Now showing items 1-20 of 6817

    • Exploring pregnant women’s experiences of stopping smoking with an incentive scheme with ‘enhanced’ support: a qualitative study

      McCormack, Fiona C; Hopley, Rachel; Boath, Elizabeth H; Parry, Sian L; Roscoe, Suzie M; Stewart, Antony; Birch, Victoria A (SAGE, 2022-07-05)
      Aim: This study aims to understand pregnant women’s experiences of smoking cessation with an incentive scheme in a deprived UK city. This is important because smoking cessation with pregnant women is one of the most crucial public health initiatives to promote, and is particularly challenging in deprived areas. While financial incentive schemes are controversial, there is a need to better understand pregnant women’s experiences. The scheme combined quasi-financial incentives (shopping vouchers) for validated quits (carbon monoxide (CO) validated at < 10 ppm), enhanced support from smoking cessation advisors, the opportunity to identify a ‘Significant Other Supporter’ and nicotine replacement therapy. Methods: With the focus on understanding pregnant women’s experiences, a qualitative design was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 pregnant women from the scheme, and the three advisors. All interviews were transcribed, and thematic analysis conducted. Results: Pregnant women reported various challenges to quitting, including long-established routines, and stress. Participants were aware of stigma around incentives but were all very positive about the scheme. The relationship with advisors was described as fundamental. The women valued their advice and support, while uptake of the ‘Significant Other Supporter’ appeared low. Participants viewed the CO monitoring as ‘an incentive’, while the vouchers were framed as a ‘bonus’. Advisors perceived the vouchers as helping engage pregnant women and maintain quit status, and women appreciated the vouchers both as financial assistance and recognition of their accomplishments. Conclusion: This study highlights the great value women placed on the support, advice and monitoring from specialist advisors. The distinction between vouchers as a welcomed bonus, rather than ‘the incentive’ to engage, is important. How smoking cessation and schemes to promote this are communicated to pregnant women and health professionals is important, particularly given the stigma and controversy involved.
    • Arts, science and technology in the ISSM project and exhibition

      Doyle, Denise; Glover, Richard; Khechara, Martin; Groes, Sebastian (ISEA International, 2022-12-31)
      In 2019 a team of multi-disciplinary researchers undertook a research project entitled Identifying Successful STARTS Methodologies (ISSM) (2019-2021)1 in order to analyze the innovative and collaborative strategies utilized by the global Science, Technology and Arts (=STARTS) Prize Winners and nominees. The aim was to identify and articulate successful STARTS Methodologies through a series of interviews and in-depth case studies of the recognized projects. The project culminated in a series of case studies and an exhibition at the Made in Wolves Gallery at the University of Wolverhampton, UK, and further presented at UK Garden of Earthly Delights at Ars Electronica in 2020. The project identified three emerging themes: the significance of building a new language of art and science through a third space, the process of anti-disciplinarity as an emergent form of practice, and the importance of different ways of knowing through art and science. A number of the case studies and themes are presented here alongside images from the exhibition.
    • SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a British Society of Gastroenterology Inflammatory Bowel Disease section and IBD Clinical Research Group position statement

      Alexander, JL; Moran, GW; Gaya, DR; Raine, T; Hart, A; Kennedy, NA; Lindsay, JO; MacDonald, J; Segal, JP; Sebastian, S; et al. (Elsevier, 2021-01-25)
      SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global health crisis and mass vaccination programmes provide the best opportunity for controlling transmission and protecting populations. Despite the impressive clinical trial results of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines, important unanswered questions remain, especially in patients with pre-existing conditions. In this position statement endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) section and IBD Clinical Research Group, we consider SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy in patients with IBD. The risks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are anticipated to be very low, and we strongly support SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IBD. Based on data from previous studies with other vaccines, there are conceptual concerns that protective immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be diminished in some patients with IBD, such as those taking anti-TNF drugs. However, the benefits of vaccination, even in patients treated with anti-TNF drugs, are likely to outweigh these theoretical concerns. Key areas for further research are discussed, including vaccine hesitancy and its effect in the IBD community, the effect of immunosuppression on vaccine efficacy, and the search for predictive biomarkers of vaccine success.
    • Improving 30-day mortality following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in England from 2007 to 2019: a retrospective national cohort analysis of 87,862 patients

      Kamran, Umair; Lee, Pui Chi; Coupland, Ben; Abbasi, Abdullah; Steed, Helen; Ispoglou, Sissi; Varyani, Fumi; Trudgill, Nigel (Elsevier, 2022-07-04)
      Background and aims Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has been associated with poor case selection and high mortality. We examined indications, 30-day mortality and 7-day complications in a national cohort undergoing PEG insertion. Methods Adults undergoing first PEG insertion from 2007–2019 were identified in Hospital Episode Statistics. The indications and complications were identified using ICD-10 codes. Multivariable logistic regression modelling examined factors associated with mortality. Results 87,682 patients identified; 58% male; median age 69 (IQR 57-79) years. The number of patients with dementia or stroke as PEG indication fell from 2007 to 2019 : dementia - 147 to 28, p<0.001; stroke - 2851 to 1781, p<0.001. Median interval from stroke admission to PEG insertion increased from 21 (IQR 12-36) to 28 (13-45) days, p<0.001. Aspiration pneumonia within 7 days of PEG fell from 10.2% to 8.6%, p 0.04. 30 day mortality fell from 13.2% to 5.3% (p<0.001) and factors associated included: increasing age (≥ 82 years quintile odds ratio 4.44 (95% CI 4.01-4.92)); PEG insertion during emergency admission (2.10 (1.97-2.25)); Charlson comorbidity score ≥ 5 (1.67 (1.53-1.82)); and dementia (1.46 (1.26-1.71)).Female sex (0.81 (0.77-0.85)), least deprived quintile (0.88 (0.81-0.95)), and more recent years of PEG insertion (2019, 0.44 (0.39-0.51)) were negatively associated with mortality. Conclusions 30 day mortality following PEG insertion has fallen 60% over 13 years. Dementia or stroke as a PEG indication fell and the time interval from stroke to PEG insertion increased. These findings may be attributable to improved patient selection and timing for PEG insertion.
    • Correlation of ex vivo and in vivo confocal microscopy imaging of Acanthamoeba

      Alantary, Noor; Heaselgrave, Wayne; Hau, Scott (BMJ Publishing Group, 2022-06-24)
      Background/aims The aim of this study was to correlate the various forms of Acanthamoeba on ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) with in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and findings from cultured positive cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods Acanthamoeba live, dead and empty cysts, and live trophozoites were prepared in vitro and inoculated into porcine cornea using a sterile 26-gauge needle and examined ex vivo using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II/Rostock Corneal Module. IVCM images from 12 cultured positive Acanthamoeba cases, obtained using the same instrument, were compared with EVCM findings. Phase contrast images were also obtained to compare with both EVCM and IVCM findings. The change in cyst morphology with depth was evaluated by imaging the same cysts over a defined cornea depth measurement. Results EVCM morphologies for live cysts included four main types—hyper-reflective central dot with hyper-reflective outer ring, hyper-reflective central dot with hyporeflective outer region, stellate shaped hyper-reflective centre with hyporeflective outer region and hyper-reflective round/polygonal shaped cyst; one main type for dead cysts—hyper-reflective central dot with hyporeflective outer region; two main types for empty cysts— hyper-reflective central dot with hyper-reflective outer ring/hyporeflective outer region; and one main type for trophozoites—large coarse speckled area of heterogeneous hyper-reflective material. Matching IVCM images show good correlation with EVCM. Cyst morphology altered when imaged at different depths. Conclusion EVCM demonstrated the various forms of Acanthamoeba cyst and trophozoites can be used as a reference to identify similar structures on IVCM.
    • Thiopurine monotherapy is effective in ulcerative colitis but significantly less so in Crohn's disease: long-term outcomes for 11928 patients in the UK inflammatory bowel disease bioresource

      Steed, Helen; Brookes, Matthew; Stournaras, Evangelos; Qian, Wendi; Pappas, Apostolos; Hong, You Yi; Shawky, Rasha; UK IBD BioResource Investigators; Raine, Tim; Parkes, Miles; et al. (BMJ, 2020-10-01)
      Objective Thiopurines are widely used as maintenance therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but the evidence base for their use is sparse and their role increasingly questioned. Using the largest series reported to date, we assessed the long-term effectiveness of thiopurines in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), including their impact on need for surgery. Design Outcomes were assessed in 11 928 patients (4968 UC, 6960 CD) in the UK IBD BioResource initiated on thiopurine monotherapy with the intention of maintaining medically induced remission. Effectiveness was assessed retrospectively using patient-level data and a definition that required avoidance of escalation to biological therapy or surgery while on thiopurines. Analyses included overall effectiveness, time-to-event analysis for treatment escalation and comparison of surgery rates in patients tolerant or intolerant of thiopurines. Results Using 68 132 patient-years of exposure, thiopurine monotherapy appeared effective for the duration of treatment in 2617/4968 (52.7%) patients with UC compared with 2378/6960 (34.2%) patients with CD (p<0.0001). This difference was corroborated in a multivariable analysis: after adjusting for variables including treatment era, thiopurine monotherapy was less effective in CD than UC (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.51, p<0.0001). Thiopurine intolerance was associated with increased risk of surgery in UC (HR 2.44, p<0.0001); with a more modest impact on need for surgery in CD (HR=1.23, p=0.0015). Conclusion Thiopurine monotherapy is an effective long-term treatment for UC but significantly less effective in CD.
    • Analysis of the physiological response in junior tennis players during short-term recovery: Understanding the magnitude of recovery until and after the 25 seconds rule

      Morais, Jorge E; Bragada, José A; Silva, Rui; Nevill, Alan M.; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Marinho, Daniel A (SAGE, 2022-07-03)
      Literature lacks evidence about the physiological recovery of tennis players between points. This study aimed to: (i) verify the heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) recovery variance in young tennis players from the end of a tennis drill until the 25-s mark and onwards (65-s limit), performed at several intensities, and (ii) test the curve fitting that better characterizes the players’ HR and V̇O2 recovery, from the end of the drill until the 65-s mark. The sample was composed of 13 male tennis players (age: 16.80 ± 1.61 years) recruited from a National Tennis Association. Players were instructed to perform a drill test (“two-line drill wide mode”) based on an intensity increment protocol. Three levels of intensity were used based on the reserve HR and V̇O2. A significance level effect was observed on the HRreserve and V̇O2reserve (P < .001). At all three levels of intensity, the first 25 s were enough to significantly (P < .001) recover the HRreserve and V̇O2reserve. The same significance trend (P < .001) was maintained until the 65 s but with a lower magnitude over time. Overall, the HR and V̇O2 curve fitting indicated a cubic relationship at the three levels of intensity (except the V̇O2 at the first level). Considering the specific test performed, players significantly elicited their physiological profile for every additional 10 s (after the 25-s rule) in the three levels of intensity performed. Despite this being a drill test and not a competitive point, coaches, players, and tennis organizations should be aware of these findings.
    • The impact of treatment with bile acid sequestrants on quality of life in patients with bile acid diarrhoea

      Kumar, Aditi; Galbraith, Niall; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Jain, Manushri; Phipps, Oliver; Butterworth, Jeffrey; Steed, Helen; McLaughlin, John; Brookes, Matthew (BMC, 2022-07-02)
      Background Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) can be severely debilitating and negatively affect patients’ quality of life (QoL). We carried out a multi-centre prospective study exploring QoL outcomes in patients with BAD after treatment with colesevelam. Methods Patients with or without a positive 23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan were recruited and categorised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group (CG), idiopathic BAD, post-cholecystectomy (PC) and post-terminal ileal resection for Crohn’s disease (CD). Patients with a positive SeHCAT were treated with colesevelam and dosing was titrated to symptomatic response. Patients were reviewed at 4- and 8-weekly intervals and QoL was evaluated by EQ-5D-3L, SF-36, IBDQ-32 at each visit (where relevant). Patients with a negative SeHCAT (CG cohort) completed one set of questionnaires before being discharged from the study. Results 47 patients (BAD = 24, PC = 12, CD = 11) completed paired QoL questionnaires before and after treatment and 30 CG patients completed a baseline questionnaire. There was a significant improvement in IBDQ-32 mean scores before and after treatment in CD patients [134.6 (95%CI 112.5–156.6) and 158.4 (136.1–180.6), respectively (p = 0.007). Following treatment, BAD patients had significantly improved mean SF-36 scores in the “Role limitation due to physical health” dimension (p = 0.02) and in the overall mental component summary (p = 0.03). Prior to starting treatment, BAD patients had the lowest scores in the ‘activity’ dimension of the EQ-5D-3L (p = 0.04), which improved significantly after treatment (p = 0.002). Overall, the BAD and CD cohort showed improved mean scores with treatment in all components of the SF-36 and EQ-5D-3L, while the PC cohort showed a general decline in mean scores after treatment. 55% of patients clinically responded to treatment of which 41.7%, 58.3% and 81.8% responded from the BAD, PC and CD groups respectively. Correlations between those deemed as responders with improvements on the SF-36 and EQ-5D dimensions were not statistically significant. Conclusion Our results demonstrate improved QoL in the BAD and CD cohort with treatment. Further larger studies are recommended specifically investigating the PC cohort and whether patients may improve with newer treatments such as FXR agonists.
    • Inflammatory bowel disease clinical service recovery during the COVID-19 pandemic

      Din, Shahida; Gaya, Daniel; Kammermeier, Jochen; Lamb, Christopher A; Macdonald, Jonathan; Moran, Gordon; Parkes, Gareth; Pollok, Richard; Sebastian, Shaji; Segal, Jonathan; et al. (BMJ, 2021-04-21)
    • Bile acids and the microbiome: Making sense of this dynamic relationship in their role and management in Crohn's disease

      Kumar, Aditi; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Steed, Helen; Phipps, Oliver; Brookes, Matthew; Department of Gastroenterology, The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton, UK. (Hindawi, 2022-03-22)
      Background. Bile acids help maintain the physiological balance of the gut microbiome and the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier. Similarly, intestinal bacteria play a major role in bile acid metabolism as they are involved in crucial biotransformation steps in the enterohepatic circulation pathway. Understanding the relationship between bile acid signalling and the gut microbiome in Crohn's disease can help target new and innovative treatment strategies. Aims. This review summarises the relationship between bile acids and the microbiome in Crohn's disease and discusses potential novel therapeutic options. Methods. We performed a literature review on bile acid signalling, its effect on the gut microbiome, and therapeutic applications in Crohn's disease. Results. Current research suggests that there is a strong interplay between the dysregulated microbiota, bile acid metabolism, and the mucosal immune system that can result in a changed immunological function, triggering the inflammatory response in Crohn's disease. Recent studies have demonstrated an association with altering the enterohepatic circulation and activating the farnesoid X receptor signalling pathway with the use of probiotics and faecal microbial transplantation, respectively. Bile acid sequestrants have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and anti-apoptotic properties with the potential to alter the intestinal microbial composition, suggesting a possible role in inducing and maintaining Crohn's disease. Conclusions. Active Crohn's disease has been correlated with changes in bacterial concentrations, which may be associated with changes in bile acid modification. Further research should focus on targeting these areas for future therapeutic options.
    • A single faecal bile acid stool test demonstrates potential efficacy in replacing SeHCAT testing for bile acid diarrhoea in selected patients

      Kumar, Aditi; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Jain, Manushri; Phipps, Oliver; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau; Steed, Helen; Butterworth, Jeffrey; McLaughlin, John; Galbraith, Niall; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022-05-18)
      This study examines the validity of measuring faecal bile acids (FBA) in a single stool sample as a diagnostic tool for bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) by direct comparison to the <sup>75</sup>selenium-homotaurocholic acid (SeHCAT) scan. A prospective observational study was undertaken. Patients with chronic diarrhoea (> 6 weeks) being investigated for potential BAD with SeHCAT scan provided stool samples for measurement of FBA, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patients were characterised into four groups: SeHCAT negative control group, post-cholecystectomy, idiopathic BAD and post-operative terminal ileal resected Crohn's disease. Stool samples were collected at baseline and 8-weeks post treatment to determine whether FBA measurement could be used to monitor therapeutic response. 113 patients had a stool sample to directly compare with their SeHCAT result. FBA concentrations (μmol/g) and interquartile ranges in patients in the control group (2.8; 1.6-4.2), BAD (3.6; 1.9-7.2) and post-cholecystectomy cohort 3.8 (2.3-6.8) were similar, but all were significantly lower (p < 0.001) compared to the Crohn's disease cohort (11.8; 10.1-16.2). FBA concentrations in patients with SeHCAT retention of < 15% (4.95; 2.6-10.5) and < 5% (9.9; 4.8-15.4) were significantly higher than those with a SeHCAT retention > 15% (2.6; 1.6-4.2); (p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity using FBA cut-off of 1.6 μmol/g (using ≤ 15% SeHCAT retention as diagnostic of BAD) were 90% and 25% respectively. A single random stool sample may have potential use in diagnosing severe BAD or BAD in Crohn's patients. Larger studies are now needed to confirm the potential efficacy of this test to accurately diagnose BAD in the absence of SeHCAT testing.
    • Variability in the pre-analytical stages influences microbiome laboratory analyses

      Kumar, Aditi; Gravdal, Kristin; Segal, Jonathan P; Steed, Helen; Brookes, Matthew; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar; Department of Gastroenterology, The Royal Wolverhampton NHS Trust, Wolverhampton WV10 0QP, UK. (MDPI, 2022-06-15)
      Introduction: There are numerous confounding variables in the pre-analytical steps in the analysis of gut microbial composition that affect data consistency and reproducibility. This study compared two DNA extraction methods from the same faecal samples to analyse differences in microbial composition. Methods: DNA was extracted from 20 faecal samples using either (A) chemical/enzymatic heat lysis (lysis buffer, proteinase K, 95 °C + 70 °C) or (B) mechanical and chemical/enzymatic heat lysis (bead-beating, lysis buffer, proteinase K, 65 °C). Gut microbiota was mapped through the 16S rRNA gene (V3–V9) using a set of pre-selected DNA probes targeting >300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels. Apart from the pre-analytical DNA extraction technique, all other parameters including microbial analysis remained the same. Bacterial abundance and deviations in the microbiome were compared between the two methods. Results: Significant variation in bacterial abundance was seen between the different DNA extraction techniques, with a higher yield of species noted in the combined mechanical and heat lysis technique (B). The five predominant bacteria seen in both (A) and (B) were Bacteroidota spp. and Prevotella spp. (p = NS), followed by Bacillota (p = 0.005), Lachhnospiraceae (p = 0.0001), Veillonella spp. (p < 0.0001) and Clostridioides (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: As microbial testing becomes more easily and commercially accessible, a unified international consensus for optimal sampling and DNA isolation procedures must be implemented for robustness and reproducibility of the results.
    • Impact of joint interactions with humans and social interactions with conspecifics on the risk of zooanthroponotic outbreaks among wildlife populations

      Balasubramaniam, Krishna N.; Aiempichitkijkarn, Nalina; Kaburu, Stefano; Marty, Pascal R.; Beisner, Brianne A; Bliss‐Moreau, Eliza; Arlet, Małgorzata E.; Atwill, Edward; McCowan, Brenda (Springer Nature, 2022-12-31)
      Pandemics caused by pathogens that originate in wildlife highlight the importance of understanding the behavioral ecology of disease outbreaks at human-wildlife interfaces. Specifically, the relative effects of human-wildlife and wildlife-wildlife interactions on disease outbreaks among wildlife populations in urban and peri-urban environments remain unclear. We used social network analysis and epidemiological Susceptible-Infected-Recovered models to simulate zooanthroponotic outbreaks, through wild animals’ joint propensities to co-interact with humans, and their social grooming of conspecifics. On 10 groups of macaques (Macaca spp.) in peri-urban environments in Asia, we collected behavioral data using event sampling of human-macaque interactions within the same time and space, and focal sampling of macaques’ social interactions with conspecifics and overall anthropogenic exposure. Model-predicted outbreak sizes were related to structural features of macaques’ networks. For all three species, and for both anthropogenic (co-interactions) and social (grooming) contexts, outbreak sizes were positively correlated to the network centrality of first-infected macaques. Across host species and contexts, the above effects were stronger through macaques’ human co-interaction networks than through their grooming networks, particularly for rhesus and bonnet macaques. Long-tailed macaques appeared to show more intraspecific variation in these effects. Our findings suggest that among wildlife in anthropogenically-impacted environments, the structure of their aggregations around anthropogenic factors makes them more vulnerable to zooanthroponotic outbreaks than their social structure. The global features of these networks that influence disease outbreaks, and their underlying socio-ecological covariates, need further investigation. Animals that consistently interact with both humans and their conspecifics are important targets for disease control.
    • Anogenital scent-marking signals fertility in a captive female Alaotran gentle lemur

      Fontani, Sara; Kaburu, Stefano; Marliani, Giovanna; Accorsi, Pier Attilio; Vaglio, Stefano (Frontiers Media, 2022-12-31)
      The Lake Alaotra gentle lemur (Hapalemur alaotrensis) is one of the 25 most endangered primates in the world and shows low success rate in captive breeding programmes. It is therefore vital to further understand its reproductive biology. We studied a captive troop consisting of five individuals hosted at Jersey Zoo during breeding and non-breeding periods over one year. We collected behavioural data (n=318 hours) using all occurrences of some behaviours and ad libitum sampling methods, as well as faecal (n=54) and anogenital scent (n=35) samples of the breeding female. We measured sex hormone levels using enzyme immunoassay technique and investigated the volatile component of odour signals using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We observed sexual and aggressive behaviours occasionally during the breeding period. Our regression analysis showed that only period significantly predicted rates of female anogenital scent-marking, whereby the female performed anogenital scent-marking more frequently during the breeding rather than the non-breeding period. In contrast, female hormone levels did not significantly explain variation in rates of neither male nor female olfactory, sexual and affiliative behaviours, suggesting that individuals’ behaviour alone is not an effective indicator of the ovulation window. The volatile chemical profile of anogenital odour secretions changed over the study, with four compounds distinguishing the fertile window during the breeding period. In conclusion, our findings suggest that anogenital scent-marking may signal the reproductive status of captive female gentle lemurs.
    • Towards a sustainable framework for road infrastructure management and maintenance scheme in south East Nigeria

      Okolie, Emeka Luke; Daniel, Emmanuel Itodo; Oloke, David; Moses, Tochukwu (International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction, 2022-06-28)
      The construction sector is critical in the economic growth of any country. Nigeria is faced with the need to provide adequate road infrastructure. Regardless of Nigeria’s enormous human and natural endowments, the road infrastructure within the country is in a poor state, especially in South-East Nigeria. This research aims to identify Public-Private Partnership (PPP) as a panacea for inadequate road infrastructure development schemes in South-East Nigeria. An in-depth literature review was carried out to explore the benefits of PPPs in the delivery of road infrastructure in South-East Nigeria. Findings from the literature review showed that PPP allows the government to concentrate on policy making while the private sector carries out the role of infrastructure maintenance and operation. It also allows the private sector to generate income through user levy or contract sums. The review identifies high cost and complexity as challenges facing PPP implementation. It further showed that PPP has been successful in countries like Sri Lanka, South Africa, India, the United Kingdom and even South-West Nigeria. The key recommendations of the research is that the existing PPP regulatory framework be reviewed, a transparent procurement process be put in place, and proven PPP models such as Build-Own Operate-Transfer (BOOT) and Build-Own-Transfer (BOT) be explored for road infrastructure delivery in South-East Nigeria.
    • Individual insolvency – the case for a single gateway

      Walton, Peter; Law School, University of Wolverhampton (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-06-30)
      The history of bankruptcy law and procedure suggests that only where an independent and reliable public official has oversight of the process, can the public have confidence in it. It has long been recognised that bankruptcy, and formal means of avoiding bankruptcy, provide more stakeholder confidence where a public official is involved. As well as the interests of debtors and their creditors, there is an inherent public interest in ensuring individual insolvency mechanisms work fairly. The current bankruptcy and debt relief order procedures have the benefit of official oversight. There is no suggestion of any obvious systemic weaknesses. However, individual insolvency procedure is open to criticism in the area of individual voluntary arrangements (IVAs) where there is rarely any official involvement. This article suggests that the problems identified in the modern day IVA market might be resolved by considering the lessons learnt from nineteenth century bankruptcy law reform. A new single gateway for all individual insolvency cases, echoing the two-stage process introduced by the Bankruptcy Act 1883, is suggested where all individual insolvency processes would begin with an initial consideration of the case by a public official. This would ensure an objective assessment is made as to the best way forward for debtors and their creditors. It would encourage transparency and honest dealing.
    • Impact of sustainability strategies on the Qatar oil and gas sector

      Sarrakh, Redouane; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini (British Academy of Management, 2022-09-02)
      Qatar had experience an unprecedent economic growth since the discovery of its fossil fuel reserves back in the 1990s. However, this economic growth had been accompanied by an unsustainable consumption of energy resources amongst citizens and organisations alike. Therefore, the Qatar government decided to follow up the footsteps of the rest of the world by adapting sustainability policies, which was in the form of Qatar National Vision 2030 in 2008. The oil and gas sector, and much like the rest of the sectors in Qatar urged for the implementation of sustainability strategies in order adopt the country’s vision at the organisational level through the Qatar Energy and Industry Sustainability Strategy in 2011. Although the QEISS has been introduced a while back, some organisations within the sector are still doubtful of the importance of sustainability initiatives to their future and the future of Qatar. This is the raison d’être of this paper, as it looks to highlight the impact of sustainability initiatives on Qatar oil and gas organisations. The paper follows a qualitative approach, interviewing 24 professionals from eight different Qatar oil and gas organisations. Thematic analysis has been adopted as the data analysis process. The study is currently at the data analysis stage. The preliminary findings of the paper note that organisations economic, environmental and social performances improve with the implementation of sustainability initiatives.
    • Evaluation of the role of artificial intelligence in delivering smart cities

      Griffiths, Kelly; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Mora, Luca (British Academy of Management, 2022-09-02)
      Smart Cities are having to find new techniques to deal with the increasing urbanisation situation in already overpopulated areas. A potential and developing solution is the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to enable these cities to tackle and overcome problems caused as a result of urbanisation. The objective of this review is to identify the breakdown of the different components of a smart city and understand published literature to identify and compile the impact artificial intelligence has on these 6 smart city attributes: smart economy, smart people, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment and smart living. Artificial intelligence can have a number of potential positive impacts on Smart City evolvement and growth such as, education, public services, reduced travel times, intelligence and surveillance, increase energy efficiency and healthcare to name a few. It could however lead to a number of negative effects in unemployment, liability factor, trust, limited legislations, lack of emotive state and ethics and data breaches. Ultimately, the general public’s uncertainty, concern and general lack of understanding of the potential impacts of AI are obstructing its full use and potential, most of this stems from the lack of information given to the public regarding the future uses and potential AI brings. Further research needs to be carried out to fully understand the public’s concern to allow an action plan to be produced to ensure the public are on board with the implementation of AI. Without the public’s acceptance AI will not flourish and smart cities will not be able to cope with the increase of urbanisation.
    • Becoming better: Facilitating equality, diversity and inclusion in teaching and learning through intersectionality lens

      Suresh, Subashini; Sarrakh, Redouane; Mondokova, Andrea; Renukappa, Suresh; Karodia, Nazira; Adage, Ada (British Academy of Management, 2022-09-02)
      This developmental paper introduces a case study currently being conducted at a university in the United Kingdom. Mixed-methods research seeks to glean an understanding of students’ awareness of intersectionality, explore their experiences of current intersectional practices in teaching and learning within the institution, and recognise how these differ across the institutional faculties and departments. Following the data collection and analysis phase, the project aims to improve and increase the awareness and understanding of the topic of intersectionality in the HE setting, to aid students’ exploration of sense of self-identity and increase their understanding of identities of those around them. Finally, using a holistic approach, the project intends to help create awareness of intersectionality and its practices in teaching and learning across the institution so that all staff and students benefit from inclusive HE environment.
    • How the UK transportation sector can achieve net carbon zero using building information modelling

      Manifold, Joel; Renukappa, Suresh; Suresh, Subashini; Georgakis, Panagiotis (British Academy of Management, 2022-09-02)
      The United Kingdom (UK) Transportation Sector (TS) does not currently align with the governments’ wider Net Carbon Zero (NCZ) approach. The Architecture, Engineering and Consulting (AEC) industries are anticipating strong growth over the coming decades and require more modern, digital approaches to design and planning to help reduce carbon emissions as well as improving carbon across project lifecycles. Building Information Modelling (BIM) processes are still seen to be in an infancy stage with regards to implementation on TS projects across the UK. However, The UK Governments BIM mandate has encouraged and increase the utilisation of BIM within the TS with studies demonstrating the positive effects BIM has by improving workflows efficiency, early identification of carbon hotspots within a project and more accurate understand of where design efficiencies can lead to a reduction in carbon emission. The purpose of this paper is to understand the current usage of BIM within the UKs TS and how general BIM practises and workflows can help contribute towards the NCZ approach, echoed by the UK Government. A systematic Literature Review approach has been conducted with the research question formed deriving from the Population, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome (PICO) system. In addition to this, inclusion and exclusion criteria to screen irrelevant information and help streamline research documents. After screening the relevant information, 18 pieces of literature reviewed were reviewed and helped identify six key drivers within this review such as Carbon reduction and BIM, BIM in Transportation Design, BIM uptake and usage in Transportation, BIM in Transportation Construction and Digital Twins and BIM. The conclusion of this review suggests uptake in of BIM in the TS is low in relation to other sectors and further research is required to demonstrate the potential for BIM workflows to help further align the TS with the UKs NCZ policy.