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dc.contributor.authorRound, J. M.
dc.contributor.authorJones, David A.
dc.contributor.authorHonour, J. W.
dc.contributor.authorNevill, Alan M.
dc.date.accessioned2009-04-23T20:08:20Z
dc.date.available2009-04-23T20:08:20Z
dc.date.issued1999
dc.identifier.citationAnnals of Human Biology, 26(1): 49-62
dc.identifier.issn0301-4460
dc.identifier.pmid9974083
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/66083
dc.description.abstractThe development of elbow flexor (biceps) and knee extensor (quadriceps) strength has been followed in a mixed longitudinal study of 50 boys and 50 girls from the age of 8 to 17 years. Sex differences in strength emerged at the time of peak height velocity and were especially marked for the biceps. Data for individual children were aligned to the time of peak height velocity and associations between strength, height, weight and circulating testosterone were investigated using multi-level modelling. The results show that, for girls, quadriceps strength is proportional to height and weight while for boys there is an additional factor which can be fully attributed to increasing levels of testosterone. Testosterone is important in explaining differences in biceps strength between the sexes but an additional factor is also required. It is suggested that, in addition to a direct effect on muscle, testosterone could have a second indirect action on biceps strength by promoting growth in length of the humerus as part of the general development of the male upper limb girdle.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherTaylor & Francis for the Society for the Study of Human Biology
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/apl/tahb/1999/00000026/00000001/art00005
dc.subjectMuscle Strength
dc.subjectMuscular system
dc.subjectSports Medicine
dc.subjectKnee
dc.subjectElbow
dc.subject.meshAdolescent
dc.subject.meshAlkaline Phosphatase
dc.subject.meshChild
dc.subject.meshEstradiol
dc.subject.meshFemale
dc.subject.meshHormones
dc.subject.meshHumans
dc.subject.meshInsulin-Like Growth Factor I
dc.subject.meshLongitudinal Studies
dc.subject.meshMale
dc.subject.meshMuscle Contraction
dc.subject.meshTestosterone
dc.titleHormonal factors in the development of differences in strength between boys and girls during adolescence: a longitudinal study.
dc.typeJournal article
dc.identifier.journalAnnals of Human Biology
html.description.abstractThe development of elbow flexor (biceps) and knee extensor (quadriceps) strength has been followed in a mixed longitudinal study of 50 boys and 50 girls from the age of 8 to 17 years. Sex differences in strength emerged at the time of peak height velocity and were especially marked for the biceps. Data for individual children were aligned to the time of peak height velocity and associations between strength, height, weight and circulating testosterone were investigated using multi-level modelling. The results show that, for girls, quadriceps strength is proportional to height and weight while for boys there is an additional factor which can be fully attributed to increasing levels of testosterone. Testosterone is important in explaining differences in biceps strength between the sexes but an additional factor is also required. It is suggested that, in addition to a direct effect on muscle, testosterone could have a second indirect action on biceps strength by promoting growth in length of the humerus as part of the general development of the male upper limb girdle.


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