Now showing items 1-20 of 6138

    • Decálogo de características de la literatura poscolonial: propuesta de una taxonomía para la crítica literaria y los estudios de literatura comparada

      Fernández Ruiz, María Remedios; Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Seghiri, Míriam (Editorial CSIC, 2021-06-22)
      El objetivo de este artículo es ofrecer una propuesta de clasificación de los rasgos presentes, en mayor o menor medida, en la literatura poscolonial en cualquier idioma. A pesar de que esta taxonomía toma como punto de partida definiciones teóricas previas de los conceptos clave relacionados con la literatura poscolonial (Edwards 2008, Nayar 2008 y Ramone 2011), parece ser la primera clasificación formal que se ha elaborado al respecto. De este modo, se analizan conceptos consolidados a la par que presenta la nueva noción de plasticidad de géneros literarios y explora las corrientes actuales en la investigación de la interseccionalidad. Como resultado, proporcionaremos un decálogo de características de la literatura poscolonial que favorecerá la crítica literaria y los estudios de literatura comparada.
    • Changing the rules of the game in academic publishing: three scenarios in the field of management research

      Brabet, Julienne; Ozbilgin, Mustafa; Yamak, Sibel (Inderscience, 2021-09)
      The field of academic publishing is under multiple pressures to transform as it suffers from crises of confidence partly due to the mass marketisation, deterioration of relevance and decline of collaborative scientific ethos that it has experienced. The paper offers a provocation based on a multilevel analysis of the present academic (business) model of knowledge production and dissemination, and its consequences. It then presents three alternative futuristic scenarios. The first one is based on a fully commercialized approach to publishing. The second scenario promotes an open science approach and the third one explores a complete overhaul of our current approach to management research. The paper has implications for governance of the field of publishing in management research into the future and aims to alert the actors in the sector to the vices of the mass marketisation of academic publishing.
    • PLGA-DS reverses chemoresistance in malignant mesothelioma by targeting hypoxia induced cancer stem cells

      Wang, Weiguang; Tyagi, Garima (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
      Background: Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is a malignancy related to asbestos exposure which causes a wide variety of molecular aberrations. MM has a very dismal treatment outcome with an overall survival of fewer than 12 months, with less than five drugs available for its treatment. MM recurrence is unavoidable due to chemoresistance. Long-term inflammation triggered by asbestos activates a key transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which is further upregulated in cancer stem cells (CSCs) by hypoxia. Both hypoxia and NF-κB pathway plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of stemness in hypoxia-induced CSCs leading to upregulation of anti-apoptotic signalling, chemo-radiation resistance and metastasis. Therefore, the development of drugs targeting hypoxia-NF-κB-CSCs axis is of clinical significance for MM treatment. Our previous studies have shown that Disulfiram (DS), a clinically used anti-alcoholism drug, in combination with Copper (II) (Cu) has substantial toxicity in CSCs in a wide range of cancer types. The clinical application of DS in Cancer is limited by its very short half-life (< 2 minutes) in the bloodstream. MM is Cancer which mainly infiltrates local organs and tissues with rare distant metastasis. Considering this growing feature of MM, we developed a biodegradable and controlled released poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticle-encapsulate disulfiram (PLGA-DS) for local treatment of MM. This study aims to examine the anti-MM effect of PLGA-DS and elucidate its molecular mechanisms. Methodologies: In order to determine drug sensitivity, stemness, apoptosis, invasiveness and NFκB status, the following methodologies were performed in this study: MTT cytotoxicity assay, flow cytometry, analysis of CSC markers, hypoxic cell cultures, western blot, stable transfection of MM cell line with NFκB, CRISPR-Cas9 knock out of NF-kB-p65, CSC sphere reformation, invasion and migration assay. Results and conclusions: Two MM cell lines were examined and cultured in a hypoxic environment. MM cell lines were highly resistant to Pemetrexed (PMT) and Cisplatin (CIS), the first-line chemotherapeutic agents for MM. Hypoxia cultured MM cells showed high NF-κB activity and CSC markers and manifested strong migration/invasion ability. The NF-κB-p65 over expressed transfected cell lines did not demonstrate CSC traits along with no increase in resistance to first line drugs. PLGA-DS/Cu completely abolished CSC population in a culture which is demonstrated by sphere reformation assays and flow cytometry analysis of CSC markers such as CD24, CD133 and ABCG2. PLGA-DS/Cu also inhibited the hypoxiainduced NF-kB expression and blocked the migration and invasion ability of MM cells. It showed substantial toxicity to MM cell lines and reversed hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. Also, PLGA-DS/Cu potentiated the cytotoxic effect of Cisplatin/Pemetrexed in vitro. Isobologram analysis indicates moderate synergistic effect between PLGA-DS and cisplatin and pemetrexed in MSTO 211 and JU77 cell lines, respectively. As an FDA approved a drug with all preclinical safety data available, further studies may quickly translate it into MM clinical treatment. This is very promising in vitro data and indicate that PLGA-DS could be a promising formulation for localised MM treatment.
    • Fish consumption and dementia in older people: impacts and determinants

      Chen, Ruoling; Bakre, Aishat T (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-01)
      Background: Dementia is one of the world's biggest health problems and is a major public health challenge that is becoming more common as the aged population grows. There is no known cure for dementia, and thus more efforts have been made to investigate its risk or protective factors for prevention. Previous studies suggested that increased consumption of fish reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether the consumption of fish was associated with the risk of dementia and outcomes of people with dementia. Also, few studies have specifically examined factors influencing the consumption of fish in older people, despite the world population aging. The purpose of this research project was to conduct a systematic literature review and examine the determinants and impacts of fish consumption on the incidence and mortality of dementia in older people using a convergent parallel database mixed methodological approach. Methods: This study employed a systematic literature review and a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches that is based on a large cohort study dataset from China and two focus group discussions from the United Kingdom. In 2007-2009, 6071 participants aged ≥60 years were randomly selected from urban and rural communities in five-provinces, China. Using a standard interview method, participants’ socio-economic status, disease risk factors and fish consumption over the past two years were documented at baseline and this was followed up until 2012. The data of the cohort were analysed in multivariate adjusted logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models. In 2018, the focus group discussions that consisted of 12 older adults were conducted in the UK, and the qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The findings of these studies demonstrated that increased consumption of fish was associated with reduced risk of dementia and all-cause mortality among older people. The study also examined and found that large socioeconomic inequalities, and certain lifestyle, psychosocial factors and health-related conditions are significant determinants of fish consumption. The qualitative study further revealed that participants consume fish for its taste, flavour, the desire for variety of food and the nutritional and health benefit including reducing the risk of dementia and other health outcomes. Although cost, bony/scaly fish, smell and availability/accessibility of fish were highlighted as the major barriers of fish consumption. Conclusions: This research has provided evidence for preventing dementia and reducing all-cause mortality through adequate fish consumption. The findings of the study should be extended to improve public health policy, and this could form the basis for further research.
    • Ecological labyrinths and myths of the fall: An earth-centred approach to The Lord of the Rings and His Dark Materials

      Wilson, Frank; Greenfield, Stephen Richard (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      Ecological criticism (ecocriticism) bifurcates between two paths that offer alternative definitions of ecology as a structure. One leads to a fixed, cyclical model, the other moves in a dynamic, evolutionary direction. These differences of orientation frame ecocritical responses that appear irreconcilable to each other. This research provides a way of reading the structure of fantasy texts as parallel to ecological structure in a way that brings the two definitions of ecology into dialogue. The divergence in approaches to ecocriticism has caused a chasm to open between the respective ends of an ecocritical spectrum in the polemical positions of deep ecology and ecohumanism. These positions reflect fundamental differences over the structure of ecology and tend toward mutual antagonism. This research addresses division in facilitating dialogue through analysis of structural ecological positions as a binary that creates meaning. Such a comparative approach leads to a nuanced understanding of ecological structure and its articulation through narrative design. The reading draws out structural ecological meaning, highlights inconsistencies and weaknesses, and reconciles divergent polemical positions as complementary. The general principle of reading the quest hero as exemplifying ecological structure has been used by Rachel McCoppin in her analysis of mythological texts to identify ‘botanical heroism’. McCoppin chose to map myths from pre-Darwinian ages to a simple seasonal cycle of nature as her structural model. As such her research does not deal with the complex and nuanced twentieth-century confusion over ecological structure. My research confronts that problem, proposing a method for understanding discontinuities that are, in any case, ecological in nature. I arrived at an alternative to the cycle of nature that articulates the struggle to define a pattern of ecological relationships, in the form of the labyrinth. The labyrinth comprises a dichotomy. On the one hand a unicursal model articulates structure as a series of concentric loops that act as boundaries and lead toward a point of illumination. This model incorporates the cycle of nature within a more complex scheme than McCoppin’s seasonal model of regeneration. On the other hand the labyrinth in multicursal form comprises a maze that resists regularity, replacing certainty with choice leading either to continued progress or dead-ends. The labyrinth as a symbol of alienation, disorientation and confusion captures the ambition of ecological readings of quests to reconcile humanity and nature. I apply the eco- labyrinthine model to my reading of two of the twentieth-centuries most popular quest fantasies, J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings and Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials. The following study shows that an eco-labyrinthine approach to reading modern fantasy quest provides a way of bringing together alternative perspectives of ecological structure in a dialogue that undermines claims to mutual exclusivity. By way of answers the eco-labyrinth provides a spectrum, or continuum, against which to plot inconsistencies. It opens up questions about heroism mapped against an ecological model. This thesis illustrates how an eco-labyrinthine exegesis works in relation to certain texts to reassess their ecocritical meaning. Some of the questions this research raises about how authors engage with ecology, biodiversity and evolution through structural modelling of fictitious worlds, reflected in narrative structure, will necessarily benefit from a lively and continuing debate.
    • Metamaterials for energy harvesting

      Govindaraman, Loganathan T; Arjunan, Arun; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Robinson, John; Olabi, Abdul-Ghani (Elsevier, 2021-06-21)
      Metamaterials offer significant potentials for numerous applications due to their unique acoustics, electromagnetic, optical, and mechanical properties. The increasing interest in the development of metamaterials is also driven by the inability of traditional architecture to offer novel functionalities offered by metamaterials. Recently it has been shown that the metamaterial phenomenon can be exploited for the development of energy harvesting devices especially in the field of energy scavenging at low intensity. Approaches include algorithmically arranged building blocks at the sub-micron level to achieve the desired order of response against incident energy. Furthermore, the ease of customisation with regards to metamaterials in alignment with energy sources such as acoustic, mechanical, optical and microwave offer numerous avenues for energy harvesting. For the development and selection of suitable energy harvesting metamaterial a critical understanding of their classifications, fabrication, and opportunities for customisation with respect to size, shape and lattice spacing is required, which this paper aims to provide. Furthermore, various concepts and experiments implemented to demonstrate and assess energy using metamaterials from sources such as sound waves, solar waves and mechanical vibrations are also covered.
    • Exploring psychological strategies to manage fatigue in endurance sport

      Lane, Andrew; Robinson, Daniel (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-11)
      The purpose of the study is to examine psychological interventions and their contextual validity in endurance-based sporting events. Over the course of three studies the work examines interventions for coping with fatigue in both laboratory and real-world settings. Participants range in ability and experience from novice to sub-elite competitors. The two cycling-based studies explore pacing strategies and goal directed self-talk. The final study delivers brief interventions to sub-elite runners in repeated trials at their local parkrun. Results throughout were mixed and often it was not clear the extent to which the intervention had been effective. The studies highlight the complexity and challenge involved in trying to teach and then measure psychological interventions in this context. Many factors influence performance, and more work is needed in understanding and highlighting the impact of training, experience, competitive conditions, belief effect and so on. In particular the motivation levels of athletes are critical when trying to assess a maximal performance. Case studies will be a useful model in future research to understand the complexities of individual athletes. Finding creative ways to examine athletes in environmentally valid settings, where there can be a high degree of confidence in athlete effort levels, will be valuable. The relationship between belief effect and the athlete’s choice of coping strategy is worthy of further research.
    • Interpreting in international sign: decisions of Deaf and non-Deaf interpreters

      Stone, Christopher; Russell, Debra; Costello, Brendan; Thumann, Mary; Shaw, Risa (WASLI, 2011)
      The professional use of Deaf Interpreters (DIs) is increasing in several countries and across several contexts. However, there have been few studies that have explored the nature of the work when it involves a Deaf and nondeaf interpreting team. The current study examined the work of two teams of Deaf/non-deaf interpreters providing service in a conference setting. The participants were videotaped while providing service in order to examine the linguistic decisions made by non-deaf interpreters acting as a natural signed language feed, the linguistic decisions made by Deaf interpreters working into International Sign (IS), as well as the meta-communication strategies the team used while constructing the interpretation. The data suggest that interpreting teams that are more familiar with each other rely on different strategies when chunking information, asking for feeds, and for making accommodations. There also appear to be significant differences in the work when the two interpreters share a common natural signed language. All of the data analyzed thus far offer insight into the nature of the relationship and may provide guidance to those arranging interpreting services for international events.
    • Handling cross and out-of-domain samples in Thai word segmentation

      Limkonchotiwat, Peerat; Phatthiyaphaibun, Wannaphong; Sarwar, Raheem; Chuangsuwanich, Ekapol; Nutanong, Sarana (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021-12-31)
      While word segmentation is a solved problem in many languages, it is still a challenge in continuous-script or low-resource languages. Like other NLP tasks, word segmentation is domain-dependent, which can be a challenge in low-resource languages like Thai and Urdu since there can be domains with insufficient data. This investigation proposes a new solution to adapt an existing domaingeneric model to a target domain, as well as a data augmentation technique to combat the low-resource problems. In addition to domain adaptation, we also propose a framework to handle out-of-domain inputs using an ensemble of domain-specific models called MultiDomain Ensemble (MDE). To assess the effectiveness of the proposed solutions, we conducted extensive experiments on domain adaptation and out-of-domain scenarios. Moreover, we also proposed a multiple task dataset for Thai text processing, including word segmentation. For domain adaptation, we compared our solution to the state-of-the-art Thai word segmentation (TWS) method and obtained improvements from 93.47% to 98.48% at the character level and 84.03% to 96.75% at the word level. For out-of-domain scenarios, our MDE method significantly outperformed the state-of-the-art TWS and multi-criteria methods. Furthermore, to demonstrate our method’s generalizability, we also applied our MDE framework to other languages, namely Chinese, Japanese, and Urdu, and obtained improvements similar to Thai’s.
    • The association between training load indices and upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in elite soccer players

      Tiernan, Caoimhe; Comyns, Thomas; Lyons, Mark; Nevill, Alan M; Warrington, Giles (SAGE, 2021-06-17)
      This study aimed to investigate the association between training load indices and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) across different lag periods in elite soccer players. Internal training load was collected from 15 elite soccer players over one full season (40 weeks). Acute, chronic, Acute:Chronic Workload Ratio (ACWR), Exponentially Weighted Moving Averages (EWMA) ACWR, 2, 3 and 4-week cumulative load, training strain and training monotony were calculated on a rolling weekly basis. Players completed a daily illness log, documenting any signs and symptoms, to help determine an URTI. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between training load indices and URTIs across different lag periods (1 to 7-days). The results found a significant association between 2-week cumulative load and an increased likelihood of a player contracting an URTI 3 days later (Odds Ratio, 95% Confidence Interval: OR = 2.07, 95% CI = 0.026-1.431). Additionally, a significant association was found between 3-week cumulative load and a players’ increased risk of contracting an URTI 4 days later (OR = 1.66, 95% CI = 0.013–1.006). These results indicate that accumulated periods of high training load (2- and 3-week) associated with an increased risk of a player contracting an URTI, which may lead to performance decrements, missed training sessions or even competitions.
    • Sentiment analysis for Urdu online reviews using deep learning models

      Safder, Iqra; Mehmood, Zainab; Sarwar, Raheem; Hassan, Saeed-Ul; Zaman, Farooq; Adeel Nawab, Rao Muhammad; Bukhari, Faisal; Ayaz Abbasi, Rabeeh; Alelyani, Salem; Radi Aljohani, Naif; et al. (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Most existing studies are focused on popular languages like English, Spanish, Chinese, Japanese, and others, however, limited attention has been paid to Urdu despite having more than 60 million native speakers. In this paper, we develop a deep learning model for the sentiments expressed in this under-resourced language. We develop an open-source corpus of 10,008 reviews from 566 online threads on the topics of sports, food, software, politics, and entertainment. The objectives of this work are bi-fold (1) the creation of a human-annotated corpus for the research of sentiment analysis in Urdu; and (2) measurement of up-to-date model performance using a corpus. For their assessment, we performed binary and ternary classification studies utilizing another model, namely LSTM, RCNN Rule-Based, N-gram, SVM, CNN, and LSTM. The RCNN model surpasses standard models with 84.98 % accuracy for binary classification and 68.56 % accuracy for ternary classification. To facilitate other researchers working in the same domain, we have open-sourced the corpus and code developed for this research.
    • Asymmetric copolymers: synthesis, properties, and applications of gradient and other partially segregated copolymers

      Zhang, J; Farias-Mancilla, B; Destarac, M; Schubert, US; Keddie, DJ; Guerrero-Sanchez, C; Harrisson, S; MOE Key Laboratory, of Material Physics and Chemistry under Extraordinary Conditions, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Science and Technology, Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710072, P. R. China. (Wiley, 2018-09-16)
      Asymmetric copolymers are a class of materials with intriguing properties. They can be defined by a distribution of monomers within the polymer chain that is neither strictly segregated, as in the case of block copolymers, nor evenly distributed throughout each chain, as in the case of statistical copolymers. This definition includes gradient copolymers as well as block copolymers that contain segments of statistical copolymer. In this review, different methods to synthesize asymmetric copolymers are first discussed. The properties of asymmetric copolymers are investigated in comparison to those of block and random counterparts of similar composition. Finally, some examples of applications of asymmetric copolymers, both academic and industrial, are demonstrated. The aim of this review is to provide a perspective on the design and synthesis of asymmetric copolymers with useful applications.
    • Measuring ZnO nanoparticles available co ncentrations in contaminated soils using the diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT) technique

      Pouran, Hamid; Alkasbi, Mohammed; Lahive, Elma; Lofts, Stephen; Zhang, Hao (Elsevier, 2021-12-31)
      A major gap in understanding nanomaterials behaviour in the environment is a lack of reliable tools to measure their available concentrations. In this research we use diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for measuring concentrations of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZNO NPs) in soils. Available nanoparticle concentrations were assessed by difference, using paired DGT devices with and without 1000 MWCO dialysis membranes to exclude NPs. We used ZnO because its toxic effects are accelerated through dissolution to Zn2+. Our test soils had different pH and organic matter (OM) contents, which both affect the dissolution rate of ZnO NPs. Woburn (pH≈6.9, OM≈1.8%) and Lufa (pH≈5.9, OM≈4.2%) soils were spiked to a single concentration of 500 mg of ZnO NPs per 1 kg of soil and the available concentrations of ZnO NPs and dissolved zinc were evaluated in 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 day intervals using DGT. The results showed that the dissolution of ZnO NPs, as well as the available concentrations of both dissolved and nanoparticulate Zn, were much higher in Lufa soil than in Woburn. This work demonstrates that DGT can be used as a simple yet reliable technique for determining concentrations of ZnO NPs in soils and probing its dissolution kinetics.
    • The roles of motivational interviewing and self-efficacy on outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a community-based exercise intervention for inactive mid-older aged adults

      Rose, Catherine; Galbraith, Niall; Rose, Peter (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Increasing physical activity (PA) among inactive middle-older aged adults in rural communities is challenging. This study investigates the efficacy of a PA intervention supporting inactive adults in rural/ semi-rural communities. Inactive participants enrolled on either a single signposting session (n=427), or multi-session pathway combining signposting with motivational interviewing (MI) (n=478). Pre-post outcomes data assessed activity levels (IPAQ-S; SISEM), self-efficacy (NGSE) and well-being (WHO-5). Measures were repeated at longitudinal time points (26, 52 weeks) for the MI pathway. Outcomes were contrasted with results from an unmatched comparison group receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Cost-utility (QALY-ICER) and return on investment (NHS-ROI; QALY-ROI) were estimated for short (5 years), medium (10 years) and long (25 years) time horizons. Both pathways significantly increased participants’ PA. The MI pathway resulted in significantly greater increases in PA than signposting-only and TAU. Improvements in psychological outcomes (NGSE; WHO-5) were significantly greater in the MI pathway than TAU. Longitudinal results indicated MI pathway participants sustained increases in light-intensity PA at 52 weeks (p<.001; ηp2=.16). Regression analyses found baseline self-efficacy predicted increased PA at 52 weeks, while baseline wellbeing did not. The relationship between self-efficacy and PA increased successively across time points. However, the magnitude of participants’ increased self-efficacy did not predict PA at any time point. Both pathways were cost-effective and costsaving for participants aged ≥ 61 years from the short time horizon, with the MI pathway having greater return on investment estimates. Overall, MI increased efficacy of a signposting PA intervention, and was cost-saving for older adults.
    • Fog vehicular computing: augmentation of fog computing using vehicular cloud computing

      Sookhak, Mehdi; Yu, F Richard; He, Ying; Talebian, Hamid; Sohrabi Safa, Nader; Zhao, Nan; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumar, Neeraj (IEEE, 2017-07-27)
      Fog computing has emerged as a promising solution for accommodating the surge of mobile traffic and reducing latency, both known to be inherent problems of cloud computing. Fog services, including computation, storage, and networking, are hosted in the vicinity of end users (edge of the network), and, as a result, reliable access is provisioned to delay-sensitive mobile applications. However, in some cases, the fog computing capacity is overwhelmed by the growing number of demands from patrons, particularly during peak hours, and this can subsequently result in acute performance degradation. In this article, we address this problem by proposing a new concept called fog vehicular computing (FVC) to augment the computation and storage power of fog computing. We also design a comprehensive architecture for FVC and present a number of salient applications. The result of implementation clearly shows the effectiveness of the proposed architecture. Finally, some open issues and envisioned directions are discussed for future research in the context of FVC.
    • Information security collaboration formation in organisations

      Sohrabi Safa, Nader; Maple, Carsten; Watson, Tim; Furnell, Steve (Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET), 2018-02-09)
      Collaboration between employees in the domain of information security efficiently mitigates the effect of information security attacks on organisations. Collaboration means working together to do or to fulfil a shared goal, the target of which in this paper is the protection of the information assets in organisations. Information Security Collaboration (ISC) aims to aggregate the employees’ contribution against information security threats. This study clarifies how ISC is to be developed and how it helps to reduce the effect of attacks. The socialisation of collaboration in the domain of information security applies two essential theories: Social Bond Theory (SBT) and the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The results of the data analysis revealed that personal norms, involvement, and commitment significantly influence the employees’ attitude towards ISC intention. However, contrary to our expectation, attachment does not influence the attitude of employees towards ISC. In addition, attitudes towards ISC, perceived behavioural control, and personal norms significantly affect the intention towards ISC. The findings also show that the intention for ISC and organisational support positively influence ISC, but that trust does not significantly affect ISC behaviour.
    • Measuring community disaster resilience at local levels: An adaptable resilience framework

      Tariq, Hisham; Pathirage, Chaminda; Fernando, Terrence (Elsevier, 2021-05-28)
      Decision makers, practitioners and community members need to assess the disaster resilience of their communities and to understand better the risks they face from natural hazards. There is a lack of consensus on what resilience means and how it can be measured as each stakeholder potentially brings a different perspective to understanding community disaster resilience. The paper will identify the key features and characteristics of Community Disaster Resilience (CDR) frameworks from the literature to develop a resilience framework that can be adapted and customised according to stakeholder needs. The paper used a 5-step process to develop an adaptable CDR framework. First, a review of 36 resilience frameworks was conducted to identify key features and characteristics of resilience frameworks. In Steps 2 and 3, a matrix of indicators and measures was populated by resilience dimensions covered in the current CDR literature reviewed. Subsequently, the indicators were sorted for similarities and duplicates were removed. Finally, they were clustered by six critical resilience dimensions (i.e. Physical, Health, Economic, Environmental, Social and Governance) into a library of 86 resilience indicators (composed of 360 measures) that can be used to operationalize a CDR framework according to the needs of the stakeholders. The review indicated that majority of the articles selected use objective approaches to measure resilience showing a gap for more frameworks using subjective, or participatory, approaches to measuring community resilience. An adaptable CDR framework may make resilience assessment more grounded in local stakeholder perspectives and lead to a better understanding of community resilience.
    • Motivation and opportunity based model to reduce information security insider threats in organisations

      Safa, Nader Sohrabi; Maple, Carsten; Watson, Tim; Von Solms, Rossouw (Elsevier, 2018-03-05)
      Information technology has brought with it many advantages for organisations, but information security is still a major concern for organisations which rely on such technology. Users, whether with intent or through negligence, are a great source of potential of risk to information assets. A lack of awareness, negligence, resistance, disobedience, apathy and mischievousness are root causes of information security incidents in organisations. As such, insider threats have attracted the attention of a number of experts in this domain. Two particularly important considerations when exploring insider threats are motivation and opportunity. Two fundamental theories relating to these phenomena, and on which the research presented in this paper relies, are Social Bond Theory (SBT), which can be used to help undermine motivation to engage in misbehaviour, and Situational Crime Prevention Theory (SCPT), which can be used to reduce opportunities for misbehaviour. The results of our data analysis show that situational prevention factors such as increasing the effort and risk involved in a crime, reducing the rewards and removing excuses can significantly promotes the adoption of negative attitudes towards misbehaviour, though reducing provocations does not have any effect on attitudes. Further, social bond factors such as a commitment to organisational policies and procedures, involvement in information security activities and personal norms also significantly promotes the adoption of negative attitudes towards misbehaviour. However, attachment does not significantly promote an attitude of misbehaviour avoidance on the part of employees. Finally, our findings also show that a negative attitude towards misbehaviour influences the employees’ intentions towards engaging in misbehaviour positively, and this in turn reduces insider threat behaviour. The outputs of this study shed some light on factors which play a role in reducing misbehaviour in the domain of information security for academics and practitioners.
    • Physico-chemical and sensory acceptability of no added sugar chocolate spreads fortified with multiple micronutrients

      Tolve, Roberta; Tchuenbou-Magaia, Fideline; Verderese, Daniele; Simonato, Barbara; Puggia, Damiano; Galgano, Fernanda; Zamboni, Anita; Favati, Fabio (Elsevier, 2021-06-17)
      Vitamin D and magnesium-calcium carbonate nanoparticles were used to fortify a newly developed healthy chocolate spread formulated with inulin and maltitol as sugar replacers and alternative to palm oil to reduce the concentration of saturated fatty acid. These samples were compared with well-known commercially available chocolate spreads in terms of rheology, polyphenols content and in vitro digestion, sensory attributes and willingness to buy. The fortified chocolate spreads showed comparable if not better acceptability than the current products on the market and over 80% of the participants were inclined to buy and 66% prepared to spend 10 to 15% more money on the product enriched with the three micronutrients. The results also demonstrate that the incorporation of nanoparticles could affect the rheological and physio-chemical properties of the formulations and an appropriate ratio between the fat phase and particles seems an important factor to consider.
    • An opportunistic resource management model to overcome resource‐constraint in the Internet of Things

      Safa, Nader Sohrabi; Maple, Carsten; Haghparast, Mahboobeh; Watson, Tim; Dianati, Mehrdad (Wiley, 2018-09-25)
      Experts believe that the Internet of Things (IoT) is a new revolution in technology and has brought many advantages for our society. However, there are serious challenges in terms of information security and privacy protection. Smart objects usually do not have malware detection due to resource limitations and their intrusion detection work on a particular network. Low computation power, low bandwidth, low battery, storage, and memory contribute to a resource-constrained effect on information security and privacy protection in the domain of IoT. The capacity of fog and cloud computing such as efficient computing, data access, network and storage, supporting mobility, location awareness, heterogeneity, scalability, and low latency in secure communication positively influence information security and privacy protection in IoT. This study illustrates the positive effect of fog and cloud computing on the security of IoT systems and presents a decision-making model based on the object's characteristics such as computational power, storage, memory, energy consumption, bandwidth, packet delivery, hop-count, etc. This helps an IoT system choose the best nodes for creating the fog that we need in the IoT system. Our experiment shows that the proposed approach has less computational, communicational cost, and more productivity in compare with the situation that we choose the smart objects randomly to create a fog.