Now showing items 1-20 of 4763

    • Laser Cleaning of Grey Cast Iron Automotive Brake Disc: Rust Removal and Improvement in Surface Integrity

      Ogbekene, Y. F.; Shukla, P.; Zhang, Y.; Shen, X.; Prabhakaran, S.; Kalainathan, S.; Gulia, Kiran; Lawrence, J. (Oldcity Publications USA, 2019-08-01)
      There is a great need for removal of rust and surface damage from corroded engineering parts. This enables the retention of strength and increased longevity of metals and alloys in general. The use of lasers for cleaning, polishing and ablation has proven to be effective and promising overtime. This research is focused on a parametric study of laser cleaning a corroded grey cast iron brake disc. A continuous wave CO2 laser having a wavelength of 10.6μm was used for the study. A systematic approach was employed for the experiments where one parameter was changed while other parameters remained constant. Additional effects of laser cleaning were predicted by a Gaussian process regression approach. The results revealed that the best parameters which cleanly removed the rust were 60W of laser power, 900mm/s traverse speed, and a spot size of 722μm. The enhancement of surface microhardness of laser cleaned specimen was 37% compared to the rusted specimen surfaces. The roughness of the laser cleaned surface was, 1.29μm while the rusted surface comprised of 55.45μm (Ra). Microstructural analysis showed a presence of randomly distributed graphite flakes surrounded by a pearlitic matrix containing ferrite and cementite after laser cleaning. This was similar to that of the un-rusted surface. The hardness, roughness and microstructural content were in close relation with the respective properties of the unrusted automotive brake disc. This showed that the mechanical and physical properties of the brake disc were not altered negatively during the laser cleaning process. Implementation of the laser-cleaning technique in automotive and manufacturing industries should be embraced as it provides a faster, safer and cheaper way of enhancing the surface integrity of components and also paves way for other surface enhancement methodologies to be applied such as blast cleaning or laser shock cleaning for inducing extra strength, by beneficial residual stresses.
    • Effective early learning: a praxeological and participatory approach to evaluating and improving quality in early childhood education

      Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony (Revista da FAEEBA, 2018-04-30)
      This paper acknowledges the importance of providing high quality early education to young children if positive long term child outcomes and social mobility for the less advantaged are to be achieved. It offers a strategy to improve pedagogical quality in early childhood settings worldwide where quality remains low for many children and sets out an alternative praxeological model of quality assessment and improvement that is democratic, participatory, inclusive and culturally sensitive rather than universalised and metricised. The Effective Early Learning (EEL) quality evaluation and improvement programme embodies this participatory approach and has been successfully implemented across UK, Portugal and the Netherlands, where evidence has shown its impact in enhancing child wellbeing, child involvement and child dispositions to learn through improving the quality of pedagogical processes and the enabling educative context in which these occur.
    • “Something is happening and you don’t know what it is”: The music and entertainment press

      Glen, Patrick; Conboy, Martin; Finkelstein, David (University of Edinburgh, 2020-01-01)
      Coleman joined the Melody Maker at their Fleet Street office in 1960, and at first found it hard to adjust to a different style of showbiz journalism. He couldn't see what was ‘newsworthy’ about a string of Cliff Richard tour dates and preferred to stir up a row with the BBC or research a heavily angled investigation into the music business. Feeling frustrated, he planned to defect to the Daily Telegraph. Then he encountered a classic put-down from a Telegraph executive at his job interview. Asked where he worked, he replied: ‘The Melody Maker.’ And before that? ‘The Manchester Evening News.’ After a long pause, the executive inquired icily: ‘Tell me, Mr Coleman, why did you leave journalism?’ The anecdote, taken from Roy Coleman’s obituary (Independent 13 September 1996) reveals a common preconception about the entertainment press: it was a journalistic backwater, a place for fanatics and second-rate journalists, where publishers made easy money. The view misses the significance of a medium where the entertainment industry and the public came together to discuss the creative practices, performances and commercial products of artistes. These journalistic and publishing practices were not performed in isolation: the entertainment press, often implicitly but also knowingly, constructed and represented broader understandings of society, politics and culture.
    • Rapport final: Forum sur la gouvernance forestière, Brazzaville 2018

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Nyirenda, Richard; Nkodia, Alfred; Moukouri, Serge; Nzala, Donatien; Baur, Dani (University of Wolverhampton, Centre for International Development and Training, 2019-01-24)
      Les forêts du Bassin du Congo constituent l’un des plus importants réservoirs de biodiversité dans le monde. Elles fournissent des moyens de subsistance à plus de 75 millions de personnes qui comptent sur les ressources naturelles locales. Mais à cause de la mauvaise gouvernance observée, cette richesse tend à disparaître au fil des temps, ce qui représente une menace pour la survie des populations qui y sont installées. De nombreuses initiatives ont vu le jour pour pallier cette situation parmi lesquelles la certification forestière, REDD+ et les APV-FLEGT. Les pays du bassin du Congo ont fait de la gouvernance forestière une priorité au sein de la Commission des Forêts d’Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC). Pour y parvenir, il est évident que toutes les parties prenantes à la gestion durable des forêts se sentent concernées et doivent s’impliquer. Dans cette perspective, le projet C4CV, cofinancé par l’Union européenne et le DFID a organisé le Forum régional sur la Gouvernance Forestière (FGF) en République du Congo. Ce projet est mis en œuvre au Cameroun, en République centrafricaine, en République démocratique du Congo, au Gabon et en République du Congo. Sous la direction du CIDT de l’université de Wolverhampton, les organisations partenaires dudit projet dans les cinq pays sont : le Centre pour l’Information Environnementale et le Développement Durable (CIEDD), le centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement (CED) et Forêts et développement Rural (FODER) au Cameroun ; l’Observatoire de la Gouvernance Forestière (OGF) en RDC ; Brainforest au Gabon ; le Cercle d’Appui à la Gestion Durable des Forêts (CAGDF) en République du Congo, y compris le Field Legality Advisory Group (FLAG) en tant que partenaire régional et le World Resources Institute (WRI) en tant que partenaire international. Calqué sur le modèle des réunions semestrielles de mise à jour sur l’exploitation illégale à Chatham House, le FGF vise à contribuer aux buts plus étendus du projet CV4C à travers le partage d’expériences et la sensibilisation, et en promouvant le profil des processus APV-FLEGT et REDD+. La 11ème édition du FGF a été organisée en collaboration avec le Partenariat pour les Forêts du Bassin du Congo (PFBC), en vue de la préparation de la Rencontre des Parties de haut niveau, prévue pour la semaine du 26 novembre 2018 à Bruxelles.
    • Summary report of the Cameroon Regional Forest Governance Forum: creating space for stakeholder participation in forest governance

      Begum, Rufsana; Mei, Giorgia; Nyirenda, Richard; Kouetcha, Christelle; Mbzibain, Aurelian (Centre for International Development and Training, University of Wolverhampton, 2016-09-02)
      The Cameroon Regional Forest Governance Forum held 16th-18th March 2016 at Hotel La Falaise, Yaoundé was the first to be held under the auspices of the Congo Basin VPA Implementation - Championing Forest Peoples’ Rights and Participation Project (EU-CFPR) project. It is the tenth under a series of similar international conferences implemented under the Centre for International Development and Training (CIDT)’s previous project ‘Strengthening African Forest Governance’ (SAFG). The EU-CFPR project is supported by the European Union and DFID and is implemented in the Central African Republic (CAR) and Cameroon. The project is led by the Centre for International Development and Training (CIDT), University of Wolverhampton, working in partnership with Centre pour l’Information Environnementale et le Développement Durable (CIEDD), Maison de l’Enfant et de la Femme Pygmées (MEFP) in CAR, Centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement (CED) and Forêts et Développement Rural (FODER) in Cameroon, FERN and Forest Peoples Programme (FPP) in Europe. The Cameroon Regional Forest Governance Forum was also delivered with the generous support of a number of organisations and initiatives. These included the EU FAO FLEGT Programme, the DFID funded FLEGT-VPA support programme, the Forest Stewardship Council, the Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR Regional Office, Cameroon) and the Cameroon Ministry of Forests and Wildlife. The Cameroon Regional FGF was the first in which the FSC was officially involved. The aim of the Cameroon Regional FGF was to contribute to the wider aims of the EU-CFPR project through experience sharing and raising awareness, and the profile of FLEGT-VPA process. The specific objective of the Cameroon Regional FGF was to provide a free, deliberative and open space for the exchange of information, experiences, lessons, ideas and up to date research around Forest Governance, FLEGT-VPAs and other initiatives seeking to improve forest governance and combat illegal logging. This objective was met in full as will be highlighted in this report.
    • Améliorer la gouvernance forestière en Afrique Centrale: Bonnes pratiques et leçons apprises de la collaboration entre parlementaires, société civile et médias

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Amine, Khadidja (University of Wolverhampton, 2016-01-01)
      Le Bassin du Congo comprend environ 70 % de la couverture forestière de l’Afrique: sur les 530 millions d’hectares du bassin du Congo, 300 millions sont couverts par la forêt. Ces forêts hébergent quelques 30 millions de personnes et fournissent des moyens de subsistance à plus de 75 millions de personnes qui comptent sur les ressources naturelles locales. Bien que la déforestation et la dégradation des forêts soient restées à un niveau faible dans le bassin du Congo, elles ont toutes deux nettement accéléré au cours des dernières années.
    • Exploring the impact of the Improving forest governance (IFG) course: a study on 4 years (2010-2013) of IFG course delivery

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Pavey, Marc; Nyirenda, Richard; Haruna, Ella; Thomas, Sarah; Mahony, Desmond; Dearden, Philip; Begum, Rufsana (University of Wolverhampton, Centre for International Development and training, 2015-07-01)
      This study explores the impact of the Improving Forest Governance course, a UK-based training programme aimed at frontline players in timber producing and processing countries. The course aims to build capacity of participants to engage in and lead on activities promoting better forest governance. This report looks at the extent to which course alumni have been able to improve forest governance, and illustrates the specific outcomes which demonstrate that.
    • Developing capacity, confidence and voice: experiences from a five-year capacity building for improving forest governance model

      MBZIBAIN, AURELIAN; Begum, Rufsana; Haruna, Ella; Nyirenda, Richard; Pavey, Marc (World Forestry Congress 2015, 2015-09-07)
      The objective of this paper is to share lessons learnt from the Centre for International Development and Training’s (CIDT) five-year capacity building (CB) model for improving forest governance (FG). The model develops individual, organisational, and institutional capacities and creates “venues of accountability” that facilitate cross-country learning. The model operates at three levels: international, regional and national. The first component is a UK-based programme of training and mentoring that targets mid-level FG champions from government, private sector and civil society in 20+ countries/3 continents. This is complemented by a series of high-level regional Forest Governance Forums (FGFs) facilitated in selected countries (Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana and Liberia) and tailored national CB events co-delivered with local partners. Data is drawn from online surveys of international alumni, regional FGF participants and 80 face-to-face interviews with various stakeholders from 15 countries. Results show significant improvements in knowledge, skills, attitudes and confidence of course participants, with evidence of effective application of learning and multiplier effects on the ground. Additionally, the value of north-south and south-south exchanges is evidenced by the creation of networks and alliances of FG champions. The findings also demonstrate the innovativeness of FGFs as spaces of accountability and cross-country learning, notably because they ensure momentum on FG reforms is maintained at national, regional and international levels. The implications of this work to policy and practice are discussed.
    • Coherent generation of nonclassical light on chip via detuned photon blockade

      Müller, K; Rundquist, A; Fischer, KA; Sarmiento, T; Lagoudakis, KG; Kelaita, YA; Sánchez Muñoz, C; Del Valle, E; Laussy, FP; Vučković, J; et al. (American Physical Society (APS), 2015-06-08)
      © 2015 American Physical Society. The on-chip generation of nonclassical states of light is a key requirement for future optical quantum hardware. In solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics, such nonclassical light can be generated from self-assembled quantum dots strongly coupled to photonic crystal cavities. Their anharmonic strong light-matter interaction results in large optical nonlinearities at the single photon level, where the admission of a single photon into the cavity may enhance (photon tunneling) or diminish (photon blockade) the probability for a second photon to enter the cavity. Here, we demonstrate that detuning the cavity and quantum-dot resonances enables the generation of high-purity nonclassical light from strongly coupled systems. For specific detunings we show that not only the purity but also the efficiency of single-photon generation increases significantly, making high-quality single-photon generation by photon blockade possible with current state-of-the-art samples.
    • Biased perceptions and personality traits attribution: cognitive aspects in future interventions for organizations

      Riva, Silvia; Chinyio, Ezekiel; Hampton, Paul (Frontiers Media, 2019-01-15)
      In most European countries, the proportion of females and males pursuing a career in Technology and Engineering is quite different. The under-representation of women in these jobs may be attributable to a variety of factors, one of which could be the negative and stereotyped perception of these work sectors as unsuitable for women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether stereotyped perceptions impact the job representation of males and females in the Construction Industry, which is a particularly male-dominated work sector. Three construction organizations in the West Midlands (United Kingdom) were studied by means of ethnographic interviews and observations. Three (6.7%) of the 45 research participants (mean age 44.3) were women (focusing only in people working in Construction sites). There was a high differentiation of activities between the males and females. Biased perceptions and personality traits attribution played a fundamental role in such a differentiation. Despite some main limitations (low generalisability, lack of longitudinal findings), this study focused on some important practical implications for current work policies: changing the mindsets of people (starting from school age), using new flexible strategies and creating the role of internal advocates. The findings provide definitive evidence of the need to increase the promotion of social communication and public campaigns on gender equalities in male-dominated work sectors, taking into account the cognitive processes behind gender differences. The findings also give new hints on re-thinking the contribution of Psychology, particularly Cognitive Psychology, in fields with allegedly wide gender gaps.
    • Emitters of N-photon bundles

      Muñoz, CS; Del Valle, E; Tudela, AG; Müller, K; Lichtmannecker, S; Kaniber, M; Tejedor, C; Finley, JJ; Laussy, FP; Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2014-06-01)
      Controlling the output of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks in photonics, with landmarks such as the development of the laser and single-photon sources. The ever growing range of quantum applications is making it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups (or 'bundles') of N photons (where N is an integer). Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state-of-the-art samples. The emission can be tuned with the system parameters so that the device behaves as a laser or as an N-photon gun. Here, we develop the theoretical formalism to characterize such emitters, with the bundle statistics arising as an extension of the fundamental correlation functions of quantum optics. These emitters will be useful for quantum information processing and for medical applications. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
    • The treatment of informal care as a social risk in England: Conceptual and methodological innovations in undertaking comparative care policy analysis

      Morgan, Fiona (European Network for Social Policy Analysis (Espanet), 2016-09-15)
      The combined challenges of population ageing and the reliance on informal carers to meet the care needs of older people is requiring post-industrial welfare states to address these demands through the implementation of a diverse array of care policies. These policy interventions seemingly demonstrate that states are increasingly recognising and treating the informal care of older people as a social risk. This paper argues that it is essential to undertake detailed comparative analysis at a national level to assess the effectiveness of current care policies in providing adequate social protection against the care-related risks experienced by different types of care relationships. The paper focuses on discussing the design of a policy simulation tool, ‘the model care relationship matrix’, used to analyse and compare the statutory entitlements of different care relationship types across policy areas, localities, and practitioners, in England. Using this innovative methodological and conceptual approach exposed that the English state does not treat informal care as a social risk on account of the inconsistent and inadequate statutory protection provided to different care relationships, and how the care policy system itself can generate secondary risks for care relationships.
    • Knowledge integration challenges and critical success factors within construction traditional procurement system

      Takhtravanchi, Mohammad; Pathirage, Chaminda (LLC CPC Business Perspectives, 2018-10-11)
      <jats:p>The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the challenges and Critical Success Factors (CSFs) of Knowledge Integration (KI) in terms of capturing, sharing and transferring knowledge within construction projects based on the Traditional Procurement System (TPS). On the basis of available studies on KI and TPS within the industry investigated, multiple case studies were developed to reach the aforementioned objective, involving two case studies to reflect the building sector within construction industry. Furthermore, an Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) approach was used to summarize and identify the relationships between the identified challenges. ‘Culture of Organization, ‘Contractual Boundaries’ and ‘Knowledge Management System’ (policies and strategies of organization) are identified as the main challenges. Having an ‘open environment’ and ‘clear liability of project members for sharing knowledge at different phases of project’ are two of identified CSFs, which will assist project managers to enhance the KI process within construction projects undertaken through the TPS.</jats:p>
    • Farmers perceptions of climate change related events in Shendam and Riyom, Nigeria

      Goyol, S; Pathirage, C (MDPI AG, 2018-12-19)
      © 2018 by the authors. Although agriculture in Nigeria is the major source of income for about 70% of the active population, the impact of agrarian infrastructure on boosting productivity and supporting livelihoods has increased. Climate change and the increasing trend of climate-related events in Nigeria challenge both the stability of agrarian infrastructure and livelihood systems. Based on case studies of two local communities in Plateau state in Nigeria, this paper utilizes a range of perceptions to examine the impacts of climate-related events on agrarian infrastructures and how agrarian livelihood systems are, in turn, affected. Data are obtained from a questionnaire survey (n = 175 farmers) and semi-structured interviews (n = 14 key informants). The study identifies local indicators of climate change, high risks climate events and the components of agrarian infrastructures that are at risk from climate events. Findings reveal that, changes in rainfall and temperature patterns increase the probability of floods and droughts. They also reveal that, although locational differences account for the high impact of floods on road transport systems and droughts on irrigation infrastructures, both have a chain of negative effects on agricultural activities, economic activities and livelihood systems. A binomial logistic regression model is used to predict the perceived impact levels of floods and droughts, while an in-depth analysis is utilized to corroborate the quantitative results. The paper further stresses the need to strengthen the institutional capacity for risk reduction through the provision of resilient infrastructures, as the poor conditions of agrarian infrastructure were identified as dominant factors on the high impact levels.
    • Young children as beings, becomings, having beens: an integrated approach to role-play

      Kingdon, Zenna (Taylor & Francis, 2018-09-26)
      The new paradigm of early childhood allows for the construction of the child as active agents able to comment on their own lives. Historically children have been constructed using divergent discourses as either beings or becomings. More recently they have been seen as complementary and a further temporal state of having been allows for a richer description of the child. In play and role-play, the three temporal states can be observed and appear to inform the children’s understanding of complex world structures. This paper reports the research that was conducted in two Early Childhood Education and Care settings in England. The research was concerned with young children’s experiences of play and role-play in their early childhood setting. Observations and conferences demonstrate the ways in which the temporal states are established in their play.
    • Pointing, telling and showing: multimodal deitic enrichment during in-vision news sign language translation

      Stone, Christopher; Tipton, Rebecca; Desilla, Louisa (Routledge, 2019-06-07)
      The Broadcasting Act 1996, chapter 55, section 20, placed a legal obliged on broadcaster in the UK to include British Sign Language (BSL) in their programmes either have, presentation in, or translation into, sign language. This has included the translation into BSL of current affairs programmes, popular programmes and soaps with a variety of Deaf and hearing T/Is being employed to undertake this work. This in-vision translation is not new, and has preceded 1996 (Ladd, 200?), but little attention has been paid to the multimodal nature of the translation and the pragmatics of delivering a seen translation, with the translator viewed by the audience, presenting a translation that interacts with other elements on the television screen. This involves the representation of the news and other current affairs to ensure that sign language using deaf people have access to the news in their first or preferred language.
    • Police misconduct, protraction and the mental health of accused police officers

      McDaniel, John; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken; Singh, Paramjit; McDaniel, John LM; Moss, Kate; Pease, Ken G (Routledge, 2020-01-10)
      The chapter describes findings from a research project carried out in collaboration with one UK police force. The project was designed to examine and understand the force’s welfare practices towards officers accused of misconduct and the impact of prolonged misconduct investigations on the mental health and wellbeing of police officers, specifically police officers who were subsequently exonerated. The aim was to identify new opportunities for mental health support, points of avoidable delay, demotivation and embitterment, and stress-reducing possibilities throughout the misconduct process, and to produce a simple and clear evidence-based set of recommendations for improvement.
    • Enhancing the accountability and transparency of transnational police cooperation within the European Union

      McDaniel, John; Lavorgna, Anita; McDaniel, John LM; Stonard, Karlie; Cox, David J (Routledge, 2019-10-29)
      The EU’s development of advanced instruments and processes of police cooperation on both policy and operational fronts presents new challenges and opportunities for conventional approaches to police accountability and transparency. Although no substantive mention is made of police accountability under Title V of the Lisbon Treaty 2009, it can be expected that the EU’s common transnational measures draw upon, reconcile and enhance Member State approaches to police accountability which are rooted in long-standing constitutional, legal and administrative traditions and values. This chapter will consider whether and to what extent various Member State norms on police accountability and transparency are informing the concept, design and operation of the EU policing regime and vice versa. More particularly, it will recommend the development of a new ethos of ‘transnational police accountability’ which should guide and shape EU policy-making in this area.
    • Analysis and optimization of sandwich tubes energy absorbers under lateral loading

      Baroutaji, A; Gilchrist, MD; Smyth, D; Olabi, AG (Elsevier BV, 2015-02-07)
      © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. In this paper, the sandwich tubes, which consist of thin-walled circular tubes with aluminium foam core, were proposed as energy absorption devices. The sandwich tubes were laterally crushed under quasi-static loading conditions. Detailed finite element model, validated against existing experimental results, was developed using the explicit code (ANSYS-LSDYNA) to assess the energy absorption responses and deformation modes. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed in parallel with the finite element models to perform both parametric studies and multi-objective optimization in order to establish the optimal configuration of the sandwich tube. Sampling designs of the sandwich tubes were constructed based on a D - optimal design of experiment (DOE) method. Factorial analysis was performed using the DOE results to investigate the influences of the geometric parameters on the responses of sandwich tubes. In addition, multi-objective optimization design (MOD) of the sandwich tubes is carried out by adopting a desirability approach. It was found that the tube with a minimum diameter of the inner layer and a maximum foam thickness are more suitable for use as energy absorbing components.
    • Lateral collapse of short-length sandwich tubes compressed by different indenters and exposed to external constraints

      Baroutaji, A; Olabi, AG (Wiley, 2014-05-02)
      In this paper, sandwich tube components which consist of thin-walled circular tubes with aluminium foam core are proposed as energy absorption systems. The sandwich tubes were laterally crushed under quasi-static loading conditions. The sandwich tubes were crushed under two types of indenters and exposed to three different types of external constraints. The collapsing behaviour and the energy absorption responses of these systems were investigated by nonlinear finite element analysis through ANSYS-LS-DYNA. Various indicators which describe the effectiveness of energy absorbing systems were used as a marker to compare the various systems. It was found that the sandwich tube systems compressed by cylindrical indenters particularly the unconstrained system and the system with inclined constraints offered a very desirable force-deflection in which the force is almost constant in the post collapse stage. The employing of external constraints was noticed as a feasible method of increasing the SEA particularly when cylindrical indenter is used. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.