'Social exclusion' and resistance: a study of gypsies and the non-governmental sector in Bulgaria 1989-1997
AbstractThis thesis uses theories of social exclusion and resistance to investigate the survival strategies of Bulgarian Gypsies and their involvement within the non-gover=ental organisation (NGO) sector. It addresses the relevance of these theories to our understanding of social inequality in the light of findings that point not only towards new possibilities for resistance within the NGO sector, but also towards the reinforcement of structural inequality. The dialectic of compliance and resistance on the part of Gypsies within NGOs, as identified in the case study, opens up for fresh debate theories 'from below'. This in turn helps unravel some of the benefits and drawbacks of the NGO strategy at the national as well as international level as one for both integration and for political self-assertion. The implications these findings have for an understanding of the use of social exclusion theory and NGO strategies in policy design are argued to be fundamental. Theories of hidden resistance need to be considered in order to go beyond the restrictive view of 'social exclusion' as a condition characterised by 'isolation', 'backwardness' and/or 'deviancy'. The thesis argues therefore that social exclusion must be problematised and interrogated to a greater extent, both as a concept and as a generic tool for policy making. This is important in order that we do not lose sight of the structural causes of social inequality and perhaps most importantly, the question of responsibility.
PublisherUniversity of Wolverhampton
TypeThesis or dissertation
DescriptionA thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of the University of Wolverhampton for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy
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