• “I was good when I didn’t have it”: giving the ‘ADHD child’ a voice: An interpretative phenomenological analysis.

      Leyland, Stephanie (2016-07)
      Presently it is estimated that 6.4 million children aged 4-17 have been diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (McClain and Burks, 2015). To date there has been very little attention to ADHD as a lived experience (Singh, 2011), or even taking into consideration the children’s own views, wishes or feelings (Brady, 2014). This paper offers an overview of the theories and research previously conducted, as well as considering how interactions between individual predispositions and environmental surroundings have shaped how the children experience their diagnoses. There are two classification systems currently in situ to diagnose children experiencing emotional and behavioural difficulties; however this dual system further hinders diagnosing and results in a lack of consistency and substantial reliance upon professional judgment. Even though there is an abundance of multimodal and holistic approaches available for this population, there is still a heavy reliance upon pharmacological treatments without knowing the longterm effects of using such medications. This research offers further understanding of these children and new ways of working with their difficulties and therefore improving their emotional well-being and resilience for the future. Keywords: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Treatment and diagnosis; Lived experience; Cultural and contextual influences; Participation and voice
    • Iconographic Architecture as Signs and Symbols in Dubai

      Mushatat, Sabah; Seth, Harpreet (University of Wolverhampton, 2013-02)
      This study seeks to investigate the impact of architectural icons on the cities that they are built in, especially those in Dubai to understand the perceptions and associations of ordinary people with these icons, thus analysing their impact on the quality of life in the city. This is an important study with the advent of ‘iconism’ in architecture that has a growing acceptance and demand, wherein the status of a piece of architecture is predetermined as an icon by the media and not necessarily by the people. There is no denying that the fastest means of appearing on the world map is through icons, which Dubai evidently achieved, and there are many supporters of this phenomenon as a means of progress and development, the bonus being instant fame and status. But the symbolism employed in these icons, specifically for this part of the world, many argue may not be relevant to the people or the region, thus leading to a loss of identity and sense of belonging that is a vital component in the overall sense of pride. This study thus evaluates architecture as a service industry that is not only to satisfy the personal egos of the architects or the clients. It has an important role to leave a mark on the end users and not only on the glossy architectural journals. The study presents views on what really leaves a mark on the people’s memory, addressing the scale, the grandness, the location, the size, the technology and the materials that may or may not contribute to the iconic status of an architectural project from the people’s perspective. Further the study investigates if an icon is one that could be a forced landmark or it is one that people associate with, relate to and one that gives them the sense of belonging and pride, binding them together. The expressive iconic forms with the metaphors emerging, may or may not add to the quality of a place, create places of spaces or it may result in more of form accommodating functions.Thus it is imperative to understand that though today Dubai with its multiple icons that are jewels in the crown of Dubai, reflecting awe and splendor, what does this architecture do for the people and thus in leaving an imprint on the peoples mind collectively. The study analyzes the dimensions that make certain kind of architecture stand out. Some of these dimensions are physical and others are difficult to measure, thus it addresses the tangible and intangible factors that result in the icon and the associated symbolism with it. The relevance and meaning of these symbols will have to stand the test of time to leave an ever-lasting impression on generations to come. The literature review was the first part of the study and the theoretical studies were divided into three pivot areas in this thesis: evolution of architecture as signs and symbols, international iconic architecture and its impact, architecture as identity through symbolism. The study also focusses on Dubai as an emerging iconic city concentrating on the needs of people and impact of these icons on people specifically, further highlighting the issues of legibility, context and identity in Dubai. The empirical study examines this argument about iconic architecture through questionnaires and interviews. A comparison is drawn between different segments of people in the community, one set of samples being those who are closely associated with these icons through the process of decision making or building, the others who have very minimal knowledge and association with these icons. The findings thus indicate both the well-established criteria for awarding an iconic status and also the intangible often ignored aspects in iconic image building. Thus, the study suggests a paradigm that could provide more human based elements in the iconic architecture and the selected symbols in representing these icons. Certain recommendations supporting the perception of people towards icons, their needs and local considerations are further made to make cities more liveable and joyful for the people they are intended for.
    • Identification of Anti-Beta2 Glycoprotein I Auto-antibody Regulated Gene Targets in the Primary Antiphospholipid Syndrome Using Gene Microarray Analysis

      Frampton, G.; Murphy, John; Hamid, Colleen G. (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-10)
      Anti-Beta2-Glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-2GPI) are strongly associated with thrombosis in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS). Anti-2GPI activate endothelial cells (EC) resulting in a pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory phenotype. In order to characterise EC gene regulation in response to anti-2GPI, early global gene expression was assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in response to affinity purified anti-2GPI. Sera were collected from patients with PAPS and IgG was purified using HiTrap Protein G Sepharose columns. Polyclonal anti-2GPI were prepared by passing patient IgG through NHS activated sepharose coupled to human 2GPI. Anti-2GPI preparations were characterized by confirming their 2GPI co-factor dependence, binding to 2GPI and ability to induce leukocyte adhesion molecule expression and IL-8 production in vitro. Two microarray experiments tested differential global gene expression in 6 individual HUVEC donors in response to 5 different PAPS polyclonal anti-2GPI (50 mg/ml) compared to 5 normal control IgG (50 mg/ml) after 4 hours incubation . Total HUVEC RNA was extracted and cRNA was prepared and hybridised to Affymetrix HG-133A (Exp.1) and HG-133A_2 (Exp.2) gene chips. Data were analyzed using a combination of the MAS 5.0 (Affymetrix) and GeneSpring (Agilent) software programmes. Significant change in gene expression was defined as greater than two fold increase or decrease in expression (p<0.05). Novel genes not previously associated with PAPS were induced including chemokines CCL20, CXCL3, CX3CL1, CXCL5, CXCL2 and CXCL1, the receptors Tenascin C, OLR1, IL-18 receptor 1 and growth factors, CSF2, CSF3, IL-6, IL1 and FGF18. Downregulated genes were transcription factors/signaling molecules including ID2. Microarray results were confirmed for selected genes (CSF3, CX3CL1, FGF18, ID2, SOD2, Tenascin C) using quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. This study revealed a complex anti-2GPI-regulated gene expression profile in HUVEC in vitro. The novel chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines identified in this study may contribute to the vasculopathy associated with PAPS.
    • Identification of epigenetically dysregulated genes in tumours that metastasise to the brain

      Pangeni, Rajendra Prasad (2015)
      Tumour metastasis to the brain is a common and deadly development in certain cancers; 18-30% of breast tumours metastasise to the brain. The contribution that gene silencing through epigenetic mechanisms plays in metastasis to the brain is not well understood. To identify epigenetic drivers of brain metastasis, a combined candidate gene screen using literature review, bioinformatics analysis of 450K methylation data of primary breast tumours from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Genome-wide methylation analysis of metastatic brain tumors that originated from primary breast tumours were carried out. A candidate gene approach identified two genes (BNC1 and CCDC8) dysregulated in breast to brain metastases (BBM) from a screen of 78 genes. Similarly, bioinformatic analyses of TCGA data identified GALNT9 and an independent comparison of genomewide methylation profiles in brain metastases identified 7 genes including non-coding RNA genes dysregulated in BBM. Taken together, these 10 genes identified are metastatic suppressor or promoter genes, which include novel regulatory elements noncoding RNA (ncRNAs) genes such as microRNAs, long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) or non-protein coding genes such as pseudogenes derived from their parental gene. Methylation analyses in BBM and their associated primary tumours from individual patients have revealed that identified genes are dysregulated either early or late in tumour evolution due to aberration in DNA methylation. In addition, methylation status of these genes in BBM correlates to serum DNA methylation in individual patients, which suggests that these genes could be used as a panel of prognostic markers or as therapeutic targets for BBM.
    • Identification of factors associated with and preventative strategies in diabetic nephropathy

      McLelland, Elizabeth Victoria (University of Wolverhampton, 1999)
      The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with and assess the efficacy of preventative strategies in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy from data collected at nephrological out-patient follow-up visits. A study of mortality, over a ten year period, in 1,421 diabetic and 26,990 non-diabetic people in Wolverhampton identified cardiovascular disease as the predominant cause of death in both groups, with female diabetic patients having an increased risk of dying from cardiovascular disease in comparison to male diabetic and female non-diabetic people. Diabetic nephropathy accounted for 4% of deaths in diabetic people. From 220 patients referred for nephrological assessment, diabetic nephropathy was diagnosed in 149. Comparison of nephropathy patents with control subjects, without nephropathy, and people with non-diabetic renal disease identified poor glycaemic control, hypertension, smoking history and defaulting from clinic visits as factors associated with nephropathy. The onset of nephropathy, retinopathy and hypertension, from diagnosis of diabetes, appeared to be accelerated in Type 2 patients, especially in Indo-Asian people. Assessment of the efficacy of preventative treatment strategies was made by determining survival in 141 nephropathy patients over eleven years. Sevenyear survival was better in a subgroup of patients with serum creatinine levels within normal limits at nephrological assessment in comparison to the main group. Five year survival of patents on renal replacement therapy was better than observed in other studies. Un6ontrolled hypertension, which was a hazard to survival, was common, and in many patients was untreated. Initial reduction of blood pressure after nephrological referral was not sustained in the majority of patients. Black patients had the worst hypertension control. The inability to speak English contributed to defaulting from routine clinic visits, was a risk for developing nephropathy and was a specific hazard for survival in Indo-Asian patents, especially in men, as was current cigarette smoking in Black patients.
    • Identifying the Invisible Impact of Scholarly Publications: A Multi-Disciplinary Analysis Using Altmetrics

      Mohammadi, Ehsan (2018)
      The field of ‘altmetrics’ is concerned with alternative metrics for the impact of research publications using social web data. Empirical studies are needed, however, to assess the validity of altmetrics from different perspectives. This thesis partly fills this gap by exploring the suitability and reliability of two altmetrics resources: Mendeley, a social reference manager website, and Faculty of F1000 (F1000), a post- publishing peer review platform. This thesis explores the correlations between the new metrics and citations at the level of articles for several disciplines and investigates the contexts in which the new metrics can be useful for research evaluation across different fields. Low and medium correlations were found between Mendeley readership counts and citations for Social Sciences, Humanities, Medicine, Physics, Chemistry and Engineering articles from the Web of Science (WoS), suggesting that Mendeley data may reflect different aspects of research impact. A comparison between information flows based on Mendeley bookmarking data and cross-disciplinary citation analysis for social sciences and humanities disciplines revealed substantial similarities and some differences. This suggests that Mendeley readership data could be used to help identify knowledge transfer between scientific disciplines, especially for people that read but do not author articles, as well as providing evidence of impact at an earlier stage than is possible with citation counts. The majority of Mendeley readers for Clinical Medicine, Engineering and Technology, Social Science, Physics and Chemistry papers were PhD students and postdocs. The highest correlations between citations and Mendeley readership counts were for types of Mendeley users that often authored academic papers, suggesting that academics bookmark papers in Mendeley for reasons related to scientific publishing. In order to identify the extent to which Mendeley bookmarking counts reflect readership and to establish the motivations for bookmarking scientific papers in Mendeley, a large-scale survey found that 83% of Mendeley users read more than half of the papers in their personal libraries. The main reasons for bookmarking papers were citing in future publications, using in professional activities, citing in a thesis, and using in teaching and assignments. Thus, Mendeley bookmarking counts can potentially indicate the readership impact of research papers that have educational value for non-author users inside academia or the impact of research papers on practice for readers outside academia. This thesis also examines the relationship between article types (i.e., “New Finding”, “Confirmation”, “Clinical Trial”, “Technical Advance”, “Changes to Clinical Practice”, “Review”, “Refutation”, “Novel Drug Target”), citation counts and F1000 article factors (FFa). In seven out of nine cases, there were no significant differences between article types in terms of rankings based on citation counts and the F1000 Article Factor (FFa) scores. Nevertheless, citation counts and FFa scores were significantly different for articles tagged: “New finding” or “Changes to Clinical Practice”. This means that F1000 could be used in research evaluation exercises when the importance of practical findings needs to be recognised. Furthermore, since the majority of the studied articles were reviewed in their year of publication, F1000 could also be useful for quick evaluations.
    • Identities and perceptions: gender, generation and ethnicity in the Italian Quarter, Birmingham, c1891-1938

      Volante, Carol (University of Wolverhampton, 2001)
      The study of immigrant communities in Britain has been among the most recent topics to be researched since the radical changes in historical interests and methodology in the late 1960s. However, embarking on a research project such as this, which examines social and economic aspects of Italians who lived in Birmingham during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, has emphasised the extent of neglect of the whole subject of the history of European immigration in Britain. The exclusion of these people from Britain! s history is not the consequence of lack of opportunity, for numerous social and economic histories have been written in which European immigrants might have been included. Yet few historians- have chosen to do so. Instead, the ethnic population and its contributions to the development of Britain have been only fleetingly acknowledged. Their marginalisation from British mainstream history is difficult to understand, yet it could be justified on the grounds that the ethnic community is, and has always been, a comparatively small proportion of Britain' s total population. Even so, if this is the reason it becomes difficult to square with the violent and passionate reactions their presence has evoked for at least the past one hundred years.
    • Identity and Pedagogy in a University Context: A study of student experiences and critique in the work of anti-racism in education

      Joyce Canaan; Housee, Shirin (University of Wolverhampton, 2012)
      A considerable amount of work has been written on race and education in the British context since the 1960s. This work has largely focused on policy issues, curriculum development and teacher training. This work has been important largely for developments in multicultural education in the school context. In Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), the teaching of race related modules and courses have flourished since the 1980s (Jacobs 2006). This interest, however, has not translated into work on praxis, that is, anti-racist teaching practices that aim to improve the situation that students and teachers face when challenging racism. This PhD study by publication begins to redress this by exploring student experiences and classroom dialogue. It adopts an interpretist methodological perspective and uses participant observation and interview methods. The observations and interviews are drawn from my classroom teaching, specifically, my modules dealing centrally with race and racism. Most of the writing around race and HEIs focuses on institutional matters rather than those that seek to enable praxis. The original contribution to knowledge advanced in this critical commentary and my published works submitted here is that it underlines the importance of anti-racism as it emerges organically within classroom engagement and exchange. Anti-racist practice, I claim, becomes fundamental to the learning process, where student experiences are first considered within the teaching process. This study focuses on students' learning experiences as found in my second and third level modules on the Sociology degree on which I teach at Wolverhampton University. My publications examine students' perspectives on racism as they arise in class. They explore student identities as they are experienced and classroom interaction. In this endeavour, I focus on the ways that Critical 5 Theory and Feminism and Critical Pedagogy can challenge students' prior perspectives on their identities and those of others. This work seeks to add to analyses of the ways that racism currently operates and could be challenged in HEIs. It argues that it can be challenged through more fully developing anti-racist educational practices that must engage with debates about ethnicity and identity in education, as discussed in Section One. This is because students’ lived experiences are core to an understanding of how racism impacts on students' lives. This commentary advances the argument that anti-racist debates in HEIs that organically evolve from classroom teaching and learning are paramount to the work of anti-racist education in HEi, because lived experience is seen to be powerful material that can counter mainstream discourse on racism. What is distinctive about my model of anti-racist teaching and learning practices is my anti-racist practice. This informs my academic work with students and encourages them to reconsider their thinking in classroom teaching and learning. The use of Critical Race Theory and Feminist theoretical and methodological approaches and Critical Pedagogy is central to my anti-racist teaching practices in HEis.
    • The impact of food consumption patterns on identity: the case of Zimbabwean inbetweeners living in the UK

      Magede, Thomas (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      This study explores the concept of identity construction through food as exhibited by Zimbabwean inbetweener migrants in the UK. Literature was explored in relation to national identity, migration, consumer culture theory, consumer acculturation, diaspora theory, memory and nostalgia and food consumption and identity. The study used a qualitative research approach to address the issues under investigation. Interviews were used to collect data based on the understanding that food patterns and identity construction are context driven. The findings indicate that the food experiences of the Zimbabwean inbetweeners were specific to this group. Their food consumption patterns were found to be multi-dimensional. The thesis brings to the fore too, the dynamism of identity and food consumption practices. The food acculturation practices of the Zimbabwean inbetweener migrants showed three consumer acculturation strategies - rejection, adaptation and separation. These were chosen in response to the various challenges and environmental influences they had encountered as they settled in the UK. In the construction of a national identity in the UK, access to Zimbabwean foods, economic independence, the importance of family and the structured nature of British schools influenced how identity was expressed and constructed. The findings showed that food is a tool that the respondents used to contruct their identity, to develop and maintain relationships with family, friends, communities and general diasporan relationships. The respondents also indicated the importance of eating out and the tensions they experienced in different restaurants that presented themselves as ‘authentic’. Various contested identities were formed depending on the ‘authenticity’ strategy adopted in the ethnic restaurants. These ‘authenticity’ strategies focussed on purity, hybridity, concreteness and abstract. The study contributes to consumer culture theory by engaging in the study of migrant food consumption practices; and to understand how a migrant group, can relate to the operation and marketing of ethnic restaurants in the diaspora.
    • The impact of implementing heritage elements in contemporary buildings in the United Arab Emirates

      Arif, Mohammed; Al Qasimi, Shaikha Khuloud Humaid (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-02)
      Due to the rapid growth and development which occurred during the last century the United Arab Emirates witnessed dramatic changes after oil discovery and the economic boom. This affected the building and construction sector that formed the urban fabric of the country. The four fundamental architectural heritage elements of the UAE are the mashrabiya, the wind tower, the courtyard and the broken entrance, these essential architectural heritage elements were efficiently implemented in traditional buildings. In the context of the contemporary; preservation challenges are experienced particularly when foreign architectural design is seen to be increasing dominating the cityscape and the architectural heritage elements are being misused neglecting their functionalities. This research aims to analyze and compare the efficiency of architectural heritage elements in the contemporary buildings and seeks to gather thorough rationale and logical interpretation in heritage elements. In order to investigate these four architectural heritage elements further, ‘case study ‘methodology has been used to inspect the performance of four local contemporary buildings and a comparison technique ( Comparative Analysis ) was conducted to better understand the outcomes of the analysis. The case study research is being preferable as a strategy due to the exploratory nature of the research and it essentially responds to research questions that seek explanation rather than experimentation. This research diverse from the usual traditional and contemporary comparison of heritage elements and focuses on comparing their reliability and functionality when addressed in contemporary buildings. It asserts that preservation must be in mind as a pre-requisite towards interpretation of heritage elements and ensures that currently more advanced technologies can be fully exploited to embrace traditional elements to achieve development requirements.
    • The impact of mental ill health on medication adherence level in patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Bibi, Nasreem; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
      Background: In the UK, 4.9 million people have type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), costing the NHS £10 billion annually. One in six-people (17.0%) in England has experienced depression or anxiety in the past 12 months. T2DM is managed by pharmacological therapy and lifestyle adjustment. The aim of this study was to explore if there is a relationship between depression, anxiety and poor medication adherence in patients diagnosed with T2DM. Method: A pilot, single-site, observational study of patients with T2DM (n=64) randomly assigned into group A (3-consultations) or group B (2-consultations). All initial consultations were in-person, while follow-ups were by telephone. Participants were screened; for medication adherence using MMAS-8©; for depression using CUDOS© and anxiety with CUXOS©, and the findings were managed appropriately. The measurable outcomes were changes in HbA1c, BP, medication-adherence, depression, anxiety and self-reported wellbeing. Thematic and comparative analysis was conducted by groups and demographic variables using paired sample t-test and statistical regression. Results: Adherence to diabetes medications improved for both groups (intentional: p = 0.15 and unintentional, p =0.01). Similarly, adherence to all other chronic diseases medications means were improved for both groups (intentional, p = 0.32 and unintentional, p = 0.02). The depression, anxiety and well-being means were also improved (p = 0.01 and p = 0.04 p = <0.01 respectively). HbA1c results did not show statistical significance (p = 0.77). BP readings were unchanged but remained in the recommended range for both groups, under 130/82 mmHg. Based on the manual thematic coding, there were three possible phenomenon (high self-care efficacy and favourable disease prognosis [F= 7 & M=4], high self-care efficacy and poor disease prognosis [F= 15 & M=11] and poor self-care efficacy and poor disease prognosis[F= 12 & M=11]) and one phenomenon was not proven due to the small sample size and possible patients self-reporting bias (poor self-care efficacy and favourable disease prognosis [F= 1 & M=3]). Conclusions: A significant inter-relationship was found between depression and/or anxiety, adherence to therapy and T2DM prognosis. More frequent interventions were advantageous. Two prototype T2DM management algorithms; generic and tailored to patients from Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds were created. These were adopted in the study site and were provided to the HRA in the final ethics report for NHS use in the wider primary care. Other ethnicities and chronic conditions could be similarly investigated.
    • The impact of natural and synthetic zeolite when used in cementitious based systems

      Williams, Craig; Hodgkiss, Conner; School of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-11)
      The production of Portland cement, the most commonly used binding material in the construction and maintenance industry, is one of the principle carbon dioxide emission contributors. Indeed, up to 85% of the cement quantity produced is discharged into the atmosphere. As a result, efforts are being made to introduce new and advanced alternative construction materials to combat this adversity. Despite the recent introduction of new advanced materials such as polymer rubbers and alternative mineral sands, the overall percentage emission of carbon dioxide has not decreased. Improvement of cement mortar characteristics and the reduction of carbon emissions is of keen interest to researchers and industry experts in the field of construction materials engineering. Interestingly in the literature, zeolite minerals have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide and thus aid in reducing the concentration levels present in the atmosphere. Zeolites are very stable solids that are resistant to environmental conditions that challenge many other materials. They possess high melting points and can exhibit resistance to temperatures exceeding 1000°C. They can also resist high pressure, do not dissolve in water or inorganic solvents and their unreactive nature means that they exhibit no harmful environmental impacts. I believe that this makes them an ideal investigative compound to consider in terms of being adopted as a cement replacement in construction material. Zeolites have been used as a supplementary cementitious material in the construction industry and both natural and synthetic zeolites have shown interesting properties as mineral additions, notably increased compressive strength, resistance to sulphate attack and favourable leaching properties. However, there has been minimal research carried out on synthetic zeolites in this area in contrast to the abundance of natural zeolite study and notably research considering using zeolites as replacements for rather than in addition to cement. In this research programme, synthetic and natural zeolites were used to partially replace cement in mortar samples. Synthetic zeolites 3A, 4A and 13X were used to replace 5, 10 and 15% of the total cement mass in the mortar specimens with chabazite, mordenite, natrolite and philipsite chosen as a selection of natural zeolites. Ordinary Portland cement was used with a water-cement ratio of 0.40 and a sand-cement ratio of 1:3. All specimens were water-cured at 20°C before a suite of laboratory tests were performed, comprising of; specific gravity, ultrasonic pulse velocity, compressive strength testing, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. All test results were determined at ages of two, seven, twenty-eight and seventy curing days. The research study demonstrated that mortar samples produced with zeolite incorporation as a replacement of cement demonstrated comparatively good engineering and chemical compositional properties when compared to control mixes. Encouraging data was recorded namely for the utilisation of mordenite and philipsite zeolite types, in that the zeolites demonstrated increased compressive strength in comparison to the control mortar as well as having decreased density and increased compactness. Notably, mordenite and philipsite can be utilised as a way of decreasing the cement content needed in a given mortar mix, indeed replacement of cement at 10 and 15% both produced increased compressive strength recordings when compared to both the control and synthetic zeolite incorporated samples.
    • The impact of performance-related pay on employees’ performance: case studies of Omani public and private sector organisations

      Seifert, Roger; Al Rashdi, Mohammed (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-03)
      Performance-related pay (PRP) has witnessed growing interest over the past two decades in Oman, alongside increasing attention to human resource management (HRM) practices. However, despite its continued adoption in various cultural contexts, gaps in its effectiveness remain the subject of widespread controversy. Consequently, this thesis is an attempt to examine the impact of PRP on various Omani public and private sector organisations in the form of four case studies. Three of these are on companies in the private sector which form the backbone of the Omani economy and one on a public sector organisation. The study gap lies in both the lack of studies on PRP in the public and private sectors in Oman, and the few numbers of studies in the pay literature in general in the region. The original contribution being made in this thesis lies in the attempt to bridge the research gap by viewing PRP systems through several lenses: from theoretical framework, managers, employees, contextual and documents (document analysis) perspectives. The different characteristics of the included organisations and the relevant findings can also be considered as an enhancement element of the originality and contribution of the thesis. However, with respect to the reservations of the participating organisations and to preserve their anonymity and confidentiality, they will be referred as Organisation A, B, C and D. Organisation A is a distinguished global organisation operating in Oman, while Organisation (B) is a local organisation working in the private sector. Organisation (C) is characterised by being a wholly-owned government organisation that operates in the private sector, and finally, Organisation (D) is a government entity operating in the civil service. Three research questions were formulated to provide a basis for the thesis structure. Accordingly, the mixed-method approach was adopted as a data collection strategy. The primary approach was face-to-face interviews with middle managers, while survey questionnaires were used with employees to measure their attitudes. In addition, document analysis was used to diversify the data sources and to increase confidence in the results. The thesis examination is based on a comparison of findings from multiple perspectives; for example, from those of middle managers, employees, document analysis, and the theoretical framework of the most important theories underlying PRP. These perspectives were then considered in the light of the literature review to determine the effectiveness of PRP in each organisation. The findings reveal that PRP in Organisations A and B was effective and achieved its goals. The reasons for this can be attributed to the methodological approach adopted in the implementation and operation of the PRP system, which were consistent with the strongest theories underlying the system, such as the agency theory, expectation theory and goal-setting theory, in addition to the systematic activation of the role of HRM and the effective development and preparation of middle managers. On the other hand, the findings related to Organisations C and D show that they do not appear to have achieved the sufficient objectives of PRP. Although the results were somewhat mixed, they revolved around the issues of fairness, favouritism, bureaucracy and the role of HRM.
    • The impact of socioemotional wealth on the relationships between entrepreneurial orientation and debt financing of family businesses: empirical evidence from Nigeria

      Wang, Yong; Mahmood, Samia; Jaiyeola, Afusat; Management Research Centre, University of Wolverhampton Business School, Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-08)
      Family businesses play an important role in economic development and income growth. However, increasing business competition has placed family businesses in a volatile position due to their limited resources. Undoubtedly, the family business’s success in responding to the challenge of the business environment depends on their strategy for engaging in entrepreneurial behaviours and the availability of debt financing to family businesses. Understanding the factors that influence debt financing, therefore, becomes important. In exploring the factors that influence debt financing, prior studies investigate the effects of entrepreneurial orientation and socioemotional wealth (SEW) in isolation from each other. Moreover, literature on the effect of SEW on debt financing shows mixed conclusions. The current study, by considering SEW as the kernel, firstly examines the influence of entrepreneurial orientation on debt financing. Secondly, it examines the impact of SEW on the relationships between entrepreneurial orientation and debt financing. To avoid bias from utilising one particular research method, this study purposely employed an explanatory sequential triangulation strategy. This was intended for model testing and an in-depth understanding of the research issues in the Nigerian context. Primary data were collected from Nigeria via a quantitative survey and qualitative interviews. Adopting a purposive sampling and snowball sampling method, a total of 500 self-administered questionnaires were sent out in August 2019 to family businesses to collect primary data. Out of the number sent, 405 useful responses were gathered for the quantitative study generating a response rate of 81%. For the qualitative study, 10 interviews were conducted with family businesses. A hierarchical regression analysis was applied in assessing the impact of SEW on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and the debt financing of family businesses. Research results suggest that, firstly, entrepreneurial orientation influences the debt financing of family businesses. More importantly, SEW has a significant moderating impact on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and debt financing. The study contributes to the literature in three major areas. Firstly, against the backdrop of mixed conclusions in prior research about the effect of SEW on debt financing this study finds that the effect of SEW could be examined along with the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation. Specifically, it establishes that SEW moderates the effects of the EO dimensions on debt financing of family businesses i.e., the antecedents of debt financing. This helps clarify the role of SEW. Secondly, unlike prior studies and models that examine the influence of entrepreneurial orientation and SEW in isolation from each other, this study develops and validates a model to examine how these factors jointly shape debt financing. Specifically, the model shows that entrepreneurial orientation influences debt financing but also SEW would intensify the influence of entrepreneurial orientation on company debt financing. Lastly, even though family businesses are the dominant form of organisation in the world and are the prime source of wealth creation and employment for both developed and emerging economies, it has received insufficient research attention in Nigeria. This study has, therefore, added to the scanty research available about family businesses and their contribution to poverty alleviation, employment generations, and sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. On the whole, the study makes a theoretical and methodological contribution to the study of debt financing of family businesses.
    • The impact of sustainability committee characteristics on corporate sustainability performance: Evidence from the FTSE 150 non-financial companies

      Yamak, Sibel; Korzhenitskaya, Anna; Rahimi, Roya; ABDULLAH, ASO; University of Wolverhampton Business School, Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-06)
      Following considerable business and academic interest in sustainability over the last two decades, this study’s aim was to extend previous research by examining through the lens of stakeholder theory, Resource Dependence Theory (RDT) and legitimacy theory: through (1) the impact of sustainability committee characteristics (SCC) on Corporate Sustainability Performance (CSP) and (2) any significant differences between findings when focused and non-focused sustainability committees are compared. This thesis applied positivist methodology and adopted fixed effects regression models on a sample of 112 non-financial companies from FTSE 150 for the period 2010-2018. Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) data was gathered from the Refinitiv database along with data on sustainability committee characteristics collected from Fame database, companies’ annual reports and London Stock Exchange (LSE). The main findings show a positive and significant relationship between organisational factors including firm size, profitability and firm age with Environmental and ESG scores. There is also a positive and significant association between frequency of committee meeting and age diversity with Governance scores only. The empirical finding shows these positively significant relationships under the presence of focused and non-focused committees equally. Additionally, the results show that only social and governance sustainability performance significantly improved from 2016 following the Paris Agreement of 2015 and the publication of the 2030 SDGs. Furthermore, the findings revealed the frequency of committee meetings is negatively and statistically significantly related to the Environmental dimension. The finding shows that firms focused/non-focused committees with greater independent members tend to have a statistically negative relationship to Governance Sustainability Performance. Importantly this research study also provides empirical evidence of the insignificant relationship of independent variables on the sub-dimension of Social Performance, thus, this finding supports the argument that firms act by greenwashing. This study has evidenced that no single theory provides a rationale for how SCCs influence CSP and its conclusions include suggestions for academics as well as businesses in terms of ongoing development and research.
    • Impacts of selected leguminous tree species and kaolinite pre-amendment on oil-contaminated soil for bioremediation in the oil-bearing region of Nigeria

      Oyedeji, Ayodele A. (2016-03)
      iii ABSTRACT This study investigates the impacts of selected Leguminous Tree Species (LTS) and kaolinite pre-amendment on oil-contaminated soil. It covered assessment of different levels of contamination (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ml in 4000 g soil; which represents the degree of light crude oil spillage concentration as 0.0, 0.63, 1.25, 1.88 and 2.5 %v/w) on the growth performance of Albizia adianthifolia, Albizia odoratissima, Bauhinia monandra, Delonix regia, Peltophorum pterocarpum and Tetrapleura tetraptera LTS investigated. Percentage germination, seedling height, seedling girth, number of leaves and number of nodules decreased as the concentrations of crude oil in soil samples increased. LTS affected soil physicochemical properties. Soil acidity decreased; soil organic matter, carbon content and exchangeable ions increased. N, P and K were altered in the LTS planted soil as compared to controls, but there were no significant (P >0.05) differences. There were increased microbial counts in the crude oil-contaminated soil planted with LTS as compared with non-LTS planted soils. Hydrocarbon removal was significantly higher (P <0.05, n = 3) in LTS planted soil than in non-planted soil. D. regia planted soils had most hydrocarbon removal and had significantly more growth in terms of plant height, girth and leaf production in the field. Kaolinite (10 and 20 g samples) applications were suitable and effective sorbent agents for oil-contamination at the different oil concentrations. The sorption potential of kaolinite increased with the increase in kaolinite to 20 g. The potential re-usability of kaolinite after the initial use for oil sorption was analysed and 10 g of burnt kaolinite sorbed 43.62%, while 20 g sorbed 58.90%. The rate of oil sorption by fresh kaolinite was significantly higher than burnt kaolinite. Results show the considerable potential of phytoremediation protocols with LTS and kaolinite as combined remediating agents for oil spill remediation in the humid tropics.
    • Implementation of building information modelling in the Dominican Republic construction industry

      Suresh, Subashini; Silverio Rodriguez, Ana Karina (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-05)
      The Dominican Republic (D.R.) is a Caribbean nation whose construction industry is key in the economic growth and development of the country; however, the productivity of the sector is being affected by inefficient traditional practices. The increased use and proven benefits of Building Information Modelling worldwide suggest that its implementation could be of great help in decreasing current issues in the Dominican construction industry. Nonetheless, there is no empirical work that sets the scene of the implementation of BIM in the country to make suggestions for its implementation. Therefore, this research aimed to bridge this gap by investigating the status of BIM in the D.R. and developing a framework to facilitate its implementation. For this purpose, a review of literature on BIM and emerging concepts, processes and technologies was undertaken. Furthermore, the initiatives and key players of BIM implementation worldwide were studied, which allowed the identification of the critical enabling factors for country-wide BIM implementation. A qualitative approach was adopted to carry out this research. The qualitative inquiry involved semi-structured interviews and was divided into two phases: the preliminary and the main study. In the preliminary study, eleven interviews were conducted with construction organisations to appraise and document BIM awareness and BIM implementation in the Dominican construction industry. In the main study, twenty-eight interviews directed to construction organisations were conducted to attain the same objective. This phase of the study also included interviews directed to professionals involved with the diffusion of BIM knowledge to explore and document the presence of BIM Education in the country, from which eight interviews were carried out. The data was analysed with the method of content analysis. The research concluded that the Dominican Republic is a BIM infant country. Most organisations are not implementing BIM, and current BIM approaches are mainly single-disciplinary, principally in Architecture. Implementation strategies are incomplete, primarily focusing on the provision of training to selected staff. Drivers to implement BIM in the country include BIM benefits, competitive advantage and pressure from external partners. Hitherto, there is only BIM training and different modes of dissemination of BIM knowledge in the country. Nonetheless, efforts to integrate BIM into university curricula were identified. Challenges hindering the implementation of BIM in the country were explored, and initiatives to propel the implementation were proposed. A framework for implementing BIM in the Dominican construction industry was developed and validated to confirm its suitability for the Dominican construction industry. Recommendations for industry practitioners, government, and academics have been put forward. This research contributes to the body of knowledge in the area of country-wide BIM implementation, BIM education, and the implementation of BIM at an organisational level.
    • Implementation of smart devices in the construction industry

      Renukappa, Suresh; Silverio Fernández, Manuel Alexander (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-10)
      The construction industry has a fragmented nature, which accounts for the highest degree of decentralisation of information and the highest mobile content access. The exchange of information made possible by smart devices. This creates an opportunity to enhance productivity and communication among stakeholders of the construction industry. Firstly, this thesis explored the concept of smart devices. Secondly, the drivers, challenges and Critical Success Factors for implementing smart devices were investigated. This study adopted a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews. A total of Thirty-nine interviewees which includes professionals from the construction sector of the Dominican Republic (DR) and the United Kingdom (UK) were interviewed. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the collected data. The drivers for the adoption of smart devices were grouped into internal and external drivers. The challenges found in the interviews were grouped into three categories, namely, economic, cultural and technological. The Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for implementing smart devices in the construction industry are leadership, training and development, organisational culture, technology awareness, cost, company size and usability. These findings were used to develop a strategic framework which has two sub-frameworks. This study concluded that a specific culture must be adopted on behalf of the government and construction companies to successfully adopt smart devices. Furthermore, this investigation found various similarities and differences regarding the drivers, challenges and CSFs for implementing smart devices in the UK and the DR. This study recommends integrating smart devices in data collection techniques in academia. Also, for construction companies to embrace technological innovation it is recommended to be willing to start new ventures, to be open to the participation of all members of the company, and be creative and client-oriented.
    • Improving Capabilities and Strategic Fit in Governmental Agencies

      Alshebli, Abdulla (2016-03)
      The notion of Strategic Fit has been and remains to be one of the most important arguements in the fields of business strategy and strategic management. This research study examines the key concept of ‘strategic fit’ and its associated theories and seeks to investigate the causes that have created ‘strategic drift’ in Abu Dhabi’s governmental agencies in the infrastructure sector with the aim of improving their performance. However, for organisations, public or private, it still remains to be the most important notion and one that cannot be ignored because it is about the success of the organisation in its external environment where all competitive activity takes place. Thus, there are many underlying factors such as organisational culture, structure and organisational history that impact, or influence, the level of fit that organisations achieve. Therefore it is imperative that research is further undertaken on a deeper and wider level to fully understand the concept and importance of strategic fit and how it can be achieved. Hence, a research study in this area, especially in developing cities such as Abu Dhabi, is well justified and needed. The lack of strategic fit that has been witnessed in the Abu Dhabi’s infrastructure sector over the past few years continues to be, and it is a clear indication of a developing mismatch between the government and its policies and the agencies that implement them. However, this is clearly a major issue for the government going forward, if polices are developed with no clear understanding of the available resources and capabilities. Similarly, the study also seeks to determine why a strategic fit has not been achievable by the Abu Dhabi government. Though the government has developed policies to better serve its people, it continuously faces issues of policies not being implemented, or being implemented too late and targets not been met according to the original brief. It has been identified that there are numerous deficiencies between the various government agencies in the infrastructure sector in terms of keeping pace with governmental policies - consequently, resulting in strategic gaps with an increasing possibility of a possible strategic drift, if these issues are not addressed effectively and in a timely manner.The study further wishes to explore if strategic gaps have occurred as a result of inherent cultural, historical, political and/or structural aspects of the Abu Dhabi government and its numerous agencies – simply because these issues can be seen as preventative to change and progress which, in turn, can lead to strategic gaps and strategic drift in the long term. The research paradigm selected for this research study is that of the pragmatist approach and subsequently the key methodology employed throughout this research is that of the mixed methods. That mixed methods research is an intellectual and practical synthesis based on qualitative and quantitative research. Also, This research provides a summary of the important findings, proved hypotheses, achieved aim and objectives, and significant contribution to the knowledge of strategic management through the development of the “Community Innovation Scheme”, the “3-Spectrums of Change”, the “4Ms Change Model”; and the resulting framework model; the “Government Strategy Model”.
    • Improving Construction Processes in Nigeria using the Last Planner System

      Suresh, Subashini; Ahiakwo, Ograbe (2015-02-09)
      This thesis describes a research investigation into the implementation of the Last Planner System (LPS) in Nigeria, to improve construction processes within the Nigerian construction industry. LPS is known to be the most developed practical use of Lean Construction. It focuses on minimising the negative impacts of variability, uncertainties, buffers, making projects more predictable, creating reliable work plans and convalescing collaborative planning. However, the Nigerian construction industry is associated with a number of challenges which impair its performance. These challenges were grouped and classified into six major barriers: these include: supervision and quality control, fluctuation and variations, subcontractor involvement, resistance to change, cultural issues, and lengthy approvals. Consequently, a Design Science Research (DSR) approach is adopted to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing LPS in construction projects in Nigeria. In order to achieve this aim, an Action Research strategy is adopted and three case studies are reported; two of these cases describe how LPS was successfully implemented in construction projects within Nigeria. While the third case involved an investigation into the state of production plan reliability, of a successful project in Nigeria. These projects were selected based on non-probabilistic sampling from different geographical locations in Nigeria to represent different kinds of construction projects within the country. The first and second cases involved the implementation of LPS within the construction of a prototype student’s hostel and the construction a 4 Kilometre single carriageway road respectively. The third on the other hand involved the construction of a multipurpose hydro-power dam project; where comparisons were made between typical LPS projects and the project management techniques applied within the project. Data was collected through observation site activities, interviews, documentary analysis and questionnaire survey. The data generated was subsequently analysed by means of content analysis and evaluated in terms of its reliability, validity, representativeness, flexibility, rigour and reflexivity. In view of the LPS implementation within the two case studies, six barriers were identified and classified together with the six barriers associated with the Nigerian Construction industry. These barriers were linked, measured and ranked in averages of their degrees of occurrences. It was revealed that the major barriers were cultural issues and resistance to change, while the others include; lengthy approval, subcontractor’s involvement, poor supervision and quality, fluctuations and variations. Hence, a framework was developed to mitigate these barriers, when implementing LPS in construction projects in Nigeria. The main steps of the framework include: the need to identify purpose; the need to identify stakeholders impact; the need to obtain Sponsorship; the need to build a cross functional team; the need to create measurement indices; the need for training on Lean techniques and LPS; and finally the need to create a right working climate. Furthermore a focus group between construction practitioners was organised to test and evaluate the framework developed. It was revealed from the focus group that the framework has the potential to facilitate the implementation process as proposed.