• Gender issues in the development of rural areas in Kazakstan

      Shreeves, Rosamund (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      The research on which this thesis is based investigated the significance of gender in the agrarian reform and farrn restructuring process which has been conducted in Kazakhstan since 1991. Through detailed ethnographic study of rural communities, it explored how the macro level framing of rural development policy as privatisation was impacting on gender relations at micro level and how gender was interwoven with the emerging patterns of social and economic stratification. The thesis argues that farm privatisation has been a gendered process. On one level, taking 'privatisation' in a primary sense, as a planned programme of structural change, the redistribution of land and assets is having specific consequences for women in terms of entitlement and property rights. On another level, privatisation can also be understood in a second, broader, sense, as a shift in the balance between public (state) and private (domestic) spheres. From this perspective, the corollary of the withdrawal of the state as a provider of employment and services in rural areas is that households are increasingly reliant for survival on the 'private' resources of family, kin and social networks of various kinds. Local ideas about gender roles, that I term the 'rural gender contract', have been instrumental in shaping how women and men have been affected by and reacted to these changes. At the same time, the 'rural gender contract' itself has been challenged by them. The thesis thereby contributes to the emerging anthropological literature on postsocialist societies, which explores how communities and individuals are experiencing radical transformation and how their reactions are shaping local strategies and economies in ways often unforeseen by policy makers.
    • Gender variation in Gulf Pidgin Arabic

      Oakes, Michael; Mitkov, Ruslan; Albaqawi, Najah Salem (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-04)
      In the history of pidgins and creoles, many documented contact languages are European-based ones because they arose as a direct result of European colonial expansion between the sixteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. However, contact languages are developing entirely outside the European context as a result of ongoing international migration and economic integration created by globalisation. One such newly emerging pidgin is known as Gulf Pidgin Arabic (GPA). This unique linguistic phenomenon is a simplified contact variety of the Arabic language used in the Gulf States for communication between native Arabic speakers and foreign workers, as well as among the workers themselves. Pidgin languages have not been studied until relatively recently, since the middle of the last century. Similarly, GPA has received relatively little attention in the literature, apart from a few descriptive works such as Abed (2017), Almoaily (2012), Avram (2014), Næss (2008), Smart (1990), and Wiswal (2002). Importantly, there is an increasing labour market demand for women migrants in the Gulf, and this demand is often more stable than that for men; however, no studies to date have investigated the gender and language variation in Gulf countries conditioned by length of stay or substrate language. To carry out this research, an integrated research design, combining quantitative and qualitative phases of analysis, is employed to examine data drawn from one-to-one semi-structured interviews. Extensive background research on the Saudi social setting, the Pidgin languages, Gulf Arabic (GA) and GPA, and the major substrate languages of GPA is undertaken to investigate the sociolinguistic and linguistic situations that have resulted in the emergence of GPA. I analyse the influence of the first language of female GPA speakers and the number of years spent in the Gulf as potential factors conditioning language and gender variation in GPA. The dataset for the study consists of interviews with 72 informants from six linguistic backgrounds: Malayalam, Punjabi, Bengali, Tagalog, Sinhala, and Sunda. Interviews were conducted in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. Half of the informants had spent five years or less in the Gulf, while the other half had spent 10 years or more in the area at the time of interview. The analysis is based on 10 morphosyntactic phenomena: free or bound object or possessive pronoun, presence or absence of the Arabic definiteness marker, presence or absence of Arabic conjunction markers, presence or absence of the GPA copula, and presence or absence of agreement in the verb phrase and the noun phrase. Regarding the informants’ choice of the studied morphosyntactic features, the results of this thesis demonstrate that the length of stay in the Gulf produces more accommodation to standard GA in women than men. However, this shift was significant for only one feature: conjunction markers. For the influence of the first language, a significant adaptation to the system of GA (the lexifier language) was found for two features: conjunction markers and nominal agreement. Furthermore, with years of stay in the Gulf, there was a significant shift for only two features: conjunction markers and definiteness. This finding could be taken to support both universalist theories and substrate theory of the emergence of contact languages. The two theories seem to have effects on the emergence of pidgins and creoles; it is worth noting that neither are separate from each other, and they can be complementary. Thus, my data supports Mufwene’s (1993) complementary theory of genesis, which claims that universal as well as substratal factors can contribute to the emergence of contact languages.
    • Geomorphology and rehabilitation of erosion-degraded areas using soil bioengineering in the Rio Bacanga basin, São Luís, Maranhão State

      Bezerra, José Fernando Rodrigues; Fullen, Michael A.; Guerra, Antonio J. T.; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (2011)
      The research analysed the geomorphological characteristics of the Bacanga basin of São Luís municipality. Basin characteristics were related to highly developed erosion processes. The approach considered the identification of environmental fragility classes, the monitoring of an experimental station and the rehabilitation of a degraded area using soil bioengineering techniques. The adopted methodological procedures included: 1. Cartographic and bibliographic surveys. 2. Mapping of the hypsometry, slope, land use, rainfall index and geomorphology of the Bacanga basin, along with analysis of the morphostructure and morphosculture of the Gulf of Maranhense and environmental fragility mapping. 3. Establishing an experimental station with two replicate erosion plots and measuring the following parameters: vegetation cover index, soil surface changes using erosion pins, soil matric potential, runoff and sediment loss. 4. The rehabilitation of Sacavém gully using soil bioengineering techniques (using geotextiles constructed from palm leaves of the Buriti tree). Mapping showed that identified gullies are located on the plateau edges of the basin and are very fragile environments. The greatest interval of vegetation cover index development was between February (0%) and March (33.35%) (both 2009), whereas the smallest difference was 5.31%, between May (75.88%) and June (both 2009) (81.19%). The difference of erosion/deposition pin data within the bare and vegetated soil plots was significant using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (P <0.001). The results obtained from tensiometers at 10, 20, 40 and 60 cm depth showed a significant difference (P <0.001) between the bare and geotextile-covered plots. Soil matric potential measurements indicate that geotextile plots had an improved soil water regime. Rainfall during the measuring period (February-June 2009) was 2,067.5 mm. This caused a total of 494.6 L m-2 runoff from the two bare plots and 208.6 L m-2 from the two geotextile plots. There were significant differences in soil loss between the plot treatments, demonstrating the effectiveness of geotextiles plus grass in decreasing erosion rates. The two bare soil plots lost a total of 4,391.0 g m-2 of sediment, while the geotextile plots lost 255.9 g m-2. Rehabilitation work on Sacavém gully showed that soil bioengineering was a very effective soil conservation technique.
    • Getting there: aspects of the experiences of students prior to entry into higher education

      Thombs, Keith William (University of Wolverhampton, 1997)
      This study set out to explore issues surrounding the extent to which growth and change in higher education has been accompanied by diversification of student characteristics and experiences prior to entry to higher education. Exploration of these issues developed further into a consideration of factors influencing entry to higher education. To facilitate exploration of student characteristics and experiences two research approaches were employed in the study: a questionnaire to a cohort of 252, first year students, attending three full time education courses in a higher education establishment (the quantitative element) eight focus groups of students drawn from school sixth forms and Access courses in a college of further education (the qualitative element) The results of the study demonstrate diversity of student characteristics and prior experiences. Consideration of educational experience, for example, shows that students enter higher education via a variety of routes such that the former recognition of 'traditional', 'vocational' and "Access' routes underestimates the diversity of student prior educational and other life experiences. A model of influences surrounding entry to higher education was developed from the literature and in testing this against the study results two interacting factors emerged as particularly significant. Social class, as a student characteristic, was found to interact with the development, via prior experiences in the home, of a positive perspective towards education. Results obtained from both the quantitative and qualitative elements of the study demonstrated the significance of parental knowledge of the education system and their perspective towards education on the educational progress of their offspring. Four categories of parental educational perspective were isolated: supportive and knowledgeable, supportive and lacking in knowledge, disinterested and negative. Social class and a positive educational perspective in interaction were found to influence the likelihood that a student would stay in the education system beyond school leaving and return to education in later life. A positive predisposition towards education was supported by high expectations of the higher education experience and its outcomes in encouraging applicants.
    • Global Extraction and Cultural Production: An Investigation of Forms of Extraction Through the Production of Artist-Video

      Brand, Carina (2018-03-01)
      This research is a practice-based, theory-led, examination of forms of extraction under capitalism. The thesis addresses the question of where and how does extraction take place, both in and outside of the wage relationship. Directly employing Marx’s concept of surplus extraction, but further extending the concept of extraction as an analytic tool, artistic method, and identifying its aesthetic form. Through the production of an original body of artistic video work, I explore three disparate sites where ‘extraction’ takes place and employ Science Fiction methods of narrative, the utopian impulse and the ‘alienation effect’ to critique global capitalism. Drawing on political economic theory, I argue that these new ‘zones’ of extraction have; forced the further ‘subjectification’ of labour; supported continued and on-going primitive accumulation – through the creation of global space/time; and promoted the intensification of both relative and absolute surplus value, through the mechanisation of reproduction and the blurring of work and life, through digital technology. The Video Trilogy sets up a dialogue between – fictionreality and space–time, and situates current readings of global extraction in a future/past space, where the inconsistencies of capital are played out. Extraction as concept is utilised to bring together, and expand on, both theoretical readings of the political economy, and to identify that extraction can be redeployed as a cultural or artistic form. I argue that extraction is mobilised through culture, but more importantly, I identify the specific cultural forms of extraction itself. By situating the research between theory and practice, I am able to represent, or interpret, the forms extraction takes – appropriating, performing and re-making them as material and subject within the videos. The research contributes to current critiques of capitalism, in critical theory, art theory, political economy and art-practice-as-research. The video submission brings together a range of aesthetic styles and techniques to construct an original alien world, which is an allegory of our own.
    • Global new product introduction and development in the automotive sector

      Oraifige, I.; Odouza, C.; Laoui, T.; Atkinson, David (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      A Global New Product Introduction and Development (GNPID) process is one of the cornerstones towards a competitive advantage in the automotive marketplace today. A fully optimised GNPID process in combination with other lean and agile manufacturing techniques and systems is guaranteed to reduce lead-time and save on cost. In the typical post-launch product life-cycle the problems faced by most manufacturing companies lies not only in accelerating and maintaining sales after the launch but in reducing the costly development time before the launch. In an effort to improve timelines and effectiveness, a number of firms within the automotive industry are experimenting with different best practices in their NPID processes. While much of the previous research has focused on NPID in a single location, little has been reported on how actual companies are addressing the problems with globalisation of NPID. The author aims to develop a set of methodologies for rapid new product introduction in a global manufacturing environment using an integrated framework of concurrent engineering tools and methods. This is to support the development of customer focused agile product and to meet customer expectations in terms of innovation and customisation, quality, competitive price, sustainable and environmentally friendly product.
    • Globalisation and Architectural Behaviour in The United Arab Emirates - Towards Reformation of humanitarian Architecture

      Mushatat, Sabah; Ahmed, Mohammed M. (University of Wolverhampton, 2011)
      This study seeks to investigate the impact of globalisation on the architectural behaviour in the United Arab Emirates, to clarify the benefits and risks of globalised architecture in architectural behaviour. Although there are several supporters of globalisation who see the phenomenon as a means of progress and development, many experts have indicated that this phenomenon has been demolishing local culture and regional considerations, and ignoring residents’ requirements. As a result, this study presents all the views about this phenomenon from many aspects, such as political, social, economic and environmental, whereby it investigates the changes in architecture and urban planning due to global standards, methods of construction, and building materials. The literature review was the first part of the study and the theoretical studies were divided into three pivots in this thesis: The globalisation impacts and features, the relationship between globalisation and architecture and the last pivot concentrates on the human needs in architecture. The study also concentrates on the impact of globalisation on architecture through the terminology of “globalised architecture”, and focuses on some global phenomena in the architectural domain, such as skyscrapers, multi-storey buildings and iconic landmarks. The empirical study examines this argument about globalisation through questionnaires and interviews. A comparison is drawn between two groups: globalised houses is the first group, which reflects globalisation’s impacts on architecture, where this provides easier ways to specify features, elements and specifications for the era. In contrast, the non-globalised sample is the opposite of the first group, because it reflects the features of houses without the impacts of globalisation. Ultimately, the findings indicated that there are differences between the two groups. Both samples occurred in the same place and time, but the form of architecture and urban design has affected human behaviour. Thus, this study suggests a paradigm that could provide more humanitarian elements in architecture and urban design. It also suggests some general recommendations supporting human needs, and local considerations such as standards and codes.
    • God in times of adversity: A mixed-methods study investigating the relationship between religious coping and identification on the trauma appraisals and world assumptions of Muslim refugees/asylum seekers

      Hinton, Danny; Munsoor, Hannah S. (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-03-31)
      Background: The Cognitive Model of PTSD highlights the importance of pre-trauma beliefs on trauma appraisals and coping mechanisms. Worldview-based models propose that traumas shatter fundamental world assumptions, resulting in a search for meaning. Religion provides one way of offering meaning for individuals during times of distress. This research aimed to link Religious Coping Theory with cognitive and worldview-based trauma models to investigate the role of religious coping and identification on world assumptions and trauma appraisals within a community sample of Muslim refugees/asylum seekers. Method: A sequential mixed-methods design was used. Quantitative questionnaires were initially administered to eighty four participants, followed by qualitative interviews with six participants. Results: Quantitative findings indicate that religious coping and identification did not explain substantial variance in trauma symptoms, appraisals and world assumptions. Exploratory analyses revealed significant correlations between questionnaire language and trauma symptoms as well as immigration status, trauma appraisals and world assumptions. Qualitative findings, in contrast, illustrate the significant influence of Islam on the trauma appraisals, world assumptions and coping mechanisms of participants. Islam seemed to be used to evaluate and deal with trauma experience within premigration, migration and postmigration phases of the refugee/asylum seeker journey. Conclusion: These findings illustrate the need for greater research on cultural explanatory models of trauma for this population. This study provides specific insight into how participants utilise Islam in appraising and coping with their trauma experiences through the various phases of their journey. Findings are discussed in light of limitations, research and clinical implications.
    • Graph-based approaches for semi-supervised and cross-domain sentiment analysis

      Thelwall, Mike; Ponomareva, Natalia (University of Wolverhampton, 2014)
      The rapid development of Internet technologies has resulted in a sharp increase in the number of Internet users who create content online. Usergenerated content often represents people's opinions, thoughts, speculations and sentiments and is a valuable source of information for companies, organisations and individual users. This has led to the emergence of the eld of sentiment analysis, which deals with the automatic extraction and classi cation of sentiments expressed in texts. Sentiment analysis has been intensively researched over the last ten years, but there are still many issues to be addressed. One of the main problems is the lack of labelled data necessary to carry out precise supervised sentiment classi cation. In response, research has moved towards developing semi-supervised and crossdomain techniques. Semi-supervised approaches still need some labelled data and their e ectiveness is largely determined by the amount of these data, whereas cross-domain approaches usually perform poorly if training data are very di erent from test data. The majority of research on sentiment classi cation deals with the binary classi cation problem, although for many practical applications this rather coarse sentiment scale is not su cient. Therefore, it is crucial to design methods which are able to perform accurate multiclass sentiment classi cation. iii The aims of this thesis are to address the problem of limited availability of data in sentiment analysis and to advance research in semi-supervised and cross-domain approaches for sentiment classi cation, considering both binary and multiclass sentiment scales. We adopt graph-based learning as our main method and explore the most popular and widely used graph-based algorithm, label propagation. We investigate various ways of designing sentiment graphs and propose a new similarity measure which is unsupervised, easy to compute, does not require deep linguistic analysis and, most importantly, provides a good estimate for sentiment similarity as proved by intrinsic and extrinsic evaluations. The main contribution of this thesis is the development and evaluation of a graph-based sentiment analysis system that a) can cope with the challenges of limited data availability by using semi-supervised and crossdomain approaches b) is able to perform multiclass classi cation and c) achieves highly accurate results which are superior to those of most stateof- the-art semi-supervised and cross-domain systems. We systematically analyse and compare semi-supervised and cross-domain approaches in the graph-based framework and propose recommendations for selecting the most pertinent learning approach given the data available. Our recommendations are based on two domain characteristics, domain similarity and domain complexity, which were shown to have a signi cant impact on semi-supervised and cross-domain performance.
    • Growing pains to growing shame and beyond: a reflexive dyadic on stigmatised identity

      Pursehouse, Lucy (2018)
      Stigma surrounding mental health is a significant concern within the UK. Education, is considered an important aspect in attempts to address negative attitudes. This thesis opens a dyadic space in which I explore personal stigma stories relating to mental health. In addition, to consider how these connect to my doctoral journey and practice. Furthermore, how such phenomenological expression contributes pedagogically to a contemporary policy imperative; one aimed at tackling mental health stigma. The research design is methodologically grounded in the autoethnographical method and I have developed both an ‘analytical’ and ‘evocative’ approach. Five central themes emerged from my personal stigma stories and data analysis, ‘dissimilitude’, ‘disconnection’, ‘bifurcation’, ‘assimilation’ and ‘transformation’. Theoretically rich stories were then crafted, that re-presented these themes to provide further sense-making. A perspective transformative process is tightly woven within and throughout, capturing a critical pedagogic frame of reference for the inquiry. The study adds to the existing body of literature, by contributing personal narratives in the form of stories and poetry, which may be used within my anti-stigma education. The methodological processes revealed the importance of autoethnography and its analytic reflexive potency for moving beyond a stigmatised identity. Insights gathered, enabled the development of a Model of Learning on stigma, Right Stigma Capabilities, a learning tool to be utilised in practice, and the theoretical conceptualisation of a ‘Pseudo-Medicalised Identity’. Robust mechanisms for education, continuing professional development and mentoring are required, across a multi-disciplinary health and social care context. Further research is required on the lived experience of stigma, and the generative processes involved in liberation from this complex social phenomenon.
    • Haberdashery for use in dress 1550-1800

      Hamilton, Polly (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-10)
      This study investigates the supply, distribution and use of haberdashery wares in England in the late sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, with especial reference to the paired counties of Cumbria and Lancashire, Warwickshire and Leicestershire, Hampshire and West Sussex. A brief comparison is also made with London. Through examination of documentary evidence and extant examples, it aims to set the provision and use of haberdashery for dress into the context of the Early Modern period, and challenges widely held assumptions concerning the availability of wares through the country. The purpose of the argument is firstly to demonstrate that haberdashery, being both a necessity and a luxury, was an important, and historically traceable, part of traded goods in the early modern period, and secondly, with particular reference to the response of retailers to changing needs and demands, to show that the widescale availability of haberdashery for use in dress made it significant in the expression of personal identity and appearance for individuals of all social strata, while its manufacture and distribution provided employment for considerable numbers of people.
    • Having a bath in Japan: a biographical study of actress and black belt jūdōka Sarah Mayer (1896-1957)

      Williams, Jean; Callan-Spenn, Amanda (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-05)
      In 1933, British actor and playwright, Sarah Mayer, left behind her wealthy husband, and the large country estate they shared in rural Hampshire, for a trip to Japan. As a judo enthusiast travelling as a sports tourist, Sarah became the first western woman in Japan to receive the award of shōdan, or first degree black-belt, for judo, from the Butokukai, an increasingly militaristic, pedagogical institution, aimed at continuing the study of traditional and modern fighting techniques. Sarah’s training at the home of the art, the Kōdōkan in Tokyo, was encouraged by founder, Jigorō Kanō, a known internationalist in outlook. As the trip continued, the Japanese government promoted Mayer’s tour as part of the drive for modernism. Primarily, this thesis analyses the reasons for her unprecedented acceptance as a Western woman by Kanō and the wider judo establishment. Using a biographical framework, and drawing on a large volume of primary source research, this work places Sarah’s achievement into a context of not only time and place, but social mobility and agency, considering, firstly, Sarah’s life before she went to Japan. Central to the thesis, the work then continues with an in-depth study of her time in Japan and the height of her international fame as a sporting personality, concluding with her final years and reflecting on her precarious place within history. Whilst contributing to the literature on gendered sporting performance and role models of the early twentieth century, this work should be seen as a revision of the limited historiography of women in judo, and also, to a lesser extent, the international politicisation of physical culture. The politicisation of sport, particularly the fighting arts, is an important, and sometimes neglected area of sports history, particularly in the Western literature. Providing a gendered perspective on the international history of the growth and diversification of martial arts, this thesis investigates a crucial case study, encompassing overarching themes of class, individual agency and the wider political context of Anglo-Japanese relations.
    • Healthcare practitioners’ and patients’ perspectives of a weight management service and the place of psychological support within this

      LEHL, S (2016-07)
      Both the NHS and Public Health are keen to identify how best to manage long term health condition’s as a result from obesity and vice-versa. There is evidence to support the efficacy of psychological support in weight management programmes. This study explored the perceived importance of psychological support within weight management services; perspectives of both client and healthcare practitioners, in view of considering the implications for the role of a counselling psychologist. There were nine interviews conducted with five healthcare practitioners and four clients. The professionals’ disciplines included: physiologist, dietician, health psychologist, programme manager, and a medical consultant. Of the four patients, two had accessed psychology services as part of their weight management programme and two had not. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Five overarching themes were identified. Tension (pivotal central theme) this connected to: Lifestyle; Quality of Life (QoL); Service Delivery Model; and Professional and Personal beliefs and values. The findings highlighted that perceived importance of psychological support was influenced by an individuals’ background and experiences by both groups. The implications for the role of a counselling psychologist was to provide training to health professionals as well as raising clients’ awareness of the role of counselling and psychological support within such programmes. Further research is needed to understand better the potential of psychological support within weight management services to help contain UK obesity.
    • Hearing Voices: First Year Undergraduate Experience Of Audio Feedback

      Dixon, Stephen (2017)
      Recent changes to the UK higher education sector, including a rise in numbers and diversification of the student body, resultant larger class sizes and student: staff ratios, greater modularisation of courses with fewer coursework assignments, and students having less face-to-face contact with teaching staff, have presented numerous challenges. The parallel rise in the use of digital technologies in professional practice, despite calls for their adoption in order to personalise learning, can often be seen to exacerbate the perceived dehumanising effect of this massification. Amid a growing discourse highlighting the importance of feedback to student learning, the focus of this study centres on the use of digital audio feedback with first year undergraduates. Eschewing the positivist approaches that are prevalent in learning technology studies, the aims of the research are to understand the student experience of audio feedback in order to inform both professional practice and policy. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with first year Education Studies undergraduates, the research is a phenomenological study of the lived experience of participants through open and honest dialogue in order to arrive at a situated and negotiated understanding. In conducting a deeper and structural investigation that researches with people, the study moves beyond any technologically deterministic view, and sets any understanding in the wider context of students’ own interpretation of the feedback process, and as such shifts the discourse from technological affordance to pedagogical experience. Whilst the use of audio feedback is seen to alleviate the failures of communication often identified in the feedback process, the findings are also seen to be significant in terms of dialogic perception, studentship and engagement, as well as facilitating a shift from statement to discourse and the possibility of establishing more meaningful learning relationships with students.

      Hague, Paul (2015-12)
      The French Revolution has long been recognised as the crucial turning point in modern European history. The event is often cited as the beginning point for European Romanticism. Helen Maria Williams occupied a unique position at the crucible of events in post-revolutionary Paris. Having visited the capital in 1790 to attend the Fête de la Fédération on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, she was to spend the rest of her life endeavouring to communicate the originating ideals which she had first encountered there. Returning to France in 1791, she was naturalised as French in 1817 and remained in Paris until her death in 1827. Renowned for her poetry and most famously for the extensive body of political reportage contained in the 8 volumes of her Letters from France, Williams was also a translator, an aspect of her corpus which has been largely overlooked in academic research. It is in the collection of translations in which she finds her most Romantic expression. In the translations produced from Paris, Williams experiments with progressive European thought, both philosophically and linguistically, working towards a political and literary universalism influenced by contemporary French culture and by German thought arriving in France from members of the pre-unification states. As a successful salonnière, Williams became acquainted with many of the period’s leading figures, absorbing and reinterpreting spheres of influence in her translations. Literary translations, such as Paul and Virginia and The Leper of the City of Aoste, reside among the more prosaic works such as The Confidential and Political Correspondence of Lewis the Sixteenth to form a body of work which reveals Williams’s idiosyncratic practices and, most readily in the paratextual material of her many prefaces, her ideas as to the purpose of translation. 4 The idea of liminality is fundamental to our understanding of Williams’s life and work. Occupying the mysterious middle-ground, Williams resides in the space between nations, between cultures, languages, literary movements and historical-temporal thresholds. From this position she operates as mediator, not only of French literature, but of socio-political realities. Throughout her time in France she remained convinced of the truth of the originating revolutionist ideals she had first encountered in 1790 and she strived always to mediate and to re-inscribe, indeed to translate the French Revolution of 1789. The translations of Helen Maria Williams serve as the appropriate locus from which to suggest a reconfiguration of her importance in the canon of Romantic women writers and translators.
    • The hidden role: a focused ethnographic study of the nurse link tutor in higher education

      Paniagua, Hilary; Fuller, Pauline; Sadler Moore, Della; Clifton, Elizabeth Susan (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-08)
      Despite long standing debates relating to the role and function of the nurse teacher who acts as a link tutor in Higher Education, there is little understanding and evidence relating to their practice role. This focused ethnographic study sought to identify the role, the complexities and challenges, and future role requirements of the nurse link tutor, while supporting undergraduate, adult field nursing students on clinical placements. A guiding theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism used throughout this study contributed to an interpretation of the nurse link tutors' role from participants' perspectives and an understanding of the factors that affect and influence their role. This two phase study employed purposive sampling of nurse link tutors working in practice teams, spanning two hospital trusts. The first phase sought understanding using participant observation and informal interviews using the Developmental Research Sequence method (Spradley, 1979). Data collection in phase one took place over eleven months of field work, followed by a second phase focus group with the same nurse link tutors. The focus group helped to confirm findings from phase one as well as gain further insight into the role and future role requirements. Researcher reflexivity was important and integrated throughout this study. Data analysis in phase one applied domain and taxonomic analysis (Spradley, 1979) followed by Leininger's (1985) thematic and pattern analysis in the second phase. A symbolic interactionist approach used the application of “generic social processes” (Blumer, 1969; Prus, 1996) as an interpretive framework. The role was found to be emotionally demanding and a number of tensions and challenges were identified involving a constant juggling of an academic and practice role in order to support students in practice and enhance practice learning. This study revealed unknown aspects of the nurse link tutors' practice role, involving emotion work in the supportive aspects of their role in practice. This contributed to their professional nursing identity, however, the emotional labour they carried out remained hidden and unrecognised. Study recommendations for the nurse link tutor role, come at a time of new education standards for student nurse supervision and assessment (NMC, 2018) involving changes to roles in practice. However, in order for the nurse link tutor to fulfil a credible role in practice, there is a need for greater clarity of their role and support to enable them to juggle an academic and practice role. The emotion work and emotional labour they carry out should be made more visible and recognised. In order to develop and enhance their future professional role as nurse educators in practice they should be taking a leadership role and working with practice learning partners to enhance practice education. This study offers a contribution to knowledge of the insights into the emotion management perspective as applied to the nurse link tutor's experience of emotionality and how they manage their emotions to express their professional role identity.
    • Homeowner satisfaction and service quality in the repair of UK flood-damaged domestic property

      Proverbs, David G.; Samwinga, Victor (University of Wolverhampton, 2009)
      Flooding is a global challenge that has plagued mankind throughout history, affecting over 164 million people worldwide in 2007 alone. As the frequency of flooding increases in England and Wales coupled with an increase in the number of properties at risk of flooding and the attendant huge (insured) economic costs of flooding, the services received by homeowners during flood damage repair works, have not been spared criticism, Both the Welsh Consumer Council report and the Warwickshire Trading Standards report raised serious questions about the level of service in insurance claims for the repair of flood-damaged domestic property. This research project was therefore aimed at investigating the level of service quality and determinants of homeowners’ satisfaction in England and Wales with respect to flood damage repair works during insurance claims. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on customers’ needs, satisfaction and service quality, flooding and related issues, and the repair of flood damaged domestic property, in order to set the framework for the research and shape the development of the research questions/hypotheses. The study employed a two-phased sequential mixed methods approach, commencing with 20 in-depth interviews with homeowners, repairers, insurers and loss adjusters. Findings from the initial exploratory study (and from the literature review) informed the development of a questionnaire instrument, which incorporated elements of SERVQUAL, the generic service quality measurement instrument. Survey data were collected for the quantitative phase of the study from a sample of 126 homeowners, which was then analysed to test the hypotheses put forward in the study. The data did not yield a set of reliable and interpretable factors of service quality from the three service quality scales used to measure homeowners’ perceptions of the performance of insurers, loss adjusters and contractors. However, of the three key service providers, the contractor’s performance was the best predictor of homeowners’ overall satisfaction during flood damage reinstatement claims, accounting for seven times the combined unique contribution of insurance and loss adjusting firms. In addition, satisfaction levels were significantly different for homeowners whose claims for repair works were completed within six months compared to those repairs exceeded twelve months. The thesis concludes with implications of the findings for practice as well as recommendations for further research. It is argued that knowledge of the determinants of homeowners’ satisfaction with services during the repair of flood damaged property, is beneficial not only to insurers, loss adjusters and repairers but to homeowners as well.
    • Hospital nurses' attitudes to work: a case study of a Chinese hospital

      Feng, Feifei (2018-07-30)
      The aim of this study is to explore what the relevant factors of nurses' attitudes to and at work are. These include the separate but related hypotheses – the nature of the profession and changes in terms of management and training; the nature of the work situation including contracts and pay determination; and the nature of work relations as they impinge on nurse status including relations with co-workers and patients. All of which can be understood and compared with other workers in terms of both labour process and industrial relations as Goldthorpe (1968) did in the study of car workers. In the context of the contemporary Chinese social and political economy, the research also evaluates the roles of the government and how it affects nurses’ attitudes to the profession. It is grounded in a case study of 330 nurses in a Chinese public sector hospital, using questionnaires, interviews, and documentary evidence on government policies and hospital practices. The findings suggest that nurses at the case study hospital are frequently put under pressure due to the high number of patients they are expected to care for. This was caused by insufficient government funding for public sector hospitals, and the pressure to improve overall efficiency within the health service. The use of different types of employment contracts for nurses has caused strong resentment among nurses because it fails to award ‘equal pay for equal work’. In addition, the current system used in many Chinese hospitals for nurse education, recruitment, training and development, and pay have not helped establish realistic expectations of nursing or rewarded nurses for the work they do effectively.
    • How are changes to assessment in BTEC Early Years perceived as influencing the vocational nature of the curriculum?

      Dudley, Kate (2017)
      Changes within vocational education have been consistent within England (Wolf, 2011, p4.) and are currently increasing within the education of 16-19 year olds (ONS in City & Guilds, 2001 p6.). Included in those changes was a recent reform to BTEC. Stemming from this reform was the introduction of assessment changes. More specifically, an increase in controlled assessments and exams, especially within the Early Years sector, which forms the focus of this research. The introduction of such assessment methods offers a conflicting argument to the notion of creating Early Years practitioners with vocational and industry skills (Nutbrown, 2012). Within current education, students on Early Years vocational courses have voiced concerns that examined assessments do not provide them with the skillset they need for employment. In order to explore the true influence of assessment methods on student outcomes, a range of methods were used to ensure validity, and strengthen findings. Firstly, pre-existing data in the form of modular reviews provided student’s perceptions on how different assessment methods have prepared them for practice and supported their learning. These findings are explored alongside others from the five semi structured interviews gathered from members within one institution. This was used to compare how well assessment methods within the institution were supporting learners compared to the literary findings gathered within the literature review. Each of the data collection methods presented findings which support the need for Nutbrown’s (2012) concept of assessment methods to be industry related. Although, findings also indicated that the institution analysed in this research is considering ways to support the vocational and industry skills of their Early Years workers. However, clear evidence suggests that controlled assessment methods have not provided students with as good an outcome for both grades and skills as industry related assessment methods. Therefore, it is important to make recommendations for change. Following the recognition that the key assessments being used, in line with the BTEC reform, are not providing learners with the best industry related experience they could achieve. Several recommendations are made in line with the key research questions and address both institutions- including teachers and management - and policy writers.
    • How can pedagogic mediation develop better listening practices in early years settings?

      Pascal, Chris; Bertram, Tony; Williams-Brown, Zeta; Lyndon, Helen; School of Education, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-11)
      A praxeological approach provides the predominant paradigm for this thesis which is based in praxis and seeks to ensure an ethical approach throughout (Pascal and Bertram, 2012). In utilising ethnographic techniques and focusing on pedagogy this research is embedded within the early years sector. The research aims to explore pedagogic mediation as a context-based approach to professional development and an ethical way to develop listening practices within early years (Oliveira-Formosinho and Formosinho, 2012a). Pedagogic mediation provided the mechanism through which relationships with practitioners in three central research sites were developed over a period of two academic years. Pedagogic mediation has been cultivated in Portugal as a central tenet of Pedagogy in Participation (Formosinho and Formosinho, 2008). This research sought to transport this approach to England within the context of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) and to explore how it could support pedagogic developments, in this case to better listen to children. Pedagogic mediation is considered in light of Kennedy’s (2005; 2014) model of continuing professional development (CPD), and this research demonstrates how it sits at the transformative end of this spectrum. The elements of pedagogic meditation are mapped through this thesis and the attributes of the mediator are explored to illuminate the role. Critical research interactions, defined as encountering within pedagogic mediation, were utilised to develop listening methods. The listening methods developed were as a result of a participatory approach as practitioners were the expert within their own context. A reflective field diary (Ortlipp, 2008) supported the research throughout and then specific listening methods were developed, most notably photo-elicitation, family voice and drawing methods, including an innovative graduated framework. Encountering research interactions were also mapped against Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological system theory (Bronfenbrenner and Ceci, 1993) to illustrate the range of processes and the aspects of societal influence which they represent. In one setting encountering research interactions tackled the complexities of process within the macrosystem demonstrating the ability of pedagogic mediation to shift ideological thinking well as daily practice. Overall, this research provides guidance on the role, responsibilities and attributes of the pedagogic mediator to support future CPD within the early years sector. Such mediated interactions have the opportunity to raise the consciousness (Freire, 1996) of a neglected workforce and to further support the professional development of the sector.