Now showing items 1-20 of 3720

    • The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation in Elite Adolescent Dancers on Muscle Function and Injury Incidence: A Randomised Double-Blind Study.

      Wyon, Matthew A; Wolman, Roger; Kolokythas, Nicolas; Sheriff, Karen; Galloway, Shaun; Mattiussi, Adam (International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2018-06-12)
      A number of studies have noted low levels of Vitamin D in dancers and this has been associated with increased risk of injuries and decreased muscular strength indices. The aim of the present study was to examine whether vitamin D supplementation over a 4-month period can improve muscle function and injury incidence. Eighty-four participants volunteered, exclusion criteria and drop out (19%) reduced cohort to 67 (f=29, m=38; 17-19yrs). Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention or placebo group (2:1 ratio). All provided a venous blood sample pre and post the 4-month study period. The intervention group received 120,000IU vitamin D to be taken over a 1-week period and the placebo group received the same number of inert pills. Participants completed a series of muscle function tests pre and post the monitoring period. Injury incidence was recorded by the independent health team at the school. Pre-intervention 6% of the cohort were vitamin D deficient, 81% were insufficient and 13% had sufficient levels; post-intervention 53% were insufficient and 47% were sufficient. The intervention group reported a significant increase in serum 25(OH)D3 (57%; p<0.00) and isometric strength (7.8%; p=0.022) but not muscular power. There was a significant association between traumatic injury occurrence for the intervention and control groups (10.9% vs. 31.8%; p < .02). Vitamin D supplementation decreased the numbers of deficient and insufficient participants within this cohort. The intervention group reported a small significant increase in muscle strength that was negatively associated with traumatic injury occurrence.
    • 10 Marked differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of ticagrelor in patients undergoing treatment for ST elevation and non ST elevation myocardial infarction (stemi and nstemi)

      Khan, Nazish; Amoah, Vincent; Cornes, Mike; Martins, Joe; Wrigley, Ben; Khogali, Saib; Nevill, Alan M.; Cotton, James (BMJ Publishing Group, 2018-06-01)
      Introduction Ticagrelor, an orally administered, direct acting, reversible P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, provides faster onset and greater levels of platelet inhibition when compared to clopidogrel. Current data indicates a reduced antiplatelet effect in STEMI. We sought to determine the early pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of ticagrelor loading doses administered to patients undergoing PCI for STEMI and NSTEMI. Methods This is a single centre non-randomised study. P2Y12 naive patients presenting with STEMI or NSTEMI were considered for inclusion. All patients gave informed consent. Enrolled patients were administered a loading dose of aspirin 300 mg and ticagrelor 180 mg prior to PCI. Blood was sampled at 20 min, coronary balloon time, 1 hour and 4 hours after loading. PD results are expressed as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) and were assessed using VerifyNow. A PRU>208 indicates a sub-optimal antiplatelet response. PK properties were assessed by measuring plasma concentration of ticagrelor parent compound (T-PC) and active metabolite (T-AM) using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The lower limits of quantification of T-PC and its active metabolite, AR-C124910XX (T-AM) are 1 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml respectively. PRU and plasma concentrations over time were tested between the two groups using 2-way ANOVA. p<0.05 was considered significant. Results 30 patients (15 STEMI/15 NSTEMI) were recruited. Baseline characteristics are described in Table 1.
    • Psychosocial determinants of depression in the community of the elderly with cardiovascular disease.

      Xu, Man; Chen, Ruoling; Liu, Bing; Chai, Yun; Boer, Dorothy D; Hu, Ping; Hu, Zhi (Elsevier, 2018-03-17)
      The co-morbidity of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and depression is quite frequent in old people, and some potential biological and behavioural mechanisms linking them have been reported. Yet the impact of psychosocial factors on depression in the elderly with CVD remains unclear. This study aimed to analyze the psychosocial determinants of depression in the elderly with CVD. Using the Geriatric Mental Status-Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy, a community-based household survey was performed in 2,199 elderly people from the Anhui cohort third-wave survey from 2007 to 2009 and an extended study in Hubei from 2010 to 2011. Multiple logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the influence of psychosocial factors on depression. Among them, the prevalence of depression was 4.77%. Three factors were associated with depression in elderly in the community: self-assessed physical health status, anything else severely upsetting and unpleasantness with relatives, friends, or neighbors. In particular, associations of psychosocial factors with depression were more evident in individuals with CVD. This study confirms several psychosocial determinants of depression and the impact of CVD on the associations among the elderly, which provides some clues for interventional strategies of late-life depression.
    • Childhood maltreatment and psychotic experiences: exploring the specificity of early maladaptive schemas

      Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle; Dhingra, Katie; Rhoden, Laura (Wiley, 2018-07-13)
      Objective: One potential mechanism that has received limited attention within psychosis research, is early maladaptive schemas (EMS). Our aim was to examine if EMS acts as a potential mediating pathway between early trauma and psychotic symptomology. Methods: A quantitative survey was hosted online. N= 302 participants took part. The analysis employed a multiple mediation framework. Results: Analysis demonstrated significant specificity effects. Different forms of child maltreatment were significantly associated with psychosis experiences through specific dimensions of maladaptive schemas. Conclusions: Results indicated specificity effects in that specific types of maltreatment are associated with specific maladaptive schemas. From a practitioner’s perspective, these findings offer credence to cognitive theories of psychopathology, and support the validity of EMS identification and modification among clients with psychotic symptomology; both as a fundamental component of traditional CBT and within specialised schema focused therapy.
    • A Case Study on the Microstructure of Fibrous Peat (West Lake, China)

      Wilkinson, Stephen; Zhao, Chaofa; Yang, Zhongxuam; Kun, Pan (Springer, 2018-09-21)
      The classification of peat soils generates a very large number of different types, from a descriptive perspective this is useful, however such a system generates too many options for engineering purposes. The behaviour of organic soils varies based on the quantity and type of organic material present within the soil. The effects of fibre content are particularly important. The West Lake in Hangzhou has been dredged many times during its history to allow it to maintain its beauty. During the most recent dredging the sludge from the lake was transported via a 4km pipeline and deposited inside the Jiangyangfan Reservoir. The organic soil situated in Jiangyangfan Ecopark is a particularly interesting peaty material. The organic sludge was mixed and homogenised during the transportation process, and then would have settled out within the reservoir. This resulted in a more than 20m thick peat layer deposited with an uneven surface. The Ecopark buildings were then constructed on top of this in 2008. A combined electron microscope and mechanical study of the microstructure and behaviour of the peat has been used to identify the engineering impact of the presence of relatively small numbers of fibres within the soil matrix. The fibres within the peat modify its behaviour such that it can no longer be understood within the typical critical state framework for soils. The peat starts to plastically deform from very small levels of applied stress, in addition it does not display a tension cut-off failure, and ultimately fails in shear.
    • Bilingual contexts from comparable corpora to mine for translations of collocations

      Taslimipoor, Shiva (Springer, 2018-03-21)
      Due to the limited availability of parallel data in many languages, we propose a methodology that benefits from comparable corpora to find translation equivalents for collocations (as a specific type of difficult-to-translate multi-word expressions). Finding translations is known to be more difficult for collocations than for words. We propose a method based on bilingual context extraction and build a word (distributional) representation model drawing on these bilingual contexts (bilingual English-Spanish contexts in our case). We show that the bilingual context construction is effective for the task of translation equivalent learning and that our method outperforms a simplified distributional similarity baseline in finding translation equivalents.
    • Cost-effectiveness of using small vertebrates as indicators of disturbance.

      Peck, Mika Robert; Maddock, Simon T; Morales, Jorge Noe; Oñate, Hugolino; Mafla-Endara, Paola; Peñafiel, Vanessa Aguirre; Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Pozo-Rivera, Wilmer E; Cueva-Arroyo, Xavier A; Tolhurst, Bryony A (Wiley, 2014-10-01)
      In species-rich tropical forests, effective biodiversity management demands measures of progress, yet budgetary limitations typically constrain capacity of decision makers to assess response of biological communities to habitat change. One approach is to identify ecological-disturbance indicator species (EDIS) whose monitoring is also monetarily cost-effective. These species can be identified by determining individual species' responses to disturbance across a gradient; however, such responses may be confounded by factors other than disturbance. For example, in mountain environments the effects of anthropogenic habitat alteration are commonly confounded by elevation. EDIS have been identified with the indicator value (IndVal) metric, but there are weaknesses in the application of this approach in complex montane systems. We surveyed birds, small mammals, bats, and leaf-litter lizards in differentially disturbed cloud forest of the Ecuadorian Andes. We then incorporated elevation in generalized linear (mixed) models (GL(M)M) to screen for EDIS in the data set. Finally, we used rarefaction of species accumulation data to compare relative monetary costs of identifying and monitoring EDIS at equal sampling effort, based on species richness. Our GL(M)M generated greater numbers of EDIS but fewer characteristic species relative to IndVal. In absolute terms birds were the most cost-effective of the 4 taxa surveyed. We found one low-cost bird EDIS. In terms of the number of indicators generated as a proportion of species richness, EDIS of small mammals were the most cost-effective. Our approach has the potential to be a useful tool for facilitating more sustainable management of Andean forest systems.
    • Lizard diversity in response to human-induced disturbance in Andean Ecuador

      Tolhurst, Bryony; Peñafiel, Vanessa Aguirre; Mafla-Endara, Paola; Berg, Maureen J; Peck, Mika R; Maddock, Simon T (British Herpetological Society, 2016-01)
      The cloud-forests of the Western Ecuadorean Andes are highly diverse and under threat from anthropogenic habitat disturbance. Reptiles are sensitive to habitat change and are therefore useful indicators of ecosystem state. Overall diversity has been shown to be highest in old-growth (primary) forest, although older secondary forests can recover to near pre-disturbance levels. We systematically surveyed leaf-litter lizard diversity along a gradient of disturbance in a montane cloud-forest fragment whilst controlling for the potentially confounding effect of elevation. We deployed 21 pitfall trap-lines equally between primary forest, secondary forest of mid-age (18–30 years), and agroforestry, between three altitudinal bands for ten days each over a period of three years. We investigated diversity patterns using Chao 1 and 2 indices (estimated richness), effective species number (ESN), relative abundance of individual species, relative abundance of pooled species, and observed species richness. We also conducted an opportunistic inventory of reptile species. We recorded 7 species of leaf-litter lizards and 15 other species of squamate, the majority of which are rare, recently described and/or of restricted distribution. Elevation was strongly negatively correlated with diversity. Richness and most indices of diversity were higher in primary forest but abundance was similar in primary forest and agroforestry. ESN followed a negative linear response to disturbance but for all other measures agroforestry supported diversity that was either higher than or equal to secondary forest. We conclude that, particularly at high elevations, mid-aged secondary forest is depauperate of leaf-litter lizards but agroforestry potentially supports relatively large populations of generalist species.
    • A new species of death adder (Acanthophis: Serpentes: Elapidae) from north-western Australia

      Maddock, Simon T; Ellis, Ryan J; Doughty, Paul; Smith, Lawrence A; Wüster, Wolfgang (Magnolia Press, 2015-08-28)
      Australian death adders (genus Acanthophis) are highly venomous snakes with conservative morphology and sit-and-wait predatory habits, with only moderate taxonomic diversity that nevertheless remains incompletely understood. Analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological characteristics of death adders in northern Australia reveal the existence of a new species from the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory, which we describe as Acanthophis cryptamydros sp. nov. Although populations from the Kimberley were previously considered conspecific with Northern Territory death adders of the A. rugosus complex, our mtDNA analysis indicates that its closest relatives are desert death adders, A. pyrrhus. We found that A. cryptamydros sp. nov. is distinct in both mtDNA and nDNA analysis, and possesses multiple morphological characteristics that allow it to be distinguished from all other Acanthophis species. This study further supports the Kimberley region as an area with high endemic biodiversity.
    • A new waist-to-height ratio predicts abdominal adiposity in adults.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Stewart, Arthur D; Olds, Tim; Duncan, Michael J (Taylor & Francis, 2018-07-25)
      Our aim was to identify the best anthropometric index associated with waist adiposity. The six weight-status indices included body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHTR), and a new waist-by-height
    • First record of Chrysopelea taprobanica Smith, 1943 (Squamata: Colubridae) from India

      Guptha, Bubesh; Prasad, Nimmakayla Venkata Sivaram; Maddock, Simon T; Deepak, V (Pensoft, 2015-01-01)
      Chrysopelea taprobanica Smith, 1943 was previously considered to be endemic to the dry and intermediate zones of Sri Lanka. However, an adult specimen of C. taprobanica was collected from Seshachalam Biosphere Reserve of Andhra Pradesh, India, being the first record of this snake species from India, significantly extending the known range of distribution of the species. The dry zones of peninsular India were connected with Sri Lanka as recently as ca. 17,000 years ago, which probably allowed movement of species between these two regions.
    • Technological and economic evaluation of conversion of potential flare gas to electricity in Nigeria

      Ojijiagwo, Emeka Nnanna; Oduoza, Chike F; Emekwuru, Nwabueze (Elsevier, 2018-06-11)
      Globally, over 100 billion cubic metres (BCM) of gas is flared annually and linked to an annual emission of 400 million tons of carbon dioxide. In Nigeria the annual gas production is valued at 33.21 BCM, out of which more than 50% of this volume is wasted through flaring, thereby emitting about 35 million tons of carbon dioxide. About 14.94 BCM of gas produced in Nigeria is used for a variety of activities including electricity generation. Despite this scenario, Nigeria is still unable to generate and distribute enough electricity for the citizenry. This paper therefore proposes the option to divert gas which is normally flared to generate electricity in Nigeria while minimising the associated environmental impacts. The research methodology was based on interviewing top level managers in an electricity generation company, and gas Production Company, as well as the researchers’ site observations within the two case companies. Results from this study showed that electricity generation could be improved from its current daily production rate of 4358 MW to about 12000 MW. This improvement comes from the use of 18.27 BCM of gas currently flared annually in Nigeria, which could potentially be diverted as fuel for 50 units of gas turbine with power output of 150 MW each, with an increase in daily electricity generation of 7500 MW. The study also incorporates an economic analysis for the option to generate electricity as aforementioned.
    • Guideline to Aid Project Managers in Conceptualizing and Implementing Risk Management in Building Projects

      Odimabo, Nengi; Oduoza, Chike F (Elsevier, 2018-06-11)
      Risk management has become a critical issue as a result of globalisation and the continued quest for greater returns. Construction organisations most especially in developing countries, approach risk management in building construction projects by using a set of practices that are normally insufficient, produce poor results often, and turn profitable building construction projects into loosing ventures. An integrated risk management approach allows construction organisations to consistently deliver superior performance while proactively managing risk. To address this gap, this paper offers a consolidated risk management system for building projects and provides project managers with guidelines for its proper implementation. In addition to helping project managers in improving risk management capability in building projects, the guideline profiled in this paper may also be of use to practitioners in other project risk management settings.
    • Influence of Lean Practice on Performance of Manufacturing SMEs in Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI)

      Mohammad, Ibrahim Salih; Oduoza, Chike F (Elsevier, 2018-06-11)
      Lean Manufacturing (LM) is a global initiative that can create continuous improvement in business performance by eliminating waste, reducing cycle time and promoting value-added activities. This study aims to examine empirically the influences of LM practices on the performance of SMEs. A comprehensive review of the LM literature was conducted, and seven variables were presented that dominate LM practices in Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). Data was collected and analysed from 207 manufacturing SMEs showing that LM practices partially influence the business performance. The findings could be a good driver for introducing Lean techniques to the manufacturing SMEs within developing countries. It also provides valuable information for SMEs managers to improve the performance of their business in terms of increasing customer satisfaction, profitability, employee satisfaction, competitiveness and ergonomic design.
    • Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) Undetected in the Two Orders of Seychelles Amphibians

      Labisko, Jim; Maddock, Simon T; Taylor, Michelle L; Chong-Seng, Lindsay; Gower, David J; Wynne, Felicity J; Wombwell, Emma; Morel, Charles; French, Georgia C A; Bunbury, Nancy; Bradfield, Kay S (Society For The Study Of Amphibians And Reptiles, 2015-03-16)
    • The origins of marketing practice in Britain: From the ancient to the early twentieth century

      Hawkins, Richard A (Emerald Group Publishings, 2017-11-01)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of marketing practice in Britain from the ancient to the early twentieth century. It builds upon the author’s chapter in the 2016 Routledge Companion to the History of Marketing. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a review of secondary history and archaeology literature supplemented by digitised historic newspaper and magazine advertising. The literature is frameworked using a modified version of Fullerton’s 1988 periodization which has been extended to include the medieval and Roman eras. Findings One of the significant findings of this paper is the key role the state has played in the development of marketing practice in Britain, the construction of pavements being a good example. Originality/value Apart from Nevett’s 1982 history of British advertising and the author’s Routledge Companion to the History of Marketing chapter, this is the first survey of the historical development of British marketing practice. It assembles and presents in a useful way important information. This paper will be of interest to marketing historians, especially students and researchers new to the subject.
    • Design Probes for People with Dementia

      Garde, Julia Anne; Van Der Voort, Mascha Cécile; Niedderer, Kristina (Design Research Society, 2018-06-28)
      In order to include persons with dementia in the MinD project actively, design probes were developed to provide insight into their perspectives. We applied probes due to their exploratory character and participation through self-documentation. The aim of this paper is to reflect on the design of the probes in relation to the outcomes as a source of inspiration for designers. More specifically, we investigate the openness and tangibility of the probes, and their content relating to the past, the current or the future. The five participants completed the probes to a large extent. The openness of assignments influenced their completion and the resulting value for empathizing and inspiration for designers: More defined assignments led to more sharing of personal and sensitive information than very open ones. While crafty, tangible assignments were filled in more extensively than less tangible ones, the classical writing assignments resulted more often in more introspective and reflective information from participants. Furthermore, participants filled in assignments about past memories more extensively than those relating to future goals.
    • Chronic venous leg ulcer care: Putting the patient at the heart of leg ulcer care Part 2: Development and evaluation of the consultation template.

      Green, Julie; Jester, Rebecca; McKinley, Robert; Pooler, Alison (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2018-06-01)
      Part 2 in this article series summarises the final two phases of a study which explored the experiences of patients with leg ulcers and the impact of this condition on their quality of life. Early phases of the study revealed a mismatch between issues that affected a patient's quality of life and what they discussed during subsequent health care consultations. In light of this, a nominal group technique was employed to facilitate the development of a new leg ulcer consultation template with patient partners. The aim of this was to include many of the issues raised in phases 1. The new template was evaluated in terms of its utility, significance and clinical potential. The application of this template during routine consultations appears to encourage the patient to disclose issues that are important to them and may have otherwise been overlooked.