Now showing items 1-20 of 6449

    • 3D printed cobalt-chromium-molybdenum porous superalloy with superior antiviral activity

      Arjunan, Arun; Robinson, John; Baroutaji, Ahmad; Tuñón-Molina, Alberto; Martí, Miguel; Serrano-Aroca, Ángel (MDPI, 2021-11-24)
      COVID-19 pandemic and associated supply-chain disruptions emphasise the requirement for antimicrobial materials for on-demand manufacturing. Besides aerosol transmission, SARS-CoV-2 is also propagated through contact with virus-contaminated surfaces. As such, the development of effective biofunctional materials that can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 is critical for pandemic preparedness. Such materials will enable the rational development of antiviral devices with prolonged serviceability, reducing the environmental burden of disposable alternatives. This research reveals the novel use of Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) to 3D print porous Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) superalloy with potent antiviral activity (100% viral inactivation in 30 min). The porous material was rationally conceived using a multi-objective surrogate model featuring track thickness (tt) and pore diameter (ϕd) as responses. The regression analysis found the most significant parameters for Co-Cr-Mo track formation to be the interaction effects of scanning rate (Vs) and laser power (Pl) in the order PlVs>Vs>Pl. Contrastively, the pore diameter was found to be primarily driven by the hatch spacing (Sh). The study is the first to demonstrate the superior antiviral properties of 3D printed Co-Cr-Mo superalloy against an enveloped virus used as biosafe viral model of SARS-CoV-2. The material significantly outperforms the viral inactivation time of other broadly used antiviral metals such as copper and silver, as the material’s viral inactivation time was from 5 h to 30 min. As such, the study goes beyond the current state-of-the-art in antiviral alloys to provide extra protection to combat the SARS-CoV-2 viral spread. The evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic brings new and unpredictable challenges where on-demand 3D printing of antiviral materials can achieve rapid solutions while reducing the environmental impact of disposable devices
    • The relationship of year group and sex on injury incidence and countermovement jump in adolescent ballet dancers: a cross-sectional analysis

      Kolokythas, Nico; Metsios, George S.; Galloway, Shaun; Allen, Nick; Wyon, Matthew (J.Michael Ryan Publishing Inc., 2022-06-30)
      Introduction: Pre-professional ballet training involves long training hours from an early age that could influence young dancers’ physical performance and injury incidence. This cross-sectional analysis investigated the relationship of year group and sex, with countermovement jump, and injury incidence (primary outcome) in adolescent ballet dancers at a pre-professional dance school. Method: Countermovement jump (CMJ) height was recorded at the start of the academic year on 179 participants (M=68, F=111) spread across eight year-groups. Injury aetiology and incidence was prospectively recorded over a six-month period (Sep - Feb) by the medical team using a time-loss definition. Results: Between-subject statistically significant differences were reported for sex (F=101.49; p<0.001), year group (F=12.57; p<0.001) and sex*year group (F=9.22; p<0.001). Mean CMJ across the year groups ranged between 24.7-41.3cm for males and 23.5-25.1cm for females. Injury incidence per dancer was 0.84 (CI:0.13,1.56) and injury incidence per 1000hrs dance was 1.94 (CI:1.63, 2.25). No statistically significant differences, between sexes or year groups, were reported for injury incidence per 1000 dance hours, and time-loss. Hours dancing was statistically significantly positively associated with CMJ (r=.481, p<0.05) and negatively associated with injury incidence (r=-.253, p<0.05) for males; for females it was positively associated with time loss (r=.254, p<0.05). Conclusion: Even though CMJ was cross-sectionally monitored, the expected increased physical abilities in males as they grew older and progressed through their training was observed. Females did not indicate similar increase in their physical ability, but they seemed to become more susceptible to injuries as they grow older. The lack of this speculative physiological development for the females may be associated with the ballet-only approach in their training. The use of CMJ as an injury screening tool may be limited, however, it could still be used as a tool to monitor physiological and fundamental motor skill development of adolescent dancers, as jumping is an integral part of ballet.
    • Mesoporous perovskite solar cells with Al- and Zn-based metal-organic frameworks

      Furasova, Aleksandra D; Hix, Gary; Makarov, S.V.; Di Carlo, A. (IOP Publishing, 2021-11-17)
      The improvement of lead halide perovskites solar cells (PSC) by hydrophobic metal-organic frameworks (MOF) is one of the promising tools for modern photovoltaic technology to achieve stable and efficient thin-film devices. To show the MOF applicability for PSC, we incorporate two types of MOF: NH2-MIL-53(Al) and basolite Z1200 in n-i-p mesoporous MAPbI3 based solar cells that can add 2.2% efficiency by increasing main photovoltaic parameters. The simplicity of the proposed MOF's integration allows to use and adopt this approach to incorporate other frameworks for thin-film perovskite devices.
    • Scientometric analysis of global scientific literature on aging in place

      Oladinrin, Olugbenga; Gomis, Muhandiramge Kasun; Wadu Mesthrige, Jayantha; Obi, Lovelin; Rana, Muhammad Qasim (MDPI, 2021-11-26)
      The amount of literature reporting “aging-in-place” studies has increased sharply in recent decades. However, the studies have taken a global view of the range and scope of the research that has taken place. This study presents a bibliometric analysis of the current status of the aging in place research themes published as scientific articles between 1970 and 2021, using the Web of Science database. VOSviewer software was employed to map and visualize the 1331 items of bibliographic data retrieved. The findings reveal a continuous growing trend in the publication of aging in place research. Most productive institutions derive from the USA. The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is the most preferred Journal. The most popular research hotspots or areas include; older adults, aging, housing, dementia, long-term care, and technology, and their associations with the field of “aging in place” field were elucidated. This study offers several valuable insights to scholars, research institutions, and policymakers, enabling a better understanding of the developments in the aging in place research domain.
    • A configuration analysis of the psychological drivers of entrepreneurial resilience in the tourism sector

      Haddoud, Mohamed Yacine; Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Elbaz, Ahmed Mohamed (Elsevier, 2022)
      Although resilience is assumed to play a crucial role in entrepreneurship, the factors leading to entrepreneurial resilience in the tourism sector remain relatively unknown. To address this issue, this study adopts a novel configuration approach to assess psychological traits that are likely to result in resilient entrepreneurial behaviour in the tourism sector. It approaches this by conceptualising personality traits through the big five model which is widely espoused in the psychology discipline. Then, using fuzzy-set analysis, a sample of 180 bazaar owner/managers in Egypt is investigated from which three distinct profiles likely to exhibit high levels of entrepreneurial resilience are determined. The findings of this paper advance scholars’ theoretical understanding and offer intelligence to policymakers and training institutions in the Egyptian tourism sector. Particularly, they help bazaar owner/managers reflect on their predispositions as a means for increasing resilience.
    • The correlates of energy management practices and sales performance of small family food firms in Turkey

      Onjewu, Adah-Kole Emmanuel; Puntaier, Elmar; Hussain, Sundas (Emerald, 2022)
      Purpose While pursuing energy management, firms simultaneously strive to boost sales as a path towards economic performance. Also, the literature suggests that family firms exhibit greater environmental commitment than their non-family counterparts. To examine these contentions, this review espouses contingency theory to interrogate the correlations of (1) energy consumption targets, (2) energy efficiency enhancing measures, (3) energy consumption monitoring and (4) the domestic sales performance of small family food firms in Turkey’s food sector. Methodology Data were sourced from the World Bank Enterprise Survey. A sample of 137 family firms in food production, processing and retail was analysed using non-linear structural equation modelling. The net effects of path coefficients were estimated to determine the extent to which energy management practices predict domestic sales. Findings The path analysis revealed that although energy consumption targets do not directly increase sales performance, they stimulate firms’ energy efficiency enhancement measures and energy consumption monitoring to produce this effect by 21%. Practical/Managerial Implications The definitive results will reassure small family food firms of the financial and ecological benefits of setting energy targets in the first instance. This should be seen as a path towards putting in place energy efficiency enhancing measures and monitoring energy consumption. Insights for policy development are also offered to public stakeholders in the energy sector. Originality This inquiry is one of the first to examine energy management in the food sector at the family firm level through the contingency lens. Theoretically, the results draw attention and shed new light on disparate energy management practices and their discrete yet substantial contribution to sales performance. Practically, the fresh insights offer intelligence for the development of a national energy management policy in Turkey.
    • Daratumumab plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: Frailty subgroup analysis of MAIA

      Facon, Thierry; Cook, Gordon; Usmani, Saad Z.; Hulin, Cyrille; Kumar, Shaji; Plesner, Torben; Touzeau, Cyrille; Bahlis, Nizar J.; Basu, Supratik; Nahi, Hareth; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022)
      In the phase 3 MAIA study of patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM), daratumumab/lenalidomide/dexamethasone (D-Rd) improved progression-free survival (PFS) versus lenalidomide/dexamethasone (Rd). We present a subgroup analysis of MAIA by frailty status. Frailty assessment was performed retrospectively using age, Charlson comorbidity index, and baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score. Patients were classified as fit, intermediate, non-frail (fit+intermediate), or frail. Of the randomized patients (D-Rd, n=368; Rd, n=369), 396 patients were non-frail (D-Rd, 196 [53.3%]; Rd, 200 [54.2%]) and 341 patients were frail (172 [46.7%]; 169 [45.8%]). After 36.4-month median follow-up, non-frail patients had longer PFS than frail patients, but the PFS benefit of D-Rd versus Rd was maintained across subgroups: non-frail (median, not reached [NR] vs 41.7 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.48; P<0.0001) and frail (NR vs 30.4 months; HR, 0.62; P=0.003). Improved rates of complete response or better and minimal residual disease (10–5) negativity were observed for D-Rd across subgroups. The most common grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse event in non-frail and frail patients was neutropenia (non-frail, 45.4% [D-Rd] and 37.2% [Rd]; frail, 57.7% and 33.1%). These findings support the clinical benefit of D-Rd in transplant-ineligible NDMM patients enrolled in MAIA, regardless of frailty status.
    • Self-testing as an invaluable tool in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic

      Goggolidou, P; Hodges-Mameletzis, I; Purewal, S; Karakoula, A; Warr, T; Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK. (SAGE, 2021-09-29)
      Objectives: The United Kingdom and a number of European Union countries are offering and distributing rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) for self-test use to detect SARS-CoV-2. For instance, Greece, in the midst of its third wave of COVID-19, announced the provision of RADTs for self-testing through retail pharmacies. With the aim to determine the acceptability and feasibility of COVID-19 self-testing, we ran a cross-sectional survey on residents of Greece and Cyprus, aged over 18 years. Methods: An online survey using the JISC platform was distributed to 1000 individuals who completed the survey anonymously. Data was collated and analyzed for complete responses by chi-squared and logistic regression analyses. Results: A total of 248 complete responses were obtained, with balanced gender distribution and particular demographics representative of the 2 countries. The majority of participants (79%; n = 196) reported willingness to self-test and the remaining individuals reported no (10.5%; n = 26) or don’t know (10.5%; n = 26). Being a university graduate significantly predicted the likelihood of being willing to self-test (odds ratio [OR] = 3.455, P <.001). Pearson Chi-square test found significant differences between university graduates versus non-graduates on the type of COVID-19 test preferred (χ2 = 8.95, df = 3, P <.03); graduates were more likely to prefer saliva testing and less likely to prefer the finger prick test than non-graduates. Conclusions: Our survey data evidences the acceptability of home-based self-testing, with a preference for saliva as choice of biological material for sampling. A number of factors, such as accessible reporting, contact tracing infrastructures, central registration, and validation for the implementation of different RADTs need to be taken collectively into consideration before self-testing can be universally and reliably scaled up.
    • The assessment of good character in nursing and midwifery pre-registration students: A modified Delphi approach

      Arkell, Sharon (Elsevier, 2021-09-11)
      Aims To examine the perspectives of decision-makers when assessing the good character of nursing and midwifery pre-registration students in relation to their continued fitness to practise. Design A qualitative iterative survey design in the interpretive paradigm. Methods An expert panel of fitness to practise decision-makers was established to examine their perspectives when assessing the good character of nursing and midwifery pre-registration students. A qualitative modified Delphi approach was used to collect data via an on-line asynchronous questionnaire through a series of three iterative rounds in 2016. Qualitative data from all rounds were analysed using thematic analysis. A final overall analysis and interpretation was undertaken. Results The assessment of good character in nursing and midwifery pre-registration students is complex and appears to be heavily influenced by contextual factors including moral beliefs and the student's stage on the course. Determining seriousness and the potential for repetition of behaviour were key components of the decision-making process and were influenced by the student's ability to demonstrate self-awareness through reflection and remorse, and honesty and integrity through a professional duty of candour. Conclusion Educating students to understand how good character is assessed and the importance of epistemological reflection along with recognition of the student status in Nursing and Midwifery Council fitness to practise documentation is recommended to promote consistency in the assessment of good character between higher education institutions. Consistent decision-making with regard to good character may assist in maintaining public protection, trust and confidence in the nursing and midwifery professions in the future.
    • Assessing the generalisability of a multicentre qualitative dementia research: the experience and challenges faced by the MinD project in Europe

      Lim, Jennifer NW; Niedderer, Kristina; Tournier, Isabelle; Almeida, Rosa; Harrison, Dew; Holthoff-Detto, Vjera; Ludden, Geke; van Rompay, Thomas; van der Voort, Mascha; Galansinska, Aleksandra; et al. (F1000 Research, 2021-11-10)
      Background: Generalisation of findings is an important aspect of research and essential for evidence-based practice. While generalisation is common in quantitative research, there is a lack of generalisability in qualitative research. This paper presents the experience and challenges faced by the Designing for People with Dementia (MinD) project in meeting the requirements to strengthen the generalisation of findings on the lived experience of people living with dementia and their engagement to co-create designs to empower their everyday living. Methods: Polit and Beck (2010)’s strategies to generalise qualitative findings were applied: (1) replication in sampling; (2) replication of studies; (3) meta-synthesis of findings; (4) reflexivity and conceptualization; (5) immersion with the data; and (6) thick description. Results: While it is possible to increase the generabilisabilty of qualitative evidence through the replication of the sampling to attain a large, heterogeneous sample in different and multiple contexts and environments; implementation of sound and robust research; conducting in-depth analysis and interpretation collaboratively for emergent themes; and meeting the thick description requirement, there are challenges that the project team faced in implementing some of the Polit and Beck’s strategies because of the condition, namely dementia, that our participants are having. Other challenges faced were: the language and cultural diversity in the team; diverse work and organisational procedures; and the inter-disciplinary differences relating to the methods of enquiry, approaches and techniques to conduct research. These challenges will need to be identified and addressed at the start of the project with a strong leadership to ensure a seamless journey to complete the project successfully. Trust between the researchers and participants, and time to build this trust are critical to recruitment and participation in the study; these factors are of utmost important in research involving participants with condition such as dementia.
    • The distinctiveness of smaller voluntary organisations providing welfare services

      Dayson, Chris; Bennett, Ellen; Damm, Chris; Rees, James; Jacklin-Jarvis, Carol; Patmore, Beth; Baker, Leila; Terry, Vita; Turner, Katie (Cambridge University Press, 2022)
      This article presents empirical findings about the distinctiveness of smaller voluntary sector organisations (VSOs) involved in welfare service provision, based on in-depth, qualitative case study research. We identify a series of organisational features and practices which can mean that smaller VSOs are distinctive from larger organisations. These include how they are governed and managed, their approach to their work, and their position relative to other providers. To explain our findings, we draw on the concept of stakeholder ambiguity. This idea was posited by Billis and Glennerster (1998) and is commonly cited in relation to distinctiveness. We identified several manifestations of stakeholder ambiguity and confirm the concept’s explanatory importance, although we argue that our understanding of distinctiveness is enhanced when stakeholder ambiguity is considered alongside other closely related features, such as being embedded in a local geographic community and informal, familial care-based organisational cultures. Our findings also highlight the fragility of smaller VSOs. We argue that this combination of distinctiveness and fragility creates a tension for social policy makers, many of whom recognise the value of smaller VSOs and the risks that they face but must weigh this against a requirement to allocate resources for statutory services as effectively as possible.
    • "You can’t Google everything”- voluntary sector and the leadership of communities of place

      Rees, James; Sancino, Alessandro; Jacklin-Jarvis, Carol; Pagani, Michela (SAGE, 2022-06-30)
      This paper addresses an identified absence in the place leadership literature by exploring how voluntary sector actors contribute to the leadership of place. We attempt to untangle the complex relationship between leadership, place and the voluntary sector, exploring first how understandings of both leadership and place are strengthened by the significant recent advances in the collective and critical approaches to leadership studies. We argue that collective approaches are particularly well suited to interrogating place leadership, and the voluntary sector, both of which are inherently collective endeavours. Drawing on an empirical study of locally-rooted voluntary organisations in a district in the Midlands of England, we produce a thematic analysis which highlights three core themes of the voluntary sector contribution to collective place leadership: their ability to draw on and mobilise local knowledge, their positioning in a web of dense local relationships, and the notion that their intrinsic characteristics are a key source of their distinctiveness and value to the wider ’system’ of place leadership. In drawing these empirical strands together we offer insight into the centrality of the voluntary sector in the constitution of place (a role that has long been undervalued). Further, our findings shed light on the complexity and multiplexity of leading in the collective, and particularly the extent to which the voluntary sector is constrained by wider structures and macro-dynamics.
    • Place leadership and the role of the third sector and civil society

      Potluka, O; Sancino, A; Diamond, J; Rees, J (Bristol University Press, 2021-02-09)
      Only relatively recently, place leadership has become an important debate in the leadership studies and public administration literatures. From a place leadership perspective, there is clearly a potential role for third sector organisations and the voluntary engagement that citizens can play for places through different activities, such as for example social innovation, public services provision, volunteering, civic engagement, advocacy, enhancement of the quality of life, strengthening of social bonds and social cohesion. However, the topic of civil society and third sector organisations is still neglected in research and public policy debates on place-based leadership. Our special issue aims at filling this gap.
    • Effect of indoor environmental quality on visual comfort and productivity in office buildings

      Kaushik, Amit; Arif, Mohammed; Ebohon, Obas John; Arsalan, Hord; Rana, Muhammad Qasim; Obi, Lovelin (Emerald, 2021-11-15)
      Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to identify statistical relationships between visual environment and occupant productivity. Visual environment is one of the most important indoor environmental quality (IEQ) parameters, and it directly impacts occupant productivity in offices. The literature outlines the significance of the impact. Still, there is a lack of investigation, statistical analysis and inter-relationships between the independent variables (IEQ factors), especially in the hot and arid climate. Design/methodology/approach: This study presents a research study investigating the effects and shows statistical relationships between IEQ on occupant comfort and productivity. The study was conducted in the Middle East, and data was collected for 12 months. It used the response surface analysis to perform analysis. Findings: This study outlined seven unique relationships highlighting the recommended range, inter-dependencies. Results include that illumination has maximum effect on visual comfort and temperature, daylight having direct influence and relative humidity, wall type next to the seat and kind of workspace also impact visual comfort and productivity. These findings would help to improve occupant comfort and productivity in office buildings. It is recommended to include results and recommendations on design guidelines for office buildings. Originality/value: This study presents the unique effects of non-visual IEQ parameters on visual comfort and productivity. This investigation also provides a unique method to develop the statistical relationship between various indoor environmental factors and productivity in different contexts and buildings.
    • Assessing off-site readiness in construction organisations from the contractors' perspective: a case study from India

      Rana, Muhammad; Bendi, Deepthi; Arif, Mohammed; Oladinrin, Olugbenga; Kaushik, Amit (OMICS, 2022-06-30)
      Purpose This paper intends to present factors affecting the Indian construction organisations in adopting Off-Site Construction (OSC) methods. Design/Methodology/Approach An existing readiness maturity model has been used to assess three large organisations in different parts of India. A case study methodology has been adopted in this paper to highlight critical issues in OSC adoption in India. Findings This paper presents three case studies and concludes the Indian construction sectors readiness to adopt the OSC methods. Through the case studies, different issues related to the adoption of OSC have been identified and highlighted for the Indian construction sector. Although the three companies are large, there are several Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SME) operating in India's construction sector, and future research shall be needed to review these SMEs. Originality/Value Through the three case studies, several factors related to the implementation of OSC methods have been identified and highlighted within the Indian construction sector. Although the model has been applied to the Indian construction sector, it can easily be modified to fit into other areas and similar dynamics and business conditions. Practical Implications The proposed OSC readiness maturity model guides construction practitioners in India through a structured process to assess their OSC readiness in the market. This assessment enables them to evaluate and benchmark their processes through the strategic and operational phases. This research will add to the existing knowledge of OSC in India by mapping issues relevant to India's construction industry. The research has provided background on the status of OSC, the drivers and barriers affecting the implementation of Off-site Construction techniques in the Indian construction industry. Limitations: This research study is broadly focused on developing and assessing an off-site construction readiness framework for Indian construction organisations. The research scope and the population for data collection are limited to Large construction organisations in India only.
    • Researching women and men 1996-2020: Is androcentrism still dominant?

      Thelwall, Michael; Abdullah, Abrizah; Fairclough, Ruth (MIT Press, 2022-06-30)
      This article assesses the balance of research concerning women and men over the past quarter century using the crude heuristic of counting Scopus-indexed journal articles relating to women or men, as suggested by their titles or abstracts. A manual checking procedure together with a word-based heuristic was used to identify whether an article related to women or men. The heuristic includes both explicit mentions of women and men, implicit mentions, and a set of gender-focused health issues and medical terminology. Based on the results, more published articles now relate to women than to men. Moreover, more than twice as many articles relate exclusively to women than exclusively to men, with the ratio increasing from 2.16 to 1 in 1996 to 2.25 to 1 in 2020. Monogender articles mostly addressed primarily female health issues (maternity, breast cancer, cervical cancer) with fewer about primarily male health issues (testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer, health needs of men who have sex with men). Some articles also explicitly addressed gender inequality, such as empowering women entrepreneurs. The findings suggests that the androcentrism of early science has eroded in terms of research topics. This apparent progress should be encouraging for women researchers and society.
    • A study of the antimicrobial activity of combined black pepper and cinnamon essential oils against Escherichia fergusonii in traditional African yoghurt

      Ogwaro, B.A.; O'Gara, Elizabeth A.; Hill, David J.; Gibson, Hazel (MDPI, 2021-11-18)
      The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of black pepper (BPE) and cinnamon bark (CE) extracts against E. fergusonii was assessed in pasteurized full cream milk during and post-fermentation. The milk was fermented with 1% (v/v) of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus (NCIMB 11778) and Streptococcus thermophilus (NCIMB 10387) (approx. 106 cfu/mL each) and incubated and stored at 25 °C for 5 days (144 h) or at 43 °C for 24 h and then stored at 25 °C for 120 h. The milk was spiked with E. fergusonii at the start of fermentation by the lactic acid bacteria (pre-fermentation contamination) for after fermentation (post fermentation contamination). BPE and CE were applied at concentrations based on their minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.5% and 0.25% respectively as follows: 0.5% BPE alone; 0.125% BPE with 0.1875% CE; 0.25% BPE with 0.125% CE; 0.375% BPE with 0.0625% CE; 0.25% CE alone. Results showed that during fermentation at 25 °C, E. fergusonii grew to a similar level (approx. 109 CFU/mL) in control samples and 108 CFU/mL when BPE or CE were added alone. Whereas, in the samples with the combined essential oils, the bacterium grew to 106–107 CFU/mL only. During the milk fermentation at 43 °C, E. fergusonii grew to approx. 109 CFU/mL in samples without treatment. However, it was not detected in samples containing mixed BPE with CE after 8, 10 and 12 h of fermentation. Subsequent storage at 25 °C resulted in undetectable levels of the bacterium in all the samples treated with BPE or CE after 24 h of storage. These results indicated that BPE in combination with CE reduced growth during fermentation and was bactericidal during storage.
    • Gender differences in videoed accounts of victim blaming for revenge porn for self-taken and stealth-taken sexually explicit images and videos

      Attrill-Smith, Alison; Wesson, Caroline J; Chater, Michelle L; Weekes, Lucy (Masaryk University, 2021-11-18)
      Using video recounts from revenge porn victims, this study explores whether levels of victim blaming differs for the sharing of self- and stealth-taken sexually explicit images and videos. Building on previous work which has demonstrated victim blame for both self- and stealth generated images in occurrences of revenge porn (Zvi &amp; Schechory-Bitton, 2020), the reported study presents an original and ecologically valid methodological approach whereby 342 (76 male, 266 female) participants (Mage = 39.27, SD = 11.70) from the UK watched videoed accounts of real experiences of falling victim to revenge porn, rather than using text based, often fictional, vignettes to attribute blame which dominate studies in this area. All data was collected in 2019. The results demonstrated that significantly more blame was assigned to victims when participants were indirectly rather than directly asked who was to blame for the occurrence of revenge porn, supporting the notion of an unconscious processing bias in attributing blame. More blame was also assigned to those victims who themselves generated the material compared to when it had been acquired without their awareness by a perpetrator, suggesting the cognitive bias to be in line with a just world hypothesis. Male participants were more likely to blame a victim than were female participants, although sex of victim and mode of shared sexually-explicit material (video or image) did not appear to affect levels of victim-blame. Findings are considered in terms of extant research and the need for future work in the area of victim blame and revenge pornography.