• Screening and evaluation of multifunctional excipients: a novel approach for the local delivery of chlorhexidine against streptococcus mutans biofilms

      Rahman, Ayesha; Mohamed Zaid, Norhaziland; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-10)
    • "Seeking and saving": the reform of prostitutes and the prevention of prostitution in Birmingham, 1860-1914

      Bartley, Paula (University of Wolverhampton, 1995)
      A number of attempts were made in Victorian and Edwardian Britain to reform individual prostitutes and to regulate, control and eliminate prostitution. This thesis examines a small number of groups which were committed to the reform of prostitutes and to the prevention of prostitution in Birmingham between 1860-1914. The first group, composed of Anglican men and women dedicated to reform, founded a Magdalen Asylum. Soon after, a group of middle class Nonconformist women inspired by Ellice Hopkins' vision, established an alternative to the Anglican model. It is argued that this initiative marked a small shift in the process of reform but did not alter it fundamentally for whatever the gender, religious commitment or class background of people on the governing committees of these organisations all attempted to train working class women for domestic service. Preventive work was also developed by Nonconformist women and men to augment the reform institutions. In establishing different organisations to provide a moral safety net for young women, they believed that their organisations would eliminate some of the perceived causes of prostitution: immoral behaviour, unemployment, illegitimacy, homelessness and mental deficiency. This thesis focuses on the parts played by gender, class and religion in these organisations and suggests that whereas the methods employed by the preventive groups differed from the reform groups both shared a common aim of recasting working class women into modest, industrious and subordinate individuals. This thesis argues that over-arching theories are inadequate in understanding reform and prevention and advocates an approach which is multi-dimensional. It suggests that the categorical variables of gender, class and religion, sometimes contradictory, sometimes complementary, helped shape the process of reform and prevention in Birmingham.
    • Selected aspects of language contact in the case of Czech, with a particular focus on lexical borrowing and changing attitudes to the self and others

      Hambrook, Glyn; Dickins, Tom (University of Wolverhampton, 2012)
      The work selected for this portfolio comprises two language-specific case studies (‘Russian and Soviet loanwords and calques in the Czech lexicon since the beginning of the twentieth century’ and ‘Češi a slovenština’ [The Czechs and the Slovak language]), two publications on the critical reception of foreign vocabulary in Czech (‘The legacy and limitations of Czech purism’ and Attitudes to lexical borrowing in the Czech Republic), and a detailed article on the implications of naming practices for perceptions of the self and others (‘The Czech-speaking lands, their peoples and contact communities: titles, names and ethnonyms’). Extensive use is made of original material, including two nationwide quantitative surveys conducted on my behalf by the Public Opinion Research Centre of the Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic (CVVM), and two small-scale questionnaires carried out for me by Dr Miroslav Růžička of the Czech University of Life Sciences (Prague), as well as a range of other empirical data, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, electronic corpora, and additional sources of lexical and historical information. My commentary employs a thematic approach, which aims both to acquaint the reader with the main findings of each of my publications, and to indicate the broad direction of my output. Supplementary information is provided in the commentary, where required, to contextualize and synthesize my arguments, to shed light on recent scholarship in cognate fields, and to ensure narrative continuity. The ‘new’ knowledge thus complements and frames the discussion of my selected publications, thereby helping to guide the reader through the exposition of my writings. The principal unifying themes of the chosen pieces are their emphasis on (1) the role of language in the national consciousness and self-perception, (2) the influence of external forces on the shaping of the Czech lexicon, and people’s reactions to those forces, (3) public perceptions of lexical borrowing, and (4) changing attitudes to the notion of ‘foreign’, as reflected in the national idiom. The commentary is divided into eight chapters, as listed in the Table of Contents. My study begins with a general introduction to my academic background, and to the content and themes of this thesis, as summarized above. Chapter 2 is based principally on my article ‘The legacy and limitations of Czech purism’, and provides a combination of historical setting and statistical analysis. The next chapter presents a résumé of the overall impact of foreign languages and cultures on the historical development of Czech, with the aim of contextualizing the findings of subsequent chapters. Chapter 4, which draws mainly on ‘Russian and Soviet loanwords and calques in the Czech lexicon since the beginning of the twentieth century’, reevaluates the impact of Russian and ‘Soviet speak’ on the Czech lexicon. In chapter 5, I consider in detail the asymmetrical nature of Czech–Slovak language relations, with reference to the views of over 1,400 informants interviewed for ‘Češi a slovenština’ and Attitudes to lexical borrowing in the Czech Republic. Chapter 6 compares the results of my survey for the latter publication, referred to as ‘Perceptions’, with a series of other questionnaires, including Tejnor’s groundbreaking 1970 study of foreign words. ‘The Czech-speaking lands, their peoples and contact communities: titles, names and ethnonyms’ provides the substance of much of chapter 7, which focuses on the Czechs’ tendency to see themselves in terms of opposition to outsiders, and on the depiction of ‘foreignness’ in the Czech lexicon. The commentary concludes with a summary of my principal observations relating to aspects of language contact and lexical borrowing in Czech, and to their implications for the self and others. Taken collectively, the eight chapters provide a framework for the discussion of my published work and for the thematic and conceptual links that validate their consideration as a corpus of cognate research activity.
    • Selection biases within an English football academy: implications of the Elite Player Performance Plan

      Wyon, Matthew; Patel, Rickesh (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-07)
      The Elite Player Performance Plan (EPPP) was introduced in 2011 in order to enhance the youth football academy system in England. Previous literature demonstrates that relative age and biological maturation are responsible for selection biases within youth football, where both factors exert an influence on anthropometry and physical performances. However, there is limited research that has examined the aforementioned factors over a prolonged period of time, and especially within academies operating under the EPPP. Therefore, the general aim of this thesis was to investigate relative age, biological maturity, anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of male youth players from an English football club, as they progressed through the developmental pathway, under the EPPP framework. The findings from Chapter 3 revealed that selection within the investigated club was heavily overrepresented by relatively older and earlier maturing players, and this persisted since the EPPP was introduced. Subsequently, Chapter 4 identified that biological maturity, anthropometry and physical performances distinguished players that were retained across the developmental pathway, in an age group dependent manner. Chapter 5 provided estimates for when the development of anthropometric and physical performance characteristics initiate, peak and plateau, according to somatic maturity. Finally, Chapter 6 demonstrated that a bio-banding intervention may influence the decision-making process adopted by academy coaches’ regarding player selection and retention. In summary, the investigations conducted within this thesis provide novel and contemporary knowledge that can be used to enhance practice within the current club. Specifically, the findings from this thesis highlight that relative age, biological maturity, anthropometry and physical performances influence player selection and retention within this academy, suggesting that policies (e.g. the EPPP) require careful evaluation so that inappropriate selection biases can be nullified. Further studies are required to corroborate and extend these findings on a wider scale through robust methodological approaches.
    • Self evaluation variables and social media

      Harrad, Rachel (2018)
      People are motivated to self evaluate and undertake this in their interactions with others. Interactions with others are increasingly taking place online, including via social networking websites, which can contain several differences to face to face interaction. This thesis examined how specific self-evaluation factors (self-esteem, social comparison tendency and self-concept clarity) affect various behaviours on and psychological outcomes of engaging with social media sites, including Facebook. Self-esteem predicted positive mood during Facebook use, whilst one’s relationship with the site (i.e. how emotionally connected to the site one is – or ‘Facebook intensity’) predicted engagement with activities interpreted as indicative of a ‘fear-of-missing-out’ (e.g. finding out what friends were up to). High scorers in performance and appearance self-esteem reported a positive mood shift after profile editing whilst low scoring counterparts reported the reverse. Those who compared to others frequently experienced a negative mood shift after viewing the Facebook newsfeed possibly reflecting the cognitive effort associated with social comparison. Self-esteem predicted use of positive emotions in status updates whilst number of Facebook friends was negatively predicted by self-concept clarity and positively by social comparison tendency. Participants textually described both their actual and ideal self enabling consideration of the implications for self-presentation attempts in certain online environments. Low self-esteem individuals decreased their use of anxious language when idealising the self whilst those with low self-concept clarity increased their use of positive emotions. The discrepant word count between actual and ideal selves suggested that the actual self appeared more easily articulated, most 4 pronounced amongst those who infrequently compared themselves to others. When others rated these self descriptions it appeared high scorers in self-esteem and self-concept clarity and those who compared frequently to others were generally most positively received. It appears that whilst those with unclear self-concepts and low self-esteem can present a more positive and less anxious idealised self than actual self, the overall thesis findings appear to support the rich-get-richer hypothesis (Valkenburg, Schouten, & Peter, 2005) with high scorers on these self-evaluation factors garnering the most benefits from social media. Whilst those who compare frequently may be adversely impacted by viewing the Facebook newsfeed, idealisation of self attributes appears to benefit these individuals in terms of positivity of impressions formed by others. Findings suggest that social media engagement may hold advantages and disadvantages for users dependent on the type of activity engaged with and the individual differences variables of the user.
    • Semi-Lexical Heads in Czech Modal Structures

      Hambrook, Glyn; Veselovksa, L.; Caink, A; Kyncl, Jaroslav (University of Wolverhampton, 2008)
      This thesis argues for a semi-lexical interpretation of Czech modal verbs. It demonstrates that Czech modals participate in syntactic structures that contain a finite verb followed by multiple infinitives (verb clusters), such as Jan musel chtít začít studovat lingvistiku ‘John had to want to begin studying linguistics.’ The term Complex Verbal Domain (CVD) is devised for the verbal part of these structures. The analysis seeks to offer a unified account of modal verbs in Czech in respect of their subcategorization frame in the Lexicon and semantic properties (‘modal meaning’). It also attempts to clarify the confusion regarding modal verbs and modality in traditional Czech grammars by shifting the attention from pragmatics to an approach based on recent development of generative syntax (Chomsky 1998, 2000, 2001). Following the examination of syntactic behaviour of Czech modals in the CVD structure, the thesis proceeds to modify Emonds’ (1985, 2000) theory of semilexicality. This approach assumes that Czech modals are neither fully functional (due to properties such as rich morphological paradigm, ability to undergo Negation, Reflexivization and PF movement), nor fully lexical (they are unable to take clausal complements and distinguish between aspectual pairs). The semi-lexical analysis also shows that there is evidence for the existence of two types of Czech modals, True modal verbs (TMVs) and Optional modal verbs (OMVs). Whilst the former cannot nominalize or denote events, but are able to convey epistemic meaning, the latter undergo nominalization and are capable of event denotation, but do not attain epistemic reading. The semi-lexical properties of both TMVs and OMVs are syntactically reflected in their specific subcategorization frame X, +MODAL, +mod, +__ [V, INF]. The cognitive syntactic feature +MODAL cospecifies the syntactic derivation of Czech modal verbs in the ‘light’ vº, which takes an infinitival VP as a complement. Therefore, I argue that the CVD is syntactically vP. If the original CVD structure involves multiple infinitives (Jan vPmusí VPchtít(INF) začít(INF) číst(INF) tu knihu ‘John has to want to begin reading that book’), the VP complement has characteristics of a flat structure, adapted from Emonds (1999a, 1999b, 2001). On the other hand, +mod is a semantic feature that specifies the lexical behaviour of Czech modals and conveys the ‘modal meaning’, which is formalized in terms of possible worlds semantics as quantification over the modal base. The semi-lexical analysis also investigates the root v. epistemic dichotomy. The thesis argues that this dichotomy does not affect the unified theory of modality in Czech in terms of its derivational and semantic status, but is a result of covert processes at the level of Logical Form (LF), which realize different levels of modal quantification.
    • Sentence Simplification for Text Processing

      Orasan, Constantin; Evans, Richard (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-05)
      Propositional density and syntactic complexity are two features of sentences which affect the ability of humans and machines to process them effectively. In this thesis, I present a new approach to automatic sentence simplification which processes sentences containing compound clauses and complex noun phrases (NPs) and converts them into sequences of simple sentences which contain fewer of these constituents and have reduced per sentence propositional density and syntactic complexity. My overall approach is iterative and relies on both machine learning and handcrafted rules. It implements a small set of sentence transformation schemes, each of which takes one sentence containing compound clauses or complex NPs and converts it one or two simplified sentences containing fewer of these constituents (Chapter 5). The iterative algorithm applies the schemes repeatedly and is able to simplify sentences which contain arbitrary numbers of compound clauses and complex NPs. The transformation schemes rely on automatic detection of these constituents, which may take a variety of forms in input sentences. In the thesis, I present two new shallow syntactic analysis methods which facilitate the detection process. The first of these identifies various explicit signs of syntactic complexity in input sentences and classifies them according to their specific syntactic linking and bounding functions. I present the annotated resources used to train and evaluate this sign tagger (Chapter 2) and the machine learning method used to implement it (Chapter 3). The second syntactic analysis method exploits the sign tagger and identifies the spans of compound clauses and complex NPs in input sentences. In Chapter 4 of the thesis, I describe the development and evaluation of a machine learning approach performing this task. This chapter also presents a new annotated dataset supporting this activity. In the thesis, I present two implementations of my approach to sentence simplification. One of these exploits handcrafted rule activation patterns to detect different parts of input sentences which are relevant to the simplification process. The other implementation uses my machine learning method to identify compound clauses and complex NPs for this purpose. Intrinsic evaluation of the two implementations is presented in Chapter 6 together with a comparison of their performance with several baseline systems. The evaluation includes comparisons of system output with human-produced simplifications, automated estimations of the readability of system output, and surveys of human opinions on the grammaticality, accessibility, and meaning of automatically produced simplifications. Chapter 7 presents extrinsic evaluation of the sentence simplification method exploiting handcrafted rule activation patterns. The extrinsic evaluation involves three NLP tasks: multidocument summarisation, semantic role labelling, and information extraction. Finally, in Chapter 8, conclusions are drawn and directions for future research considered.
    • Sexual bullying: gender conflict in pupil culture

      Duncan, Neil (University of Wolverhampton, 1997)
      This thesis examines the experience of pupils negotiating their early adolescence within their secondary schools. Specifically, the focus is upon sexual bullying; the sexualized hostility and interpersonal conflict within the peer-subculture. The research adopts an ethnographic method, interviewing and observing pupils within the schools over a five year period. The existing research on bullying in schools is criticized for its concentration on psychologistical variables of deviancy within individual children at the expense of political and cultural factors. An attempt is made by this study to reproblematise the current theories on bullying in schools, and reconceptualise the phenomena of bullying in terms of gender and cultural studies. From this perspective, a continuum of oppressive behaviors can be seen in operation, with homophobia and misogyny implicated in the practices and processes of pupils’ construction of sexual and gender identities. The extent of the effects of these practices upon general social relations in school are discussed, and the dynamic relationship between the subcultural value systems and official organisation of the school is explored. The schools’ formal structures of discipline and control of large numbers of maturing young people are analysed in terms of their unintended consequences. An examination is made of the schools’ official discourses on competition and normality, and of the adoption, distortion and intensification of those discourses by the pupils within their own value system of personal reputation. The study then analyses their effects on the forms of gender policing carried out by the subculture.
    • Sexuality in the therapeutic relationship: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experiences of gay therapists

      Hulbert-Williams, Lee; Chadwick, Darren; Porter, James C. (University of Wolverhampton, 2013-06)
    • Shame, guilt and mental health problems

      Nicholls, Wendy; Nowill, Joanna Elizabeth (University of Wolverhampton, 2009)
      This thesis comprises three main sections: a literature review, research report and a critical appraisal of the research process. The literature reviewed is the current scientific literature relating to shame and guilt. The review attempts to clarify the conceptual confusion regarding shame and guilt and in particular attempts to delineate the distinctions between the two constructs whilst acknowleding the intricate and entwined relationship. The review also attempts to clarify the confusion regarding the role of guilt and its capacity to elicit both adaptive and maladaptive responses according to the way in which it is operationalised and conceptualised. The importance of the relationship between shame, guilt and mental health problems is presented with supporting empirical evidence. It is concluded that a new shame and guilt measure is required to show how shame and the maladaptive and adaptive aspects of guilt can be operationalised. It is hoped that this will enable future researchers to consider incorporating a profile approach to guilt in particular and that clinicians will consider the multiple and complex roles of shame and guilt in relation to psychological symptoms. The research report (Section 2) comprises two studies. Study 1 is the design, development and piloting of the new questionnaire assessing dispositional shame and guilt. The new measure is constructed and validity tested using an inductive approach. Study 2 is the use of the new measure with a forensic clinical sample and the relationship between guilt, shame and psychological symptoms is examined. It is hoped that this study will encourage researchers to locate future investigations within the clinical population. The final section is the researcher's critical appraisal of the research process based on her personal diary. This section is reflective and considers the impact of the research process on the researcher, the highs and lows of the research process and what changes the researcher might make.
    • Shifting academic identities in a post 1992 university. What are the implications for gender?

      Thompson, David; Walton, Anita; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-12)
      Under the weight of the neoliberal agenda, higher education lecturers in the United Kingdom (UK) struggle to maintain their professional identity, destabilised by the pressures of marketisation and accountability. The questions explored within this thesis are based around a research project that aimed to examine the shifting academic identities of lecturers in a post-1992 university. The research adopted a qualitative methodology, informed by a post-structuralist perspective and a Foucauldian theoretical framework. Neoliberalism, marketisation of higher education and new managerialism have disrupted academic identities and altered the very nature of academic work (Fumasoli et al., 2015). Academics are required to meet students’ raised expectations in a business-based environment and are obliged to participate in the new culture of audit and increased accountability This thesis argues that academics’ identities have shifted to include three new identities: customer service-provider, carer and for some, researcher. Analysis of the data suggests that there are clearly gendered patterns of work at the university and highlights how the Research Excellence Framework (REF), also has gendered implications (Yarrow and Davies 2018). This thesis presents the concept of academic identity in a post-1992 UK university as a fluid and multifaceted entity. This is shaped by the broad relationship between the universities’ adoption of neoliberal agendas and the impact of this commitment on the life of academics, resulting in the appearance of a new identity of a ‘multifarious’ academic.
    • Silent slips trips and broken hips: the recovery experiences of young adults following an isolated fracture of the proximal femur

      Janes, Gillian (2016-07)
      Isolated hip fracture following a minor fall is a serious injury, normally requiring urgent surgical treatment and a complex recovery journey. Although commonly associated with the elderly, incidence and impact in adults under 60 years of age may be underestimated. The extensive literature almost exclusively focuses on the elderly, surgical interventions and relatively short-term outcomes. Young adults are also missing from the dominant societal discourse and healthcare policy on fragility hip fracture. They therefore represent a silent sub-subset of the fragility hip fracture population, whose recovery experiences and needs, particularly in the longer term, remain largely unknown. A critical interpretivist approach and The Silences Framework (Serrant-Green, 2011), were used to ‘give voice’ to young adults with isolated hip fracture. Thirty participants, between one and ten years post injury, completed an in-depth, minimally structured interview in which they told their story of recovery. An inductive, thematic analysis was undertaken integrating Braun and Clarke (2006) and the four phase cyclical analysis of The Silences Framework (Serrant-Green, 2011). One cross-cutting theme: Communication emerged, together with four other main themes: Experience of care, Impact on self, Impact on others and Moving forward. 11 The findings indicated wide variation in the quality of care, often influenced by social and professional norms regarding hip fracture patient characteristics such as age and mode of injury. Multi-faceted, often long term, physical, social and psychological impact on participants, their family and wider social networks was also found. This included Post Traumatic Stress Disorder type symptoms and impact on work, finances and relationships. The study highlighted some limitations of the current hip fracture care pathway for supporting the specific recovery needs of young adults. It also identified some limited effectiveness of commonly used patient reported outcome measures for hip fracture in this young client group. Exploring the recovery experiences of this under-represented group confirmed, but also altered the silences initially identified. Furthermore, it uncovered new silences which informed recommendations for future research; healthcare practice and policy. This study offers the first long term exploration of the impact of isolated hip fracture following a minor fall in young adults from their perspective. In doing so, it has also demonstrated the appropriateness of The Silences Framework (Serrant-Green, 2011) for guiding a person-centred, experience-based, acute orthopaedic/rehabilitation study undertaken by a student researcher.
    • Simulation and optimisation of the Interior High Pressure (IHP) manufacturing process using the Finite Element Method (FEA)

      Rimkus, Wolfgang (University of Wolverhampton, 2000)
      Today, the market for metal working industry is characterised by an increase in parts varieties, a decrease in batch sizes, and an increase in quality requirements. To remain competitive, companies are forced to ensure that their production output complies with the increasing demand for higher productivity, flexibility and safety. Only new production methods and use of simulation techniques can help to achieve this goal. Prototyping tools for the Interior High Pressure (IHP) forming technique are relatively expensive in comparison to conventional sheet metal forming. Prototyping using the trial and error approach (“Real Prototyping”) is time consuming, and hence very costly. Simulation of the manufacturing processes within the production engineering (“Digital Prototyping”) can help to reduce production time and therefore reduce this considerable cost. Simulation of the IHP forming process helps to replace the classical prototyping method. Today the product development time can be reduced by around 30%, and using the simulation technique will reduce the development time even further. With a further development of the simulation technique, which is the main tasks of this work, a further significant reduction of development time is expected. The aim of the presented work is to improve the integration of the hydroforming simulation into the simultaneous engineering process chain. Today the available simulation software packages are difficult to use and implement. The motivation of this work is to develop tools and methodologies for a fast and easy simulation of the IHP forming process. The target group of the work will be small and medium sized companies (SMEs), because of the difficulty and costs involved for such companies to employ a specialist for the simulation of hydroforming processes. A further aim of the work is to identify the limitations of the process and of the simulation (if there is a difference). The work was subdivided into four main topics. The first covered a thorough investigation to identify and select the best and most suitable material model to use in the hydroforming simulation, which included the best geometric configurations for tools and punches. The second topic covered the development of knowledge about the design of load-curves. This knowledge is then used to create diagrams and formulas with which the load-curves are then applied easily and quickly. The third topic was the development of a graphical user interface (GUI) for the hydroforming simulation. This GUI was integrated into the FE software package ANSYS, and hence, enables the user to create the input files of the IHP forming process simulation easily and quickly. The user is only required to define the major parameters, most of these parameters are available for the user to select through menus. The developed software automatically defines all other necessary parameters. Furthermore a software program to post the simulation results back into the CAD system was developed. This tool creates a link between the initial design process and the final output stage of virtual prototyping, and hence, allows the comparison of various stages within the forming process, as well as the ability to adjust the process parameters as part of the optimisation process. The last topic was the validation of the developed methodology and software. The capability of the developed system by applying it to two concrete applications. The results of the real forming process were compared to the virtual forming results. Within this chapter the different material models offered by the simulation program LS-DYNA and the influence of an anisotropic material (tube) properties were also compared.
    • Smokeless tobacco: current use among Bangladeshi adolescents and association with increased oral cancer risk among Bangladeshi adults

      Jennifer NW Lim; Marc Chrysanthou; Ullah, Md. Zahid (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      Background: Smokeless tobacco (SLT) use is a major public health burden and highly prevalent in Bangladesh. Over 20 million Bangladeshi adults are currently using SLT. Bangladesh Government had announced its vision to become a tobacco free country by 2040. Therefore, public health efforts focusing on preventing SLT onset among adolescents would contribute towards this vision. However, apart from national adolescent SLT prevalence from Global youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), no other information linked to adolescent SLT use is available to inform future interventions. Also, SLT use related health burden such as oral cancer is highly prevalent in Bangladesh. Globally, Bangladesh ranked third for oral cancer related death. Every year over 8,000 Bangladeshi adults lost their lives because of this deadly disease. Regarding the relationship between SLT and oral cancer risk, there is a disconnection between the study findings from the western countries and developing countries. With the diversity of SLT products and its content there is a need to produce local evidence. Therefore, the overall aim of this PhD research was to examine the factors contributing to adolescent SLT use in Bangladesh and the role of SLT in oral carcinogenesis among Bangladeshi adults. Methods: To attain the study objectives, in 2015 a cross-sectional survey (n=790, response rate 100%) in two rural secondary schools and a hospital-based case-control study (n=507; case:169 and controls: 338, case participation rate 92.86%) were carried out in Bangladesh. Results: The findings of the adolescent cross-sectional survey suggest that the ever and current SLT prevalence among rural Bangladeshi adolescent was 9.5% (75) and 3.7% (29) respectively. Males were the leading users of SLT. Zarda (80%) is the most common type of SLT used by the adolescents. Rural Bangladeshi adolescent started using SLT as early as seven years old and younger. Social sources (41.4%) were the most common source of SLT reported. Most adolescents (65.2%) were able to buy SLT from commercial stores without any restrictions. Many current SLT users (89.7%) wanted to quit SLT but professional help was not available. Overall, adolescents had good knowledge about the adverse effects of SLT use, though misconceptions about the addictive nature of SLT use were prevalent. Older age, self-efficacy, perceived barriers, perceived benefits and perceived severity were the significant predictors of adolescent SLT use. The findings of the hospital-based case-control study suggest a strong association between SLT use and oral cancer risk among Bangladeshi adults. Women [OR: 14.33 (95%CI: 6.33-32.42)] had the higher risk of developing oral cancer than men [OR: 5.29 (95%CI: 2.62-10.67)] from SLT use. Among men highest risk was observed among dual users (SLT and smoking) [OR: 17.23 (95%CI: 5.70-52.01)]. Both Betel Quid (BQ) with and without tobacco increased the oral cancer risk. However, the risk was lower for chewing BQ without tobacco than BQ with tobacco. The risk of oral cancer increased with the increasing frequency and intensity of SLT use. About 61% of all oral cancer cases in Bangladesh were attributable to SLT use. Among other oral cancer risk factors - bidi smoking, oral hygiene factors and leanness were associated with increased oral cancer risk. Conclusion: The findings of the present cross-sectional survey and hospital-based case-control study were comparable to existing literatures. Our evidence suggests that SLT use among rural Bangladeshi adolescent is low compared to other neighbouring countries. However, initiation of SLT at an early age is a public health concern. Lack of professional help to quit SLT and poor implementation of tobacco control laws were prevalent. Overall knowledge about SLT use and its ill effects was good, but misconceptions were prevalent. The case-control study demonstrated a significant increase of risk of oral cancer is associated with SLT use. Women had higher risk of developing oral cancer of SLT use than men. For men dual use of SLT and smoking was the major risk factor. Both BQ with and without tobacco was associated with oral cancer incidence. A large number of oral cancer cases in Bangladesh is preventable by tackling the SLT epidemic.
    • 'Social exclusion' and resistance: a study of gypsies and the non-governmental sector in Bulgaria 1989-1997

      Pinnock, Katherine (University of Wolverhampton, 1999)
      This thesis uses theories of social exclusion and resistance to investigate the survival strategies of Bulgarian Gypsies and their involvement within the non-gover=ental organisation (NGO) sector. It addresses the relevance of these theories to our understanding of social inequality in the light of findings that point not only towards new possibilities for resistance within the NGO sector, but also towards the reinforcement of structural inequality. The dialectic of compliance and resistance on the part of Gypsies within NGOs, as identified in the case study, opens up for fresh debate theories 'from below'. This in turn helps unravel some of the benefits and drawbacks of the NGO strategy at the national as well as international level as one for both integration and for political self-assertion. The implications these findings have for an understanding of the use of social exclusion theory and NGO strategies in policy design are argued to be fundamental. Theories of hidden resistance need to be considered in order to go beyond the restrictive view of 'social exclusion' as a condition characterised by 'isolation', 'backwardness' and/or 'deviancy'. The thesis argues therefore that social exclusion must be problematised and interrogated to a greater extent, both as a concept and as a generic tool for policy making. This is important in order that we do not lose sight of the structural causes of social inequality and perhaps most importantly, the question of responsibility.
    • Soil conditioner effects on soil erosion, soil structure and crop performance

      Brandsma, Richard Theodorus (University of Wolverhampton, 1997)
      Previous work has suggested that soil conditioners can provide environmentally beneficial aids to agriculture and soil conservation. To investigate this further, studies were carried out on soil conditioner effects on soil erosion, soil structure and crop performance. The main soil conditioner investigated was an anionic, hydrophilic conditioner based on ammoniurn-laureth-sulphate. Several objectives were established, in order to test the hypothesis that ammonium-laureth-sulphate can establish treatment effects by decreasing soil erosion and improving soil structure and crop performance. Subsequently, initial attempts were made to elucidate the mode of action. The field experiments were established on loamy sand soil (Bridgnorth series) at the Hilton Experimental Site, east Shropshire and on sandy silt loam soil (Salwick series) at the Plant and Environment Research Unit at Compton Park, Wolverhampton. The main soil conditioner applied was 'Agri-SC' at manufacturer recommended application rates and three other soil conditioners were used for some comparative studies. Following applications of ammonium-laureth-sulphate to bare and cropped plots, effects on the topsoil (0-5 cm) included significantly decreased bulk-densities, soil moisture contents and splash erosion and significantly increased soil porosity and infiltration rates. Other effects included decreased runoff and erosion rates from 100 slopes and penetrometer resistance and increased aggregate stability and drainage capacities. Responses in a winter wheat crop (cv. Beaver) included apparent suppressed seedling emergence, followed by apparent enhanced growth and development. Initial laboratory studies indicated conditioner treatment altered cation exchange capacities, mineral and elemental compositions and provided evidence for chemical interparticle bonds. ' The soil conditioner appeared to function through a mechanism involving several stages. Upon application, the charged polymer molecules were electrostatically attracted to clay or silt particles and their attached ions. It is postulated that ammonium ions could then replace Ca and possibly Mg and Na, causing the polymer molecules to adhere to soil particles. This might be associated with mineral deposition. The laureth polymer strings could thus bridge individual particles and increase internal aggregate stability. This mechanism may be relevant for further understanding of the mode of action of other hydrophilic, polymer-based soil conditioners.
    • Soil conservation in relation to maize productivity on sub-tropical red soils in Yunnan Province, China

      Fullen, Michael A.; Hocking, Trevor J.; Mitchell, David J.; Wu, Bozhi; Milne, Eleanor (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      Agricultural land in China is being degraded, with soil erosion becoming an increasing problem. In Yunnan Province, south-west China, there is a long history of soil erosion due to soil type, climate, anthropogenic influence and because 95% of the Province is mountainous. Population pressure and lack of flat land necessitate cultivation of steep slopes. The Yunnan Government prohibits cultivation of slopes >25°, however policy enforcement would result in food shortages in the Province, due to a lack of suitable land <25°. Therefore, the most appropriate way to curb soil erosion in Yunnan is to devise affordable agronomic means of reducing soil loss, which do not decrease crop productivity on sloping land currently under cultivation. At present, very little research has addressed these issues. A research project, building on existing work from 1993-1996, was initiated in 1998. The aim was to test the hypothesis that contour cultivation and contour cultivation plus straw mulch decrease runoff and soil erosion rates on sloping land in Yunnan Province under maize cultivation and to assess the impact of these conservation measures on maize productivity and soil nutrient status. Thirty runoff plots, located on three different slope angles (I 3°, II 10° and III 27°), in three groups of 10, were used to examine three cropping treatments in a replicated plot design in 1998 and 1999. Treatments were downslope cultivation (control), contour cultivation and contour cultivation plus straw mulch. In addition, there was an unreplicated bare plot in each group. Runoff and soil loss were measured on a storm-by-storm basis. Soil nutrient status was measured at the beginning and end of each cropping season. Crop growth parameters and soil physical properties were measured throughout the cropping seasons (21/05–7/10 in 1998 and 22/05–2/10 in 1999). In 1998, seasonal rainfall was 1024 mm, ~28% greater than the 30-year mean. Soil loss was significantly reduced by contour cultivation on Slopes I and II. On Slope I, downslope cultivation produced 3.07 t ha-1 soil loss and contour cultivation reduced this by 81.4 %. On Slope II, downslope cultivation produced 19.11 t ha-1 and contour cultivation reduced this by 58.0%. The addition of straw mulch gave a further, nonsignificant, reduction on both slopes. On Slope III, downslope cultivation and contour cultivation produced 6.92 and 6.29 t ha-1 of soil loss, respectively, with contour cultivation plus straw mulch having 99.4% less erosion than downslope cultivation. In the much drier 1999 season, no treatment significantly reduced soil loss on Slope I. Contour cultivation significantly reduced soil loss on Slopes II and III. On Slope II, downslope and contour cultivation produced 11.52 t ha-1 of soil loss and contour cultivation reduced this by 85.8%. On Slope III, downslope and contour cultivation produced 8.62 and 0.23 t ha-1, respectively; a reduction of 97.3% by contour cultivation. The addition of straw mulch did not further decrease soil loss. Treatment effects on soil nutrient status varied between the two years. At the end of the 1998 season, there was significantly higher soil available N under contour cultivation plus straw mulch on all three slopes (Slopes I and II P <0.001, Slope III P <0.05), an effect that was not found in 1999. At the end of the 1999 season, soil available K was significantly (P <0.001) higher under contour cultivation plus straw mulch on Slope III. In both years, contour cultivation plus straw mulch significantly reduced soil temperature. However, this did not result in yield reductions in comparison with the control. There was an increase in soil moisture content under contour cultivation plus straw mulch during dry periods, which was particularly noticeable in 1999. In 1998, there were no significant treatment effects on grain or shoot yield. In 1999, on Slope II, contour cultivation plus straw mulch significantly increased grain yield by 50.3% compared with the downslope treatment (P <0.05). In 1999, contour cultivation plus straw mulch also significantly increased leaf plus stem yield on Slopes I and II by 12.4 and 36.8%, respectively. It is concluded that on ≤10° slopes, contour cultivation alone is a suitable soil conservation measure. However, use of straw mulch would benefit soil moisture and nutrient status and could, therefore, increase crop yield. On ≥27° slopes, it is recommended that contour cultivation plus straw mulch be used as a soil conservation measure to ensure maximum soil conservation, even in extreme rainfall conditions.
    • ‘Soldier-Diplomat: a reassessment of Sir Henry Wilson’s influence on British Strategy in the last 18 months of the Great War’

      Spencer, John (2018)
      Sir Henry Wilson remains one of the most controversial British Army generals of the Great War. A colourful character in life, he attracted admirers and detractors in equal measure; in death, his reputation was ruined by a biography based on his personal diaries. The Wilson of the historiography is, at best, a politician rather than a soldier, at worst an ambitious Francophile intriguer. This thesis looks beyond this accepted characterisation, reassessing his role in the formation of British and Allied strategy in the final months of the war. Wilson attained influence, and subsequently power, when Lloyd George consulted him after failing to persuade Britain’s leading generals to change their strategic focus. The thesis re-examines Wilson’s policy critique, which led to the creation of the Supreme War Council, and negated plans for a major Allied offensive on the Western Front in 1918. This thesis aims to shine new light on Wilson’s work on the Council, with an analysis of its policy recommendations. The research will also explore the manpower crisis, the key issue for the entente in this period, and Wilson’s contribution to the establishment of Allied unity of command. The diplomatic skills Wilson deployed to defuse serious strains between the entente powers will be examined, with particular reference to his time as Chief of the Imperial General Staff. His contribution to the debate on Britain’s post-war imperial grand strategy will also be evaluated. The thesis will refute the long-established onedimensional view of Wilson and suggest that he played a more influential role in British strategic development than has hitherto been acknowledged.
    • “The sole purpose is for two people to come together and be”. A thematic analysis of the impact of therapist attachment on intersubjectivity when working with clients with complex trauma

      Slater, Chelsea; Mangiorou, Lamprini; Parker, Elizabeth; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
      The current study aimed to explore the significance of therapists’ attachment strategies on the intersubjective nature of the therapeutic relationship. Specifically, how important it is for therapists to have attachment security. Twelve therapists working with individuals with complex trauma were interviewed and ‘Codebook’ Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2020) was used to generate the following themes: Developing the therapeutic relationship; Impact of therapist attachment; Therapist motivation; Overcoming barriers. Key findings identified a distinction between the therapeutic alliance and a secure attachment. This was based on the relationship’s capacity to tolerate rupture which was impacted upon by the participant’s own attachment. The study also found that therapists’ own attachment strategies affect empathy towards clients, with the underlying process being related to identification, but where over-identification is unhelpful. Further, the study identified the way that therapists responded to client anger was related to their attachment strategies. Whilst avoidant / dismissive therapists were better able to contain client anger, this had the potential to impact upon attunement. Findings challenged the widely accepted view of the necessity for therapists to have a secure attachment, rather warmth and proximity elicited negative responses from some clients. An unexpected finding was therapists’ motivation which identified specifically the therapeutic relationship as meeting the attachment needs of the therapists. Findings reinforce the premises of counselling psychology for reflective functioning and recommend that therapists acknowledge their own attachment strategies and wounds. A better understanding into these processes may enhance the therapeutic relationship and improve treatment outcome.