that could be met with customised local solutions. We identified two over-arching themes which need to be considered when introducing new digital systems (1) That data collection is physical (electronic systems need to fit into physical spaces and routines), and (2) That data collection is intentional (system users must be convinced of the value of collecting the data). Conclusions: We demonstrate that NPT constructs can be operationalised through participatory co-design to work with stakeholders and within settings to collaboratively produce implementation support recommendations. This enables production of contextually sensitive implementation recommendations, informed by qualitative evidence, theory, and stakeholder input. Further longitudinal evaluation is necessary to determine how successful the recommendations are in practice.
    • Influence of the tetraalkoxysilane crosslinker on the properties of polysiloxane-based elastomers prepared by the Lewis acid-catalysed Piers-Rubinsztajn reaction

      Hickman, Andrew M.; Chmel, Nikola; Cameron, Neil R.; Keddie, Daniel J.; Schiller, Tara L. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021-07-21)
      We investigate the preparation of polysiloxane-based networks under solvent-free, ambient conditions using the Lewis acid catalysed Piers-Rubinsztajn (PR) reaction of hydride-terminated siloxanes with various tetrafunctional alkoxysilanes (tetraethoxysilane, tetrapropoxysilane, tetra-n-buxoxysilane, tetra-s-butoxysilane, tetra-s-butoxysilane, and tetrakis(2- ethylbutoxy)silane) as crosslinkers. We explore the effects of polysiloxane chain length and crosslinker alkyl group on the rheological performance of the elastomers. By analysing the reaction progress by grazing angle Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and determining the rheological properties of the resulting materials, we show that the use of linear or branched alkoxysilanes strongly influences the morphology and properties of these network polymers. We have shown the PR process is can be tailored to reliably produce homogeneous, polysiloxane network materials. This work provides information on the relative rates of network formation under ambient conditions with an emphasis on the impact of crosslinker alkyl chain length. Our results show that electronics and s terics both play critical roles in influencing the the rate of the curing reaction. Crucially, we newly demonstrate the benefit of a having tertiary carbon α to the SiO reaction centre, as is the case for the tetra-s-butoxysilane crosslinker, for delivering exceptionally rapid network cure and a concomitant enhancement in storage modulus of the resultant materials.
    • Coatings for dental applications

      Praveen, Ayyappan S; Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad (Elsevier, 2021-07-15)
      Dental implants have become a reliable treatment option in oral rehabilitation of partially or fully edentulous patients to secure various kinds of prostheses. Established standard procedures exist for tooth replacement in various zones with varying degrees of success and challenges. Overall, the long-term success of dental implants largely depends on their surface characteristics and osseointegration. Although, the success rate of dental implants is high in comparison to orthopedic implants, insufficient integration, local tissue inflammation, and infection are still persistent issues. Accordingly, various types of biomaterial coatings using a range of techniques are commonly used to improve the overall performance of dental implants and to overcome some of the persistent issues. The function of the implant coated material includes enhancing the cellular changes which in turn accelerate the healing process through improved osseointegration and antibacterial properties. Consequently, coatings for dental applications are gaining significant attention and interest among researchers across the globe. This article, therefore, aims to introduce coating materials and associated techniques used in the context of dental application for improved biocompatibility and biofunctionality.
    • Different grades and different green premiums: a cross sectional analysis of a green certification scheme

      Wadu Mesthrige, Jayantha; Oladinrin, OT; Javed, AA (Informa UK Limited, 2021-07-18)
      Green certification is often hailed as an effective means of resolving information asymmetry by providing prospective buyers with credible proof of a property’s level of quantitative sustainability performance. These certification schemes are also considered as providing the credible identification labels needed to generate a market premium. This study analysed whether different market premiums (financial implications) exist across different ratings of the HK-BEAM certification scheme. The paper used hedonic price model (HPM) to evaluate the influence of green certification rating levels on residential property prices in Hong Kong. The results indicate, on average, that HK-BEAM certification increases price values by between 5.3% and 6.7%. Most importantly, the results indicate that significant price premium differences exist across the different ratings available for HK-BEAM certified buildings. The findings provide strong proof of the existence of a premium across ratings.
    • Controls on the development of continuous gullies: a 60 year monitoring study in the Moldavian Plateau of Romania

      Ionita, I; Niacsu, L; Poesen, J; Fullen, MA (Wiley, 2021-07-15)
      Gully erosion is a major environmental threat on the Moldavian Plateau (MP) of eastern Romania. The permanent gully systems consist of two main gully types. These are: (1) discontinuous gullies, which are mostly located on hillslopes and (2) large continuous gullies in valley bottoms. Very few studies have investigated the evolution of continuous gullies over the medium to longer term. The main objective of this study was to quantitatively analyse the development of continuous gullies over six decades (1961-2020). The paper aimed at predicting temporal patterns of gully head erosion based on field data from multiple gullies. Fourteen representative continuous gullies were selected near the town of Barlad, most of them having catchment areas <500 ha. Linear gully head retreat (LGHR) and areal gully growth (AGG) rates were quantified for six decades. Two main periods were distinguished and compared (i.e. the wet 1961-1980 period and the drier 1981-2020 period). Results indicate that gully erosion rates have significantly decreased since 1981. The mean LGHR of 7.7 m yr-1 over 60 years was accompanied by a mean AGG of 213 m2 yr-1. However, erosion rates between 1961-1980 were 4.0 times larger for LGHR and 5.9 times more for AGG compared to those for 1981-2020. Two regression models indicate that annual precipitation (P) is the primary controlling factor, explaining 57% of LGHR and 53% of AGG rate. The contributing area (CA) follows, with ~33%. Only 43% of total change in LGHR and 46% of total change in AGG results from rainfall-induced runoff during the warm season. Accordingly, the cold season (with associated freeze-thaw processes and snowmelt runoff) has more impact on gully development. The runoff pattern, when flow enters the trunk gully head, is largely controlled by the upper approaching discontinuous gully.
    • PlenoptiCam v1.0: A light-field imaging framework

      Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar (IEEE, 2021-12-31)
      Light-field cameras play a vital role for rich 3-D information retrieval in narrow range depth sensing applications. The key obstacle in composing light-fields from exposures taken by a plenoptic camera is to computationally calibrate, re-align and rearrange four-dimensional image data. Several attempts have been proposed to enhance the overall image quality by tailoring pipelines dedicated to particular plenoptic cameras and improving the color consistency across viewpoints at the expense of high computational loads. The framework presented herein advances prior outcomes thanks to its cost-effective color equalization from parallax-invariant probability distribution transfers and a novel micro image scale-space analysis for generic camera calibration independent of the lens specifications. Our framework compensates for artifacts from the sensor and micro lens grid in an innovative way to enable superior quality in sub-aperture image extraction, computational refocusing and Scheimpflug rendering with sub-sampling capabilities. Benchmark comparisons using established image metrics suggest that our proposed pipeline outperforms state-of-the-art tool chains in the majority of cases. The algorithms described in this paper are released under an open-source license, offer cross-platform compatibility with few dependencies and a graphical user interface. This makes the reproduction of results and experimentation with plenoptic camera technology convenient for peer researchers, developers, photographers, data scientists and others working in this field.
    • Urdu AI: writeprints for Urdu authorship identification

      Sarwar, Raheem; Hassan, Saeed-Ul (Association for Computing Machinery, 2021-12-31)
      The authorship identification task aims at identifying the original author of an anonymous text sample from a set of candidate authors. It has several application domains such as digital text forensics and information retrieval. These application domains are not limited to a specific language. However, most of the authorship identification studies are focused on English and limited attention has been paid to Urdu. On the other hand, existing Urdu authorship identification solutions drop accuracy as the number of training samples per candidate author reduces, and when the number of candidate author increases. Consequently, these solutions are inapplicable to real-world cases. To overcome these limitations, we formulate a stylometric feature space. Based on this feature space we use an authorship identification solution that transforms each text sample into point set, retrieves candidate text samples, and relies the nearest neighbour classifier to predict the original author of the anonymous text sample. To evaluate our method, we create a significantly larger corpus than existing studies and conduct several experimental studies which show that our solution can overcome the limitations of existing studies and report an accuracy level of 94.03%, which is higher than all previous authorship identification works.
    • The cellular pathways and potential therapeutics of polycystic kidney disease

      Richards, T; Modarage, K; Malik, SA; Goggolidou, P; Department of Biomedical Science and Physiology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1LY, U.K. (Portland Press, 2021-06-22)
      Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) refers to a group of disorders, driven by the formation of cysts in renal tubular cells and is currently one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease. The range of symptoms observed in PKD is due to mutations in cilia-localising genes, resulting in changes in cellular signalling. As such, compounds that are currently in preclinical and clinical trials target some of these signalling pathways that are dysregulated in PKD. In this review, we highlight these pathways including cAMP, EGF and AMPK signalling and drugs that target them and may show promise in lessening the disease burden of PKD patients. At present, tolvaptan is the only approved therapy for ADPKD, however, it carries several adverse side effects whilst comparatively, no pharmacological drug is approved for ARPKD treatment. Aside from this, drugs that have been the subject of multiple clinical trials such as metformin, which targets AMPK signalling and somatostatins, which target cAMP signalling have shown great promise in reducing cyst formation and cellular proliferation. This review also discusses other potential and novel targets that can be used for future interventions, such as β-catenin and TAZ, where research has shown that a reduction in the overexpression of these signalling components results in amelioration of disease phenotype. Thus, it becomes apparent that welldesigned preclinical investigations and future clinical trials into these pathways and other potential signalling targets are crucial in bettering disease prognosis for PKD patients and could lead to personalised therapy approaches.
    • Associations of socioeconomic status and physical activity with obesity measures in rural Chinese adults

      Pan, M; Tu, R; Gu, J; Li, R; Liu, X; Chen, R; Yu, S; Wang, X; Mao, Z; Huo, W; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2021-01-08)
      Background: Although independent association of socioeconomic status (SES) or physical activity (PA) with obesity has been well-documented in urban settings, their independent and joint associations on obesity measures are limited in rural regions. Methods: Almost 38,000 (n = 37,922) individuals were included from the Henan Rural Cohort Study. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to evaluate PA. Obesity was reflected by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), body fat percentage (BFP), and visceral fat index (VFI). The independent and interactive effects of SES and PA on obesity were analyzed by logistic regression models and generalized linear regression models, respectively. Results: Compared with high education level, the OR (95%CI) of obesity defined by BMI with low education level was 1.466 (1.337, 1.608), 1.064 (0.924, 1.225), and 1.853 (1.625, 2.114) in total population, men and women, respectively. Besides, the OR (95%CI) of obesity defined by BMI associated with per capita monthly income were 1.089 (1.015, 1.170), 1.192 (1.055, 1.347), 1.038 (0.951, 1.133) in total population, men and women, respectively. Similar results had been observed in other obesity measures. Negative interactive association of low education level and PA on obesity measures were observed only in women (all P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggests that women are more susceptible to obesity concerning low SES and that adequate PA may be a potential target for mitigating the negative effect of low SES on obesity in women. Clinical Trial Registration: The Henan Rural Cohort Study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699)
    • Association of maternal pre-pregnancy low or increased body mass index with adverse pregnancy outcomes

      Tang, J; Zhu, X; Chen, Y; Huang, D; Tiemeier, H; Chen, R; Bao, W; Zhao, Q; Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Guangzhou Medical University, Room 507, Block 2, Xinzao, Panyu District, 511436, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China. (Springer, 2021-02-15)
      This study investigated the association between pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and adverse pregnancy outcomes among women participated in the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project in Guangdong Province, China, and explored these associations according to maternal age. Pre-pregnancy BMI was classified into underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2), healthy weight (18.5–23.9 kg/m2), overweight (24.0–27.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥ 28.0 kg/m2) according to Chinese criteria. Outcomes were preterm birth (PTB, delivery before 37 weeks of gestation), large for gestational age (LGA, birthweight above the 90th percentile for gestational age by infants’ sex), small for gestational age (SGA, birthweight below the 10th percentile for gestational age by infants’ sex), primary caesarean delivery, shoulder dystocia or birth injury, and stillbirth. Adjusted incidence risk ratios (aIRR) were calculated for underweight, overweight and obesity, respectively. Compared with healthy weight, underweight was associated with increased risk of PTB (aIRR 1.06, 95%CI 1.04–1.09) and SGA (1.23, 1.22–1.26) but inversely associated with LGA (0.83, 0.82–0.85), primary caesarean delivery (0.88, 0.87–0.90) and stillbirth (0.73, 0.53–0.99). Overweight was associated with increased risk of LGA (1.17, 1.14–1.19), primary caesarean delivery (1.18, 1.16–1.20) and stillbirth (1.44, 1.03–2.06), but inversely associated with SGA (0.92, 0.90–0.95) and shoulder dystocia or birth injury (0.86, 0.79–0.93). Obesity was associated with increased risk of PTB (1.12, 1.05–1.20), LGA (1.32, 1.27–1.37), primary caesarean delivery (1.45, 1.40–1.50), but inversely associated with SGA (0.92, 0.87–0.97). The aIRRs for underweight, overweight and obesity in relation to these adverse pregnancy outcomes ranged from 0.65 to 1.52 according to maternal age. In Chinese population, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was significantly associated with the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the risk differs according to maternal age. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether and how counselling and interventions for women with low or increased BMI before pregnancy can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.
    • Temperature and humidity associated with increases in tuberculosis notifications: a time-series study in Hong Kong

      Xu, M; Li, Y; Liu, B; Chen, R; Sheng, L; Yan, S; Chen, H; Hou, J; Yuan, L; Ke, L; et al. (Cambridge University Press, 2020-12-28)
      Previous studies have revealed associations of meteorological factors with tuberculosis (TB) cases. However, few studies have examined their lag effects on TB cases. This study was aimed to analyse nonlinear lag effects of meteorological factors on the number of TB notifications in Hong Kong. Using a 22-year consecutive surveillance data in Hong Kong, we examined the association of monthly average temperature and relative humidity with temporal dynamics of the monthly number of TB notifications using a distributed lag nonlinear models combined with a Poisson regression. The relative risks (RRs) of TB notifications were >1.15 as monthly average temperatures were between 16.3 and 17.3 °C at lagged 13-15 months, reaching the peak risk of 1.18 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.35) when it was 16.8 °C at lagged 14 months. The RRs of TB notifications were >1.05 as relative humidities of 60.0-63.6% at lagged 9-11 months expanded to 68.0-71.0% at lagged 12-17 months, reaching the highest risk of 1.06 (95% CI 1.01-1.11) when it was 69.0% at lagged 13 months. The nonlinear and delayed effects of average temperature and relative humidity on TB epidemic were identified, which may provide a practical reference for improving the TB warning system.
    • Antibacterial biomaterials in orthopedics

      Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Wang, Chang (Elsevier, 2021-07-10)
      Implant infection is a serious complication resulting in pain, mortality, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). AMR is one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century causing an estimated 25000 deaths/year in the EU at €1.5 billion/year in healthcare and productivity cost. By 2050, WHO estimates 10 million lives a year will be at risk from AMR, surpassing cancer, with $100 trillion in economic costs if no proactive solutions are found. The risk-of-infection associated with surgical implants is the one that is called for the highest attention. Antibacterial biomaterials are rapidly emerging as a primary component of the global mitigation strategy against both implant infection and AMR. As a result of extensive research efforts, advances are being made both on antibacterial surface coatings topographical architecture that can be applied that reduces the risk of infection. In this regard, the paper introduces the emerging research on antibacterial constructs highlighting the challenges and opportunities. In doing so, antibacterial biomaterials the offer the highest potential for reducing orthopedic infections while combating AMR are discussed.
    • Different thyroid assays may greatly affect diagnosis and management of hypothyroidism

      Kalaria, Tejas; Sanders, Anna; Fenn, Jonathan; Buch, Harit; Ford, Clare; Ashby, Helen L; Mohammed, Pervaz; Gama, Rousseau; Clinical Biochemistry, New Cross Hospital, Black Country Pathology Services, Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton, UK. (BMJ, 2021-06-09)
      Letter to the editor, replying to Investigating hypothyroidism, Published: 27 April 2021; BMJ 373 doi:10.1136/bmj.n993
    • Shadow banking: The next financial crisis?

      Barnes, Matthew (Thomson Reuters - Sweet & Maxwell, 2021-03-31)
      Shadow banking plays an integral part in modern day banking and finance. However, shadow banking is not a modern concept, in fact, it has existed for many years when considering credit outside of banking institutions. Shadow banking was coined around the time of the global financial crisis 2007-2009, but the roots of such run far deeper than this time period. This paper will discuss credit outside of the traditional banking system, shadow banking and the global financial crisis focusing on securitisation, and prominently how shadow banking may be the catalyst for the next financial crisis with a focus on China where it appears rife.