Adjusting bone mass for differences in projected bone area and other confounding variables: an allometric perspective.
Cast your vote
You can rate an item by clicking the amount of stars they wish to award to this item.
When enough users have cast their vote on this item, the average rating will also be shown.
Your vote was cast
Thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback
AuthorsNevill, Alan M.
Holder, Roger L.
Cheng, Jack C. Y.
Leung, Sophie S. S. F.
Lee, Warren T. K.
Lau, Joseph T. F.
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThe traditional method of assessing bone mineral density (BMD; given by bone mineral content [BMC] divided by projected bone area [Ap], BMD = BMC/Ap) has come under strong criticism by various authors. Their criticism being that the projected bone "area" (Ap) will systematically underestimate the skeletal bone "volume" of taller subjects. To reduce the confounding effects of bone size, an alternative ratio has been proposed called bone mineral apparent density [BMAD = BMC/(Ap)3/2]. However, bone size is not the only confounding variable associated with BMC. Others include age, sex, body size, and maturation. To assess the dimensional relationship between BMC and projected bone area, independent of other confounding variables, we proposed and fitted a proportional allometric model to the BMC data of the L2-L4 vertebrae from a previously published study. The projected bone area exponents were greater than unity for both boys (1.43) and girls (1.02), but only the boy's fitted exponent was not different from that predicted by geometric similarity (1.5). Based on these exponents, it is not clear whether bone mass acquisition increases in proportion to the projected bone area (Ap) or an estimate of projected bone volume (Ap)3/2. However, by adopting the proposed methods, the analysis will automatically adjust BMC for differences in projected bone size and other confounding variables for the particular population being studied. Hence, the necessity to speculate as to the theoretical value of the exponent of Ap, although interesting, becomes redundant.
CitationJournal of Bone & Mineral Research, 17(4): 703-708
- Vertebral bone mass, size, and volumetric density in women with spinal fractures.
- Authors: Duan Y, Parfitt Am, Seeman E
- Issue date: 1999 Oct
- Effects of skeletal size of the lumbar spine on areal bone density, volumetric bone density, and the diagnosis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women in China.
- Authors: Liao EY, Wu XP, Liao HJ, Zhang H, Peng J
- Issue date: 2004
- Modeling physiological and anthropometric variables known to vary with body size and other confounding variables.
- Authors: Nevill AM, Bate S, Holder RL
- Issue date: 2005
- Bone density interpretation and relevance in Caucasian children aged 9-17 years of age: insights from a population-based fracture study.
- Authors: Jones G, Ma D, Cameron F
- Issue date: 2006 Apr-Jun
- Bone geometry and density in the skeleton of pre-pubertal gymnasts and school children.
- Authors: Ward KA, Roberts SA, Adams JE, Mughal MZ
- Issue date: 2005 Jun