Now showing items 1-20 of 5945

    • First Report on the Geologic Occurrence of Natural Na–A Zeolite and Associated Minerals in Cretaceous Mudstones of the Paja Formation of Vélez (Santander), Colombia

      Ríos-Reyes, Carlos Alberto; Reyes-Mendoza, German Alfonso; Henao-Martínez, José Antonio; Williams, Craig; Dyer, Alan (MDPI, 2021-02-22)
      This study reports for the first time the geologic occurrence of natural zeolite A and associated minerals in mudstones from the Cretaceous Paja Formation in the urban area of the municipality of Vélez (Santander), Colombia. These rocks are mainly composed of quartz, muscovite, pyrophyllite, kaolinite and chlorite group minerals, framboidal and cubic pyrite, as well as marcasite, with minor feldspar, sulphates, and phosphates. Total organic carbon (TOC), total sulfur (TS), and millimeter fragments of algae are high, whereas few centimeters and not biodiverse small ammonite fossils, and other allochemical components are subordinated. Na–A zeolite and associated mineral phases as sodalite occur just beside the interparticle micropores (honeycomb from framboidal, cube molds, and amorphous cavities). It is facilitated by petrophysical properties alterations, due to processes of high diagenesis, temperatures up to 80–100 °C, with weathering contributions, which increase the porosity and permeability, as well as the transmissivity (fluid flow), allowing the geochemistry remobilization and/or recrystallization of pre-existing silica, muscovite, kaolinite minerals group, salts, carbonates, oxides and peroxides. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal the mineral composition of the mudstones and scanning electron micrographs show the typical cubic morphology of Na–A zeolite of approximately 0.45 mμ in particle size. Our data show that the sequence of the transformation of phases is: Poorly crystalline aluminosilicate → sodalite → Na–A zeolite. A literature review shows that this is an unusual example of the occurrence of natural zeolites in sedimentary marine rocks recognized around the world.
    • Job stress and employee outcomes: employment practices in a charity

      Wang, Wen; Seifert, Roger (Emerald Publishing, 2021-12-31)
      Design/methodology/approach We collected both quantitative (through a staff survey and administrative records of sick leave in the previous 12 months) and qualitative data (through interviews and focus groups) from one branch of an internationally well-established and UK-based religious charity between 2017 and 2018. Purpose The study intends to examine employee relations with a changing workforce resulting from the business-like transformation in the charity sector. We investigated sector-specific employment practices which can alleviate job stress (as a given and which has been made worse by the transformation). Developed from the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation framework, the findings can inform human resource management practices in its new efficiency-seeking business model. Findings The quantitative results support a strong mediating effect of job satisfaction between job stress and staff sick leave. The negative correlation shown between job stress and job satisfaction is subject to paid staff perception of meaningful work and their level of involvement in decisionmaking, with the latter having a stronger moderating effect. The qualitative data provides further contextualized evidence on the findings. Practical implications It is important for charities to uphold and reflect their charitable mission towards beneficiaries and paid staff during the shift to an efficiency-seeking business model. Charities should involve their new professional workforce in strategic decision-making to better shape a context-based operational model. Originality/value The study examined employee relations in the nonprofit charity sector with a changing workforce during the transition to a more business-oriented model. In particular, we revealed sector-specific factors that can moderate the association between job stress and absenteeism, and thereby contribute to the understanding of HRM practices in the sector.
    • Minimum energy transmission forest-based Geocast in software-defined wireless sensor networks

      Banerjee, Anuradha; Sufian, Abu; Sadiq, Ali Safaa; Mirjalili, Seyedali (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)-based geographic addressing and routing have many potential applications. Geocast protocols should be made energy efficient to increase the lifetime of nodes and packet delivery ratio. This technique will increase the number of live nodes, reduce message costs, and enhance network throughput. All geocast protocols in the literature of WSN apply mostly restricted flooding and perimeter flooding, which is why still the redundancy they produce significantly high message transmission costs and unnecessarily eats up immense energy in nodes. Moreover, perimeter flooding cannot succeed in the presence of holes. The present article models wireless sensor networks with software-defined constructs where the network area is divided into some zones. Energy-efficient transmission tree(s) are constructed in the geocast area to organize the flow of data packets and their links. Therefore, redundancy in the transmission is eliminated while maintaining network throughput as good as regular flooding. This proposed technique significantly reduces energy cost and improves nodes' lifetime to function for higher time duration and produce a higher data packet delivery ratio. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first work on geocast in SD-WSNs.
    • ‘This is about an ordinary average life with all its ups and downs’: Continuity and change in the life and family experiences of fifty English working-class individuals between the years 1900 and 1945

      Ugolini, Laura; Ball, Rebecca Mary (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      This thesis is a study of the everyday lives of fifty working-class individuals in the first half of the twentieth century. These twenty-six women and twenty-four men were all born between 1899 and 1915 in England and self-identified as working class. These individuals were not politicians, influential historical figures or famous household names – such life histories have been recounted on many occasions – rather these are ‘ordinary average’ people, whose unpublished autobiographies this thesis draws upon to offer an insight into the everyday struggles, sacrifices and triumphs that the working class experienced between the years 1900 and 1945. By taking a microhistorical approach and focusing on this sample of fifty life stories, this thesis sheds light on wartime life, the impact of social change and the continued importance of working-class family values during the first half of the twentieth century. It uses these autobiographies to question the assumption that living through a period that witnessed two world wars would automatically equate to a life that was completely overshadowed by them. It also challenges the often accepted idea that wider social changes such as educational reform, the opening up of new employment opportunities and the fertility decline would have necessarily affected each working-class individual, suggesting instead that whilst change in these areas had certainly occurred by the end of the twentieth century, it was often too late to affect the lives of these autobiographers. Instead, the autobiographies suggest that the working-class lives were shaped by other issues of significance, most notably domesticity and the family life cycle. The thesis’ chapters focus on the five topics that the autobiographers most frequently discussed: death, absence, family relationships, consumption (with a particular focus on leisure, food and housing), and education and employment opportunities. The reminiscences on these topics revealed much that confirmed existing academic insights into working-class life between the years 1900 and 1945, including the importance of domestic ideals to working-class family life and the continued popularity of marriage as an institution Yet, importantly, as this thesis argues, they also revealed a variety of differing, although equally relevant and noteworthy experiences that have thus far been overlooked. These include a distinct lack of war-related deaths or war-related absences of immediate family members despite living through two conflicts, the subtle shift towards a companionate style of marriage and the significance of expectations of the working-class family life cycle in responses to instances of death or absence.
    • A systematic scoping review and textual narrative synthesis of undergraduate pediatric nursing simulations: what, why, and how?

      Cleaver, Karen; Essex, Ryan; Malamateniou, Christina; Narramore, Naomi; Shekede, Heather; Vargo, Elisabeth; Weldon, Sharon Marie (Elsevier, 2021-02-16)
      Background Simulation is increasingly being used to train health care professionals; however, there is limited knowledge on how pediatric simulation is being used to train undergraduate nurses. This article systematically scopes the literature on the types of undergraduate pediatric nursing simulations taking place, their value, the research methods used, and areas of research focused on. Methods A systematic scoping literature review, combined descriptive synthesis, and textual narrative synthesis were conducted. Results A total of 139 articles were identified by the search strategy. Of these, 32 articles were included for appraisal and synthesis. Seventeen articles were quantitative, five articles were qualitative, and eight articles were mixed-methods. The research took place in six different geographical locations. The total participant sample was 2,039. Articles were categorized according to their aims and objectives and simulation types. Conclusions This review revealed the heterogeneity of studies on this subject. Ultimately, studies were small and confined to single institutions or geographical locations. Studies that described or explored simulation as an intervention provided more interesting insights than those that evaluated or tested effectiveness. The variety of simulation types was wide, and the fidelity of the simulations being described was frequently noted; however, no reference was made as to how this was determined. Future studies would benefit from detailing the low, medium, or high technological, psychological, or environmental aspects of simulation.
    • A review of the English school meal: ‘Progress or a recipe for disaster?'

      Lalli, Gurpinder (Taylor & Francis, 2021-12-31)
      This paper examines the discourse on school meals as evidence suggests that political agendas feed into policy making. The paper fills a void by proposing new insights into how school meals could be reformed following reflections from a doctoral study and a review of the changing narrative on school food in England. Recommendations include rethinking the coverage on school meals by taking into account this multifaceted area of inquiry by recognising the importance of the physical context of the meals and the subjects of school mealtime.
    • Risk of COVID-19 hospital admission and COVID-19 mortality during the first COVID-19 wave with a special emphasis on ethnic minorities: an observational study of a single, deprived, multiethnic UK health economy

      Singh, Baldev M; Bateman, James; Viswanath, Ananth; Klaire, Vijay; Mahmud, Sultan; Nevill, Alan M; Dunmore, Simon J (BMJ, 2021-02-17)
      Objectives The objective of this study was to describe variations in COVID-19 outcomes in relation to local risks within a well-defined but diverse single-city area. Design Observational study of COVID-19 outcomes using quality-assured integrated data from a single UK hospital contextualised to its feeder population and associated factors (comorbidities, ethnicity, age, deprivation). Setting/participants Single-city hospital with a feeder population of 228 632 adults in Wolverhampton. Main outcome measures Hospital admissions (defined as COVID-19 admissions (CA) or non-COVID-19 admissions (NCA)) and mortality (defined as COVID-19 deaths or non-COVID-19 deaths). Results Of the 5558 patients admitted, 686 died (556 in hospital); 930 were CA, of which 270 were hospital COVID-19 deaths, 47 non-COVID-19 deaths and 36 deaths after discharge; of the 4628 NCA, there were 239 in-hospital deaths (2 COVID-19) and 94 deaths after discharge. Of the 223 074 adults not admitted, 407 died. Age, gender, multimorbidity and black ethnicity (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 3.2), p<0.001, compared with white ethnicity, absolute excess risk of <1/1000) were associated with CA and mortality. The South Asian cohort had lower CA and NCA, lower mortality compared with the white group (CA, 0.5 (0.3 to 0.8), p<0.01; NCA, 0.4 (0.3 to 0.6), p<0.001) and community deaths (0.5 (0.3 to 0.7), p<0.001). Despite many common risk factors for CA and NCA, ethnic groups had different admission rates and within-group differing association of risk factors. Deprivation impacted only the white ethnicity, in the oldest age bracket and in a lesser (not most) deprived quintile. Conclusions Wolverhampton’s results, reflecting high ethnic diversity and deprivation, are similar to other studies of black ethnicity, age and comorbidity risk in COVID-19 but strikingly different in South Asians and for deprivation. Sequentially considering population and then hospital-based NCA and CA outcomes, we present a complete single health economy picture. Risk factors may differ within ethnic groups; our data may be more representative of communities with high Black, Asian and minority ethnic populations, highlighting the need for locally focused public health strategies. We emphasise the need for a more comprehensible and nuanced conveyance of risk.
    • Cyclodextrin diethyldithiocarbamate copper ii inclusion complexes: A promising chemotherapeutic delivery system against chemoresistant triple negative breast cancer cell lines

      Suliman, AS; Khoder, M; Tolaymat, I; Webster, M; Alany, RG; Wang, W; Elhissi, A; Najlah, M; Pharmaceutical Research Group, School of Allied Health, Faculty of Health, Education, Medicine and Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Bishops Hall Lane, Chelmsford CM1 1SQ, UK. (MDPI, 2021-01-10)
      Diethyldithiocarbamate Copper II (DDC-Cu) has shown potent anticancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells, but further investigations are hindered by its practical insolubility in water. In this study, inclusion complexes of DDC-Cu with hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP) or sulfobutyl ether beta-cyclodextrin (SBE) were prepared and investigated as an approach to enhance the apparent solubility of DDC-Cu. Formulations were prepared by simple mixing of DDC-Cu with both cyclodextrin (CDs) at room temperature. Phase solubility assessments of the resulting solutions were performed. DDC-Cu CD solutions were freeze-dried for further characterisations by DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and FT-IR. Stability and cytotoxicity studies were also performed to investigate the maintenance of DDC-Cu anticancer activity. The phase solubility profile deviated positively from the linearity (Ap type) showing significant solubility enhancement of the DDC-Cu in both CD solutions (approximately 4 mg/mL at 20% w/w CD solutions). The DSC and TGA analysis confirmed the solid solution status of DDC-Cu in CD. The resulting solutions of DDC-Cu were stable for 28 days and conveyed the anticancer activity of DDC-Cu on chemoresistant triple negative breast cancer cell lines, with IC50 values less than 200 nM. Overall, cyclodextrin DDC-Cu complexes offer a great potential for anticancer applications, as evidenced by their very positive effects against chemoresistant triple negative breast cancer cells.
    • COVID-19 and construction law: comparing the United Kingdom and Australian response

      Charlson, Jennifer; Dickson, Rebecca (Informa Business Intelligence, 2021-12-31)
    • Which aspects of the open science agenda are most relevant to scientometric research and publishing? An opinion paper

      Bornmann, Lutz; Guns, Raf; Thelwall, Michael; Wolfram, Dietmar (MIT Press, 2021-02-10)
      Open Science is an umbrella term that encompasses many recommendations for possible changes in research practices, management, and publishing with the objective to increase transparency and accessibility. This has become an important science policy issue that all disciplines should consider. Many Open Science recommendations may be valuable for the further development of research and publishing but not all are relevant to all fields. This opinion paper considers the aspects of Open Science that are most relevant for scientometricians, discussing how they can be usefully applied.
    • The relationship between obesity and primary total knee replacement: A scoping review of the literature

      Jester, Rebecca; Rodney, Amanda (Elsevier, 2021-02-16)
      Background Primary Total Knee Replacement (TKR) is one of the most commonly performed elective orthopaedic procedures globally. Many of the patients undergoing this type of surgery are overweight or obese. In the UK clinical commissioning groups have imposed arbitrary Body Mass Index (BMI) thresholds for TKR surgery. Many obese patients undergoing TKR believe they will lose weight following the procedure because of increased mobility. Aim This paper aims to present the findings of a scoping literature review about the relationship between obesity and primary TKR and to make recommendations for clinical practice, education and policy Methods A scoping literature review investigated the impact of BMI/body weight on the need for TKR, the impact of body weight and or BMI on patient outcomes following TKR; weight loss/gain following TKR and the implications of obesity on cost of TKR. Findings Seventy-one papers were included in the review. Seven studies reported statistically significant associations between increased BMI/obesity with the need for TKR. Thirty of the studies reported worse outcomes for obese patients compared to non-obese comparators. Forty of the studies reported no difference between obese and non-obese participants including some where outcomes of obese patients were better than non-obese comparators. Eight studies reported on changes to weight before and after TKR, 3 of the studies reporting a higher percentage losing weight than gaining weight and 4 studies reported obese patients gained weight. The 8th study reported morbidly obese patients largely returned to their baseline BMI postoperatively. Conclusion The findings of the review challenge the legitimacy of setting BMI thresholds to control access to TKR surgery. There is an urgent need to develop evidence based approaches to support weight loss and weight management for this group of patients. Obese patients undergoing TKR should receive specific information regarding potential additional risk of complications and poorer outcomes. There is a need for health promotion regarding the association of being overweight/ obese in young adulthood and developing osteoarthritis of the knee joints requiring TKR in middle and older age.
    • Stability of planar switched systems under delayed event detection

      Legat, Benoit; Gomes, Claudio; Karalis, Paschalis; Jungers, Raphael M; Navarro-Lopez, Eva M; Vangheluwe, Hans (IEEE, 2021-01-11)
      In this paper, we analyse the impact of delayed event detection on the stability of a 2-mode planar hybrid automata. We consider hybrid automata with a unique equilibrium point for all the modes, and we find the maximum delay that preserves stability of that equilibrium point. We also show for the class of hybrid automata treated that the instability of the equilibrium point for the equivalent hybrid automaton with delay in the transitions is equivalent to the existence of a closed orbit in the hybrid state space, a result that is inspired by the Joint Spectral Radius theorem. This leads to an algorithm for computing the maximum stable delay exactly. Other potential applications of our technique include co-simulation, networked control systems and delayed controlled switching with a state feedback control.
    • The effects of micro- and macro- habitat variables on tent construction in the tent-roosting bat Artibeus watsoni on the Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

      Brown, Scott; Kaburu, Stefano; Besenyei, Lynn (Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2021-12-31)
      Bats spend half of their lives in their roosts, which play vital roles in the life histories of the bats that occupy them. More than half of all bat species roost in foliage. Within the Neotropics, 17 species of bat are known to modify foliage into structures referred to as “tents”. Of these species, Thomas’s fruit eating bat (Artibeus watsoni) uses the widest range of plant species for roosts, constructing five different tent types. However, the factors influencing the distribution and quantity of tents are not fully understood for this species. The aims of our study were to investigate whether [1] micro-habitat characteristics influence the number of tents on individual plants and [2] macro-habitat features influence the frequency of plants used for tent-roosting in the surrounding landscape. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of tents was influenced by proximity to fresh water, with 48.8% of tents within 100 m of fresh water. Additionally, A. watsoni constructed tents in sheltered habitats with a high cover abundance of trees. These types of habitat areas should be targeted for conservation efforts to conserve this species.
    • Automated generation of hybrid automata for multi-rigid-body mechanical systems and its application to the falsification of safety properties

      Navarro-López, EM; O’Toole, MD (Taylor & Francis, 2017-08-29)
      What if we designed a tool to automatically generate a dynamical transition system for the formal specification of mechanical systems subject to multiple impacts, contacts and discontinuous friction? Such a tool would represent an advance in the description and simulation of these complex systems. This is precisely what this paper offers: Dyverse Rigid Body Toolbox (DyverseRBT). This tool requires a sufficiently expressive computational model that can accurately describe the behaviour of the system as it evolves over time. For this purpose, we propose an alternative abstraction of multi-rigid-body (MRB) mechanical systems with multiple contacts as an extended version of the classical hybrid automaton, which we call MRB hybrid automaton. One of the chief characteristics of the MRB hybrid automaton is the inclusion of computation nodes to encode algorithms to calculate the contact forces. The computation nodes consist of a set of non-dynamical discrete locations, discrete transitions and guards between these locations, and resets on transitions. They can account for the energy transfer not explicitly considered within the rigid-body formalism. The proposed modelling framework is well suited for the automated verification of dynamical properties of realistic mechanical systems. We show this by the falsification of safety properties over the transition system generated by DyverseRBT.
    • Deadness and how to disprove liveness in hybrid dynamical systems

      Navarro-López, EM; Carter, R (Elsevier, 2016-06-16)
      What if we designed a tool to automatically prove the dynamical properties of systems for which analytic proof is difficult or impossible to obtain? Such a tool would represent a significant advance in the understanding of complex dynamical systems with nonlinearities. This is precisely what this paper offers: a solution to the problem of automatically proving some dynamic stability properties of complex systems with multiple discontinuities and modes of operation modelled as hybrid dynamical systems. For this purpose, we propose a reinterpretation of some stability properties from a computational viewpoint, chiefly by using the computer science concepts of safety and liveness. However, these concepts need to be redefined within the framework of hybrid dynamical systems. In computer science terms, here, we consider the problem of automatically disproving the liveness properties of nonlinear hybrid dynamical systems. For this purpose, we define a new property, which we call deadness. This is a dynamically-aware property of a hybrid system which, if true, disproves the liveness property by means of a finite execution. We formally define this property, and give an algorithm which can derive deadness properties automatically for a type of liveness property called inevitability. We show how this algorithm works for three different examples that represent three classes of hybrid systems with complex behaviours.
    • Constructional idioms of ‘insanity’ in English and Spanish: A corpus-based study

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria (Elsevier, 2021-02-10)
      This paper presents a corpus-based study of constructions in English and Spanish, with a special emphasis on equivalent semantic-functional counterparts, and potential mismatches. Although usage/corpus-based Construction Grammar (CxG) has attracted much attention in recent years, most studies have dealt exclusively with monolingual constructions. In this paper we will focus on two constructions that represent conventional ways to express ‘insanity’ in both languages. The analysis will cover grammatical, semantic and informative aspects in order to establish a multi-linguistic prototype of the constructions. To that end, data from several giga-token corpora of contemporary spoken English and Spanish (parallel and comparable) have been selected. This study advances the explanatory potential of constructional idioms for the study of idiomaticity, variability and cross-language analysis. In addition, relevant findings on the dialectal distribution of certain idiom features across both languages and their national varieties are also reported.
    • Effects of scent enrichment on behavioural and physiological indicators of stress in zoo primates

      Vaglio, Stefano; Kaburu, Stefano; Pearce, Richard; Bryant, Luke; McAuley, Ailie; Lott, Alexandria; Sheppard, Demi; Smith, Sarah; Tompkins, Bethany; Elwell, Emily; et al. (Wiley, 2021-12-31)
      Captive breeding is vital for primate conservation, with modern zoos serving a crucial role in breeding populations of threatened species and educating the general public. However, captive populations can experience welfare issues that may also undermine their reproductive success. In order to enhance the well-being of endangered zoo primates, we conducted a study to assess the effects of a new scent enrichment programme on captive red-ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra), black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya), siamangs (Symphalangus syndactylus), Lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus). We combined behavioural observations and faecal endocrinology analyses to evaluate the effects of a series of essential oils (benzoin, lavender, lemongrass) on five captive troops (N = 19) housed at Dudley Zoo & Castle and Twycross Zoo (UK). We recorded observations of natural species-specific and abnormal stress-related behaviours for 480 hr using instantaneous scan sampling. We collected 189 faecal samples and measured the faecal cortisol concentrations using radioimmunoassay. We found a significant effect of the scent enrichment on behaviours, with red-ruffed lemurs and black howler monkeys reducing their social interactions, as well as red-ruffed lemurs and Lar gibbons decreasing their stress-related behaviours, after they were exposed to the series of essential oils. We also found that red-ruffed lemurs displayed a significant increase in faecal glucocorticoids following the exposure to essential oils. Our contradictory findings suggest that the effects of this series of essential oils may change depending on the species-specific social lives and olfactory repertoires of primates. In conclusion, we cannot recommend using these essential oils widely with zoo primates without additional evaluation.
    • The coevolution of sexual imprinting by males and females

      Gómez-Llano, Miguel Angel; Navarro-López, Eva María; Gilman, Robert Tucker (Wiley, 2016-09-14)
      Sexual imprinting is the learning of a mate preference by direct observation of the phenotype of another member of the population. Sexual imprinting can be paternal, maternal, or oblique if individuals learn to prefer the phenotypes of their fathers, mothers, or other members of the population, respectively. Which phenotypes are learned can affect trait evolution and speciation rates. “Good genes” models of polygynous systems predict that females should evolve to imprint on their fathers, because paternal imprinting helps females to choose mates that will produce offspring that are both viable and sexy. Sexual imprinting by males has been observed in nature, but a theory for the evolution of sexual imprinting by males does not exist. We developed a good genes model to study the conditions under which sexual imprinting by males or by both sexes can evolve and to ask which sexual imprinting strategies maximize the fitness of the choosy sex. We found that when only males imprint, maternal imprinting is the most advantageous strategy. When both sexes imprint, it is most advantageous for both sexes to use paternal imprinting. Previous theory suggests that, in a given population, either males or females but not both will evolve choosiness in mating. We show how environmental change can lead to the evolution of sexual imprinting behavior by both sexes in the same population.
    • Evolution of communities of software: using tensor decompositions to compare software ecosystems

      Blanthorn, Oliver A; Caine, Colin M; Navarro-López, Eva M (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-12-23)
      Modern software development is often a collaborative effort involving many authors through the re-use and sharing of code through software libraries. Modern software “ecosystems” are complex socio-technical systems which can be represented as a multilayer dynamic network. Many of these libraries and software packages are open-source and developed in the open on sites such as , so there is a large amount of data available about these networks. Studying these networks could be of interest to anyone choosing or designing a programming language. In this work, we use tensor factorisation to explore the dynamics of communities of software, and then compare these dynamics between languages on a dataset of approximately 1 million software projects. We hope to be able to inform the debate on software dependencies that has been recently re-ignited by the malicious takeover of the npm package and other incidents through giving a clearer picture of the structure of software dependency networks, and by exploring how the choices of language designers—for example, in the size of standard libraries, or the standards to which packages are held before admission to a language ecosystem is granted—may have shaped their language ecosystems. We establish that adjusted mutual information is a valid metric by which to assess the number of communities in a tensor decomposition and find that there are striking differences between the communities found across different software ecosystems and that communities do experience large and interpretable changes in activity over time. The differences between the elm and R software ecosystems, which see some communities decline over time, and the more conventional software ecosystems of Python, Java and JavaScript, which do not see many declining communities, are particularly marked.