• Facial Expressions of Emotion: Influences of Configuration

      Cook, Fay (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-12)
      The dominant theory in facial expression research is the dual mode hypothesis. After reviewing the literature pertaining to the dual mode hypothesis within the recognition of facial identities and emotional expressions, seven experiments are reported testing the role of configural processing within the recognition of emotional expressions of faces. The main findings were that the dual mode hypothesis can be supported within the facial recognition of emotional expression. This and other more specific findings are then reviewed within the context of extant literature. Implications for future research and applications within applied psychology are then considered.
    • Factors Associating with the Future Citation Impact of Published Articles: A Statistical Modelling Approach

      Thelwall, Mike; Didegah, Fereshteh (University of Wolverhampton, 2014)
      This study investigates a range of metrics available when an article is published to see which metrics associate with its eventual citation count. The purposes are to contribute to developing a citation model and to inform policymakers about which predictor variables associate with citations in different fields of science. Despite the complex nature of reasons for citation, some attributes of a paper’s authors, journal, references, abstract, field, country and institutional affiliations, and funding source are known to associate with its citation impact. This thesis investigates some common factors previously assessed and some new factors: journal author internationality; journal citing author internationality; cited journal author internationality; cited journal citing author internationality; impact of the author(s), publishing journal, affiliated institution, and affiliated country; length of paper; abstract and title; number of references; size of the field; number of authors, institutions and countries; abstract readability; and research funding. A sample of articles and proceedings papers in the 22 Essential Science Indicators subject fields from the Web of Science constitute the research data set. Using negative binomial hurdle models, this study simultaneously assesses the above factors using large scale data. The study found very similar behaviours across subject categories and broad areas in terms of factors associating with more citations. Journal and reference factors are the most effective determinants of future citation counts in most subject domains. Individual and international teamwork give a citation advantage in majority of subject areas but inter-institutional teamwork seems not to contribute to citation impact.
    • Factors controlling the establishment of species-rich grasslands in urban landscaping schemes

      Jones, Grant Harvey (University of Wolverhampton, 1993)
      In Britain, the creation of species-rich grasslands has generally involved the use of commercial seed mixtures. The present study has experimented with the use of freshly cut hay as a seed carrying medium and has considered some of the factors thought to be important for the creation of new species-rich grasslands. Two meadows, established in the early 1980's using hay cut from a single species-rich donor, were surveyed and a high degree of similarity with the donor meadow was noted. It was apparent, however, that the donor meadow had been replicated with a greater level of success by using fresh hay as opposed to dry hay. A total of 41 plant species were recorded in the meadow created using fresh hay, 26 of which may have been introduced as seed from the donor meadow. The importance of consistent management to sustain diversity was highlighted during the present study. A created meadow which had been poorly managed following its establishment displayed a marked division in its vegetation with large areas dominated by rank grassland species. Some form of site preparation, other than simply cutting the existing grass sward, favoured a more successful introduction of species from the donor meadow. However, it became clear that high levels of soil cultivation encouraged undesirable weeds and may not be necessary. Big baling proved to be an efficient method of collecting fresh hay from a donor meadow. It appeared to maximise seed transfer at any one time and a more diverse grassland was created. A meadow created using big baled hay supported a total of 50 plant species in the second year following its seeding, 32 of which were present in the donor sward. Elevated soil fertility is known to limit plant species diversity in semi-natural and created grasslands. Cropping prior to grassland creation proved to be an effective approach to reducing the effects widely attributed to elevated soil fertility. Although no measurable differences were recorded by chemical analyses, a better species composition and sward structure, and a lower standing crop, were recorded in the created meadows following cropping. Some crops were more effective at reducing the standing crop of the created sward than others. Potatoes and barley worked particularly well with mean standing crop values for the created sward as low as 335.38g/m 2 in the first year following seeding. In comparison, values of 581.68g1m2 were recorded in leaching plots which had been cultivated but not cropped and 837.88g/m2 in control plots in which the original grassland had been retained and which had not been cropped or received hay from the donor meadow. A novel approach to the use of DECORANA (Hill, 1979b), as presented in the VESPAN software package (Malloch, 1988), proved to be a valuable way of analysing the multivariate species data generated during one cropping experiment. The analysis indicated that, in addition to producing a lower standing crop, cropping with potatoes and barley encouraged a diverse sward to develop which included more species associated with the donor meadow. Experiments showed that meadow plots created using strewn hay supported a more diverse grassland sward than similar plots created using a purchased seed mixture with mean numbers of species per quadrat recorded of 16.4 and 7.3 respectively in the second year following seeding. Experiments using different types of donor grassland indicate that the creation of wet grasslands is more problematic than the creation of dry grasslands. In particular created wet grasslands require a longer period in which to become established.
    • Factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care amongst women seen in one of the tertiary health facilities in Delta State, Nigeria

      Ekpenyong, Mandu Stephen (2017-10-01)
      Background/Aim: Historical evidences indicate that maternal health care by a skilled birth attendant is one of the key strategies for maternal survival. However, the rate of maternity care utilisation and reduction of maternal death is very low in Nigeria. This study was designed to investigate factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care with a view to guiding programmatic efforts targeted at overcoming these barriers and also contribute to health reforms in Nigeria. Hence, the need to understand factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care in Nigeria using the Socio-ecological Model (SEM) and Gender and Development (GAD) to identify associated factors operating at different levels. Methods: A mixed method was employed for this study. Data collection used questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to 330 respondents of which 318 of them were retrieved and qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted for 6 participants. Data collection were done using a sequential approach. The study was conducted in one of the tertiary health facilities in Nigeria from January-April, 2015, amongst mothers aged 15-45 years meeting the study inclusion criteria. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analysing the quantitative data. Bivariate and logistic regressions were conducted for the quantitative data whilst a qualitative content analysis was done for the qualitative data. Results: The study established that education, income level, costs associated with seeking care, distance and time taken to travel were significantly associated with maternity healthcare services utilisation. Quality of service, staff attitude and women’s autonomy showed consistent significant association with maternal health care utilisation. Conclusions: The study concludes that; costs of treatment, distance and time, income level, staff attitude and women’s autonomy were critical in determining women utilisation of maternity care services. Recommendation: As an outcome of this research, best practice framework has been developed. The framework presents a coherent and systematic approach for achieving sustainable MH by providing a roadmap for instituting measures at the policy, health facility, community and at the individual levels, taking into account factors that are likely to promote or impede the achievement of sustainable MH.
    • A feasibility study for the reporting of cervical large loop excisions of the transformation zone (LLETZ) biopsies by consultant biomedical scientists in the UK

      Dunmore, Simon; Ellis, Kay M. (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-09-30)
      Objective – A previous pilot study had shown that there was potential to extend the roles of advanced biomedical scientist practitioner (ABMSPs) now referred to as Consultant Biomedical Scientists (BMS) to report the histology of large loop excision biopsies of the cervical transformation zone (LLETZ) within the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP). Methods - 157 consecutive LLETZ specimens reported by four experienced Gynae-specialist Consultant Histopathologists at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, were also reported by six Consultant BMS, and compared against the final issued report. Neoplastic abnormalities were reported to NHSCSP standards as well as the Bethesda system. Completeness of excision and histological features associated with the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection were also assessed. The reporting of HPV is part of the proforma for reporting cervical samples, it does not affect the patient management but allows for correlation with the cervical cytology report and hence was included as part of the study. Results - There was overall good inter-observer agreement for both the three tier and two tier system of grading squamous lesions plus good agreement for glandular and invasive carcinomas identified by the Consultant BMS. There was variable inter-observer agreement for the completeness of the excision of the margins and the presence of HPV. Conclusions - This report provides evidence that suitably experienced Consultant BMS can be ‘fast-tracked’ through an approved training programme of selected specimens to meet the needs of the Histopathology service that is facing a chronic shortage of Histopathologists in a timely manner and provide a cost-effective solution.
    • FEATURE EXTRACTION AND MATCHING OF PALMPRINTS USING LEVEL I DETAIL

      KITCHING, PETER (2017-03-16)
      Current Automatic Palmprint Identification Systems (APIS) closely follow the matching philosophy of Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS), in that they exclusively use a small subset of Level II palmar detail, when matching a latent to an exemplar palm print. However, due the increased size and the significantly more complex structure of the palm, it has long been recognised that there is much detail that remains underutilised. Forensic examiners routinely use this additional information when manually matching latents. The thesis develops novel automatic feature extraction and matching methods which exploit the underutilised Level I detail contained in the friction ridge flow. When applied to a data base of exemplars, the approach creates a ranked list of matches. It is shown that the matching success rate varied with latent size. For latents of diameter 38mm, 91:1% were ranked first and 95:6% of the matches were contained within the ranked top 10. The thesis presents improved orientation field extraction methods which are optimised for friction ridge flow and novel enhancement techniques, based upon the novel use of local circular statistics on palmar orientation fields. In combination, these techniques are shown to provide a more accurate orientation estimate than previous work. The novel feature extraction stages exploit the level sets of higher order local circular statistics, which naturally segment the palm into homogeneous regions representing Level I detail. These homogeneous regions, characterised by their spatial and circular features, are used to form a novel compact tree-like hierarchical representation of the Level I detail. Matching between the latent and an exemplar is performed between their respective tree-like hierarchical structures. The methods developed within the thesis are complementary to current APIS techniques.
    • Finding a Comfortable Fit: Practitioners’ Understanding of the Sociopolitical Context and its Role in Psychotherapy.

      Primrose,Yvette; Hart, Nicola; Allen, Lynn (University of Wolverhampton, 2011-04)
      Objectives: Inclusion of sociopolitical context in therapeutic interventions is under-researched, largely limited to practitioners’ addressing diversity issues in therapy. Relevant studies have shown both trainees and qualified practitioners experience anxiety and discomfort associated with uncertainties about effectively incorporating diversity and sociopolitical context. Although various models exist to aid systematic case conceptualisation incorporating sociopolitical factors, these are not widely used. The majority of relevant literature continues to concentrate on idiosyncratic conceptual models specific to theoretical approaches. This study aimed to discover how qualified practitioners currently conceptualise and incorporate diversity and sociopolitical factors into practice. Design: Given the lack of research available to inform the area, a grounded theory study was conducted as an exploratory exercise. The qualitative approach was adopted to investigate practitioners’ subjective experiences of their current practice. Constructivist assumptions underpinned the approach to the data, leading to use of Charmaz’s (2006) version of the grounded theory approach. Method: Theoretical sampling was used to recruit the 13 participants. Two focus groups and 8 individual interviews were conducted. Analysis: Two models emerged, representing the processes practitioners engaged in to “find a comfortable fit”, and the range of contexts within which the processes took place. Personal and professional dissonance emerged as a central feature of practitioner development. Discussion: The study highlighted the contribution of dissonance and the situated nature of the practitioner as major contributors affecting how sociopolitical issues are conceptualised and addressed in therapy. Further research is needed to clarify how these factors may most usefully contribute to best practice. However, multiple ecological contexts cited as levels of influence add a degree of complexity that will require operationalizing by those wishing to investigate this area in the future.
    • Finite element analysis of total knee replacement considering gait cycle load and malalignment

      Shi, Junfen (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-10)
      This research has investigated the influence of gait cycle, malalignment and overweight on total knee replacements using a finite element method. Dynamic and finite element models of fixed- and mobile-bearing implants have been created and solved; the fixed- and mobile-bearing implants demonstrated different performance on movement and contact pressure distribution in the tibio-femoral contact surfaces. More contact areas were found in the mobilebearing implant than in the fixed-bearing implant, but the maximum contact pressures were almost the same in both. The thickness of the tibial bearing component influenced the fixed- and mobile-bearing implants differently. A dynamic model of an implanted knee joint has been developed using MSC/ADAMS and MSC/MARC software. Stress shielding was found in the distal femur in the implanted knee joint. The stresses and strains in the distal femur were found to increase with body weight, especially during the stance phase. Serious stress shielding and more bone loss appear in condition of overweight. The increase of bone loss rate and stress in the distal femur with increase of body weight will result in a higher risk of migration of femoral component after total knee replacement. The peg size effect has been studied using this dynamic model; a longer peg with smaller diameter was found to be the best. Varus/valgus malalignment redistributed the tibio-femoral contact force and stress/strain distribution in the distal femur. The difference between contact forces on the medial and lateral condyle decreased in the valgus malalignment condition. Contact pressure increased in the varus/valgus malalignment condition in the dynamic models of both the fixed- and mobile-bearing implant. However, the mobile-bearing implant performed better in conditions of malalignment, especially malrotation. Body weight had less influence on the maximum contact pressure in the mobile-bearing implant.
    • First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post-1992 university

      Cohn, Eleanor Jr; McGinty, Samantha Jr (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education. First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education. First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education.
    • Fixed-shop retailing: Shrewsbury and Woverhampton 1660-1900

      Collins, Diane (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      Disregard for the everyday and the ordinary often leads to unwarranted neglect. This for many decades was the fate of shop retailing in terms of historical investigation and even intellectual debate. Yet, more recently research concerned with identifying the emergence of a consumer society has stimulated interest in the development of the retail sector in terms of the timing of growth and the extent of change. Within this context this thesis investigates the structure and organisation of shop retailing, and the gender of shop retailers in two contrasting communities: Shrewsbury and Wolverhampton 1660-1900. The aims of this research are twofold. First it will be demonstrated that a longitudinal perspective is not only possible but also imperative in determining the nature of short-term change in the retail sector. Diverse sources are used comparatively to address the conceptual and methodological difficulties, which have previously hindered analyses of existing research. A numerical analysis of the number of shops, trades within shops, specialist nature and scale of shops indicates that the move towards a modem system of retailing was determined as much by factors of demand as changes in supply. An evaluation has also been made of the impact of retail change on the gender of shop owners, employers and employees. Throughout the period men owned-more shops, employed more shop workers and had access to more trades than women. Yet, by 1900 they served apprenticeships less often, were less likely to become shop owners than two centuries earlier and faced increasing competition for employment in large-scale drapery stores. The pattern was somewhat reversed for women. With the exception of the millinery trades women only became shop owners c1700 when they were widowed. In this capacity they were not restricted regarding the trades they could enter. Single women rarely owned shops and had no access to the great majority of trades. By c1900 single, married and widowed women owned shops but are found in a limited number of trades. This study shows that not only is it possible to adopt a longitudinal framework but also necessary if the extent and pace of change recorded for the nineteenth century is to be accurately assessed. Thus it has been possible to determine that despite the move to modernity, and this was more incremental than rapid, most shops were still owner or family run, small rather than large-scale and with the exception of one or two trades the province of male ownership and male labour.
    • Forensic Taphonomy: Investigating the Post Mortem Biochemical Properties of Cartilage and Fungal Succession as Potential Forensic Tools

      Bolton, Shawna N. (2015)
      Post mortem interval (PMI – the time elapsed since death and discovery) is important to medicolegal investigations. It helps to construct crucial time lines and assists with the identification of unknown persons by inclusion or exclusion of a suspect’s known movements. Accurate methodologies for establishing PMI are limited to about 48-hours. Such methods involve use of increasing levels of potassium in vitreous humour, and algor mortis. This study is two-fold. Firstly, it explores the biomolecular changes in degrading porcine cartilage buried in soil environments and its potential to determine PMI in the crucial two days to two months period. Trotters were interred in a number of graves at two distinct locations exhibiting dissimilar soil environments. Weekly disinterments (for 6 weeks) resulted in dissection for cartilage samples which were processed for protein immunoblot analyses and cell vitality assays. Results demonstrate that aggrecan, a major structural proteoglycan, produces high (230kDa) and low (38kDa) molecular weight cross-reactive polypeptides (CRPs) within cartilage extracellular matrix. The 230kDa CRP degrades in a reproducible manner irrespective of the different soil environments utilised. As PMI increases, aggrecan diminishes and degrades forming heterogeneous subpopulations with time. Immunodetection of aggrecan ceases when joint exposure to the soil environment occurs. At this time, aggrecan is metabolised by soil microbes. The molecular breakdown of cartilage proteoglycans has potential for use as a reliable indicator of PMI, irrespective of differing soil environments, beyond the 48-hours period. Likewise, vitality assays also demonstrated viable chondrocytes for as long as 35 PM days. The second component of this study examined the fungal activity associated with trotters buried below ground. Results indicate that fungal growth was considerably influenced by soil chemistry and changes in the environment. Fungal colonisation did not demonstrate temporal patterns of succession. The results of this study indicate that cartilage has the potential to prolong PMI determination well beyond the current 48- and 100-hour limitations posed by various other soft tissue methods. Moreover, the long-term post mortem viability of chondrocytes presents an opportunity to explore DNA extraction from these cells for the purpose of establishing a positive identification for unidentified remains. On the contrary, the growth and colonisation patterns of post putrefactive fungi in relation to decomposing porcine trotters proved to be futile for estimating PMI. Therefore, fungi may not be a suitable candidate for evaluating PMI during the early phase fungal activity.
    • Fountain in perpetuity: a historical examination of Islamic fountain design from the ninth to the sixteenth centuries and a contemporary interpretation

      Shokri, Hassan M. (University of Wolverhampton, 2000)
      This thesis is an examination of the development of fountain design in the work of selected key Muslim engineers, covering the period from the ninth to the sixteenth centuries lt first introduces, translates and examines a previously undocumented fifteenth -century manuscript, Al-Riv. %a/r a! -Qudsiya fi Amel a! -Shadriºw-ßu»1 wal Fisgit'u (The Qudsiya Treatise in Constructing a Cascade and a Fountain), which was discovered by the researcher'. Since the manuscript describes a self-operated fountain, the notion of perpetual motion in philosophical and engineering concepts is analysed and presented with an attention to historical accounts, and in the light of practical experiments The investigation of the design of eighteen fountains designed at the high point of Islamic civilisation by the renowned engineers: Banu Musa (9th century), alJazari (13`s century) and Taqi al-Din (161h century) is also characterised by my discovery of two manuscripts-. These appear to be originally contemporary copies but have clearly been copied by hand many times with a resulting lack of clarity. The works of these engineers have been studied, in modem times, by prominent Western historians and engineers The evidence for the existence of the 18 fountains takes the form of descriptions and simple diagrams. However, these studies have not been carried out in any depth, and therefore have not resulted in any greater understanding of the nature of such engineering design. In my study, design, manufacture and operation of these fountains are studied as a specialised and specific branch of Islamic engineering Furthermore, a historical understanding of the significant nature of the fountain as a cultural, artistic and engineering product of the Islamic civilisation is brought into focus, and subjected to a practical verification. A major aspect of this study has been to interpret these accounts and through practical experiments verify the original claims and present an account through drawings and video-tape of their original working formats. This, together with the translation of the hitherto unrecorded document has allowed me to present fuller and more comprehensible account of Islamic fountain design with special reference to the roles of the identified engineers. From the experimental work carried out on specific engineering designs, remarkable result are documented which may introduce, as this thesis suggests, a new concept of designing fountain based on the new application of medieval techniques. The investigative and experimental works in this study have enhanced the statement the researcher has tried to deliver in a form of a contemporary fountaindesign. The development of the fountain mechanism as well as the concept of design, the researcher introduces, allows for a fruitful interplay between art, science and particularly engineering, of the past with their counterparts of the present.
    • A framework for developing 4D LOD on construction projects

      Heesom, David; Oloke, David; Butkovic, Bogdan (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-11)
      The increasing application of BIM processes and technologies has facilitated an increase in the use of 4D (3D+Time) simulations of construction projects. Numerous studies have acknowledged the benefit of 4D models in project planning and construction phases, enhancing communication between construction teams and avoiding unforeseen conflicts during the build process. The development of BIM has prompted a deeper understanding of the issue surrounding Level of Development (LODt), Level of Information (LOI) and Level of Detail (LOD) relating to the graphical detail and non-graphical information of the static geometric design model. However, up to now there is limited research methodically investigating the issue of LOD within 4D BIM applications. This research aims to develop a framework for specifying the LOD of 4D BIM to enhance communication and planning at various stages of the construction process. A 4D simulation needs more dynamic elements to alter the current 4D static image in order to provide more realistic simulation and more accurate results. A mixed research methods approach was developed to address the needs for successful framework development. A combination quantitative and qualitative survey was undertaken to gather data from professionals engaged in the development of 4D BIM simulations on construction projects. A framework was developed to provide professionals with an approach to develop LOD for 4D simulations (LOD4d) and following this the framework was validated through qualitative interview with experts in the field. The uniqueness of the work required the invention of new terminology. The developed framework incorporates terms for Level of Graphical Detail (LODg) the graphical information of the model. Level of Detail of object geometry “granulated” (LODgran) into segments showing how the object was constructed over the time. The framework comprises a time period required between state changes in the model during the simulation which is Temporal Level of Detail (LODti). The outcome of the work is the generation of a framework which supports the development of 4D simulations at a range of LOD. This can then be utilised as part of the BIM process to support the generation of 4D simulations at levels of detail suitable to the operations being undertaken. This could then lead to the development of an additional protocol within the BIM suite. Beside the construction industry specialists have provided suggestions to further support approach of communication during the construction process.
    • A framework for smart traffic management using heterogeneous data sources

      Georgakis, Panagiotis; Jones, Angelica Salas (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-03-31)
      Traffic congestion constitutes a social, economic and environmental issue to modern cities as it can negatively impact travel times, fuel consumption and carbon emissions. Traffic forecasting and incident detection systems are fundamental areas of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) that have been widely researched in the last decade. These systems provide real time information about traffic congestion and other unexpected incidents that can support traffic management agencies to activate strategies and notify users accordingly. However, existing techniques suffer from high false alarm rate and incorrect traffic measurements. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in integrating different types of data sources to achieve higher precision in traffic forecasting and incident detection techniques. In fact, a considerable amount of literature has grown around the influence of integrating data from heterogeneous data sources into existing traffic management systems. This thesis presents a Smart Traffic Management framework for future cities. The proposed framework fusions different data sources and technologies to improve traffic prediction and incident detection systems. It is composed of two components: social media and simulator component. The social media component consists of a text classification algorithm to identify traffic related tweets. These traffic messages are then geolocated using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Finally, with the purpose of further analysing user emotions within the tweet, stress and relaxation strength detection is performed. The proposed text classification algorithm outperformed similar studies in the literature and demonstrated to be more accurate than other machine learning algorithms in the same dataset. Results from the stress and relaxation analysis detected a significant amount of stress in 40% of the tweets, while the other portion did not show any emotions associated with them. This information can potentially be used for policy making in transportation, to understand the users’ perception of the transportation network. The simulator component proposes an optimisation procedure for determining missing roundabouts and urban roads flow distribution using constrained optimisation. Existing imputation methodologies have been developed on straight section of highways and their applicability for more complex networks have not been validated. This task presented a solution for the unavailability of roadway sensors in specific parts of the network and was able to successfully predict the missing values with very low percentage error. The proposed imputation methodology can serve as an aid for existing traffic forecasting and incident detection methodologies, as well as for the development of more realistic simulation networks.
    • From lifestyle media to lived practice: an ethnography of class, gender and ordinary gardening

      Taylor, Lisa (University of Wolverhampton, 2004)
      This thesis is about the ordinary cultural practice of gardening. Using an interdisciplinary framework and holding 'ordinary aesthetics' at the forefront of the analysis, it asks if the garden is a site where identities of class and gender are played out. Arguing that domestic gardening has historically acted as a form of working-class regulation, it shows that working-class people and their cultural practices have been systematically undermined by the institutional imposition of middle-class values. Drawing on autobiography, early culturalism and feminist ethnography, it constructs a framework that includes mundane practices as part of cultural analysis and insists that ordinary working-class men and women be valued. Part One examines what Bourdieu's (1986,1977,1990a, 1990b) theoretical concepts offer an analysis of gardening. Acknowledging that the salience of class as a category has been questioned, it reviews existing literature to argue that class still matters. Turning to questions of gender, it argues that Butler's (1990) theory of performativity has much to offer an analysis of modes of gendered gardening. With a view to historicise and geographically locate the study, it reviews existing inter-disciPlinary literature as a means of asking if ordinary gardeners have a respectable academic history. Turning to textually mediated images of gardening provided by the media, it analyses the importance of 'lifestyle', investigates the aesthetic concerns of the contemporary garden and the increased importance of 'ordinariness' in contemporary culture. Part Two turns to methodological matters and explains why ethnography is the principal research method of the study. Further chapters unearth the ethnographic findings on class, gender and lifestyle media consumption. Using a Bourdieuan framework it analyses the differences between working- and middleclass gardeners. Turning to Butler, it shows that gardening practices are used to perform (classed) gender identities. Utilising cultural studies literature on media audiences and focusing on class, gender and age, it investigates how garden lifestyle texts are consumed. Finally, using Chaney's (2001) work on the cultural transition from 'ways of life' to 'lifestyle' it examines what the investment of ordinary gardening practices mean for the people of the study.
    • Fulfilling roles: Midland women, developing roles and identities C.1760-1860

      Ponsonby, Margaret; Gildart, Keith; Maitland-Brown, Katrina (2018-09-15)
      This thesis examines the lives of a group of Midland women in the period c. 1760-1860. They were the wives, sisters, daughters and mothers of the middle-class entrepreneurial and professional men of the region. During this period the Midlands produced individuals who expanded production and commerce, often with little technical innovation, but with a shrewd sense of what was marketable. Men such as the Wedgwoods, Boultons and Kenricks built businesses, sponsored canals and highways, and invented, produced and sold an ever-expanding supply of goods world-wide. Yet while the lives of such men have been celebrated, the women of these families have often been overlooked. They are the focus of this thesis, which will address this gap in the history of the entrepreneurial and professional families of the Midlands. Examining the identities of these women through a range of archival and printed sources, both as individuals and as members of families, communities, networks and organisations, particular attention is paid to changing social and cultural attitudes. The thesis will investigate whether and how their experiences contributed to the wider debates on women’s roles in this period, examining the role of networks in assisting women to operate in a variety of spaces, broadening their political consciousness, and questioning what, if any, generational changes are visible. The thesis will argue that in this period, middle-class women negotiated social and cultural conventions of class and gender through a variety of roles which empowered them to shape their own identities. A microhistory study such as this highlights the more subtle and complex efforts made by women in search of autonomy, filling in gaps created in broader studies. In revealing contradictions of the norm, a more nuanced view of women’s experiences can also emerge. The thesis aims to extend existing knowledge in the field of social and cultural history by researching the experiences of these middle-class women of the Midlands who, for the most part, notwithstanding their achievements as businesswomen, religious figures and contributors to science and literature, have escaped the notice of scholars of women’s history. Yet knowledge of women’s activities beyond feminist campaigns can broaden our understanding of what may have been important to their social group. They all had something to say, even the quieter ones. In examining their activities this thesis restores their social and cultural histories and, by highlighting their concerns and interests, allows a more inclusive picture of British middle-class women’s experiences in the period 1760 to 1860 to emerge, with some surprising results.
    • Function and activation of human adipose tissue: The role of genes in the link between physical activity and brown adipose-like phenotype

      Ntinas, Petros (2017-03)
      Background: Excess white adipose tissue (WAT) in humans is considered as a harmful health index. However, increased brown adipose tissue (BAT) and brown-like adipose tissue activity are associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) that may help to control body weight. Exercise may enhance browning formation of WAT and reduce WAT that may lead to health improvements. Aims: a) to examine the effects of physical activity on the link between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and fibronectin type III domaincontaining protein 5 (FNDC5) genes in muscle, circulating Irisin and uncoupling protein one (UCP1) of WAT in humans (study 1); b) to examine the relationship between UCP1 mRNA and protein expression as well as PGC-1α, peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha (PPARα) and PPARγ genes with physical activity levels in WAT of healthy men (study 2); c) to examine the effects of different types of exercise and de-training on the UCP1 mRNA and protein expression (study 3), and d) on leptin mRNA in WAT of healthy men (study 4). Method: Study 1: A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses. Studies 2-4: The total of 46 healthy men subjected to measurements for physical activity levels, diet, anthropometry, body composition, REE, peak oxygen consumption, 1-repetition maximum and provided subcutaneous fat biopsies to determine mRNA and protein expression of six genes in one cross-sectional study and one randomized controlled trial. Results: Study 1: No link was found between PGC- 1α and FNDC5, circulating Irisin and UCP1 of WAT in response to physical activity. Study 2: The mRNA of, UCP1, PGC-1α, PPARα and PPARγ genes of WAT were not associated with physical activity levels. The UCP1 protein expression however, was negatively associated with physical activity levels. Studies 3-4: Different types of chronic exercise and de-training do not affect UCP1 mRNA and protein expression 3 and leptin mRNA in WAT. However, effect size analyses demonstrated increased UCP1 mRNA and protein expression, PPARγ and leptin in response to chronic exercise. Conclusions: There is no evidence to support the link between PGC-1α and FNDC5 in human muscle or the link between FNDC5 and circulating Irisin and UCP1 in WAT in response to exercise. There are no effects of exercise and de-training on browning formation of WAT and no link between browning formation indices and REE, body weight as well as leptin mRNA in healthy men. Further research is required to elaborate the aforementioned phenomena.
    • Gender issues in the development of rural areas in Kazakstan

      Shreeves, Rosamund (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      The research on which this thesis is based investigated the significance of gender in the agrarian reform and farrn restructuring process which has been conducted in Kazakhstan since 1991. Through detailed ethnographic study of rural communities, it explored how the macro level framing of rural development policy as privatisation was impacting on gender relations at micro level and how gender was interwoven with the emerging patterns of social and economic stratification. The thesis argues that farm privatisation has been a gendered process. On one level, taking 'privatisation' in a primary sense, as a planned programme of structural change, the redistribution of land and assets is having specific consequences for women in terms of entitlement and property rights. On another level, privatisation can also be understood in a second, broader, sense, as a shift in the balance between public (state) and private (domestic) spheres. From this perspective, the corollary of the withdrawal of the state as a provider of employment and services in rural areas is that households are increasingly reliant for survival on the 'private' resources of family, kin and social networks of various kinds. Local ideas about gender roles, that I term the 'rural gender contract', have been instrumental in shaping how women and men have been affected by and reacted to these changes. At the same time, the 'rural gender contract' itself has been challenged by them. The thesis thereby contributes to the emerging anthropological literature on postsocialist societies, which explores how communities and individuals are experiencing radical transformation and how their reactions are shaping local strategies and economies in ways often unforeseen by policy makers.
    • Geomorphology and rehabilitation of erosion-degraded areas using soil bioengineering in the Rio Bacanga basin, São Luís, Maranhão State

      Bezerra, José Fernando Rodrigues; Fullen, Michael A.; Guerra, Antonio J. T.; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (2011)
      The research analysed the geomorphological characteristics of the Bacanga basin of São Luís municipality. Basin characteristics were related to highly developed erosion processes. The approach considered the identification of environmental fragility classes, the monitoring of an experimental station and the rehabilitation of a degraded area using soil bioengineering techniques. The adopted methodological procedures included: 1. Cartographic and bibliographic surveys. 2. Mapping of the hypsometry, slope, land use, rainfall index and geomorphology of the Bacanga basin, along with analysis of the morphostructure and morphosculture of the Gulf of Maranhense and environmental fragility mapping. 3. Establishing an experimental station with two replicate erosion plots and measuring the following parameters: vegetation cover index, soil surface changes using erosion pins, soil matric potential, runoff and sediment loss. 4. The rehabilitation of Sacavém gully using soil bioengineering techniques (using geotextiles constructed from palm leaves of the Buriti tree). Mapping showed that identified gullies are located on the plateau edges of the basin and are very fragile environments. The greatest interval of vegetation cover index development was between February (0%) and March (33.35%) (both 2009), whereas the smallest difference was 5.31%, between May (75.88%) and June (both 2009) (81.19%). The difference of erosion/deposition pin data within the bare and vegetated soil plots was significant using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (P <0.001). The results obtained from tensiometers at 10, 20, 40 and 60 cm depth showed a significant difference (P <0.001) between the bare and geotextile-covered plots. Soil matric potential measurements indicate that geotextile plots had an improved soil water regime. Rainfall during the measuring period (February-June 2009) was 2,067.5 mm. This caused a total of 494.6 L m-2 runoff from the two bare plots and 208.6 L m-2 from the two geotextile plots. There were significant differences in soil loss between the plot treatments, demonstrating the effectiveness of geotextiles plus grass in decreasing erosion rates. The two bare soil plots lost a total of 4,391.0 g m-2 of sediment, while the geotextile plots lost 255.9 g m-2. Rehabilitation work on Sacavém gully showed that soil bioengineering was a very effective soil conservation technique.
    • Getting there: aspects of the experiences of students prior to entry into higher education

      Thombs, Keith William (University of Wolverhampton, 1997)
      This study set out to explore issues surrounding the extent to which growth and change in higher education has been accompanied by diversification of student characteristics and experiences prior to entry to higher education. Exploration of these issues developed further into a consideration of factors influencing entry to higher education. To facilitate exploration of student characteristics and experiences two research approaches were employed in the study: a questionnaire to a cohort of 252, first year students, attending three full time education courses in a higher education establishment (the quantitative element) eight focus groups of students drawn from school sixth forms and Access courses in a college of further education (the qualitative element) The results of the study demonstrate diversity of student characteristics and prior experiences. Consideration of educational experience, for example, shows that students enter higher education via a variety of routes such that the former recognition of 'traditional', 'vocational' and "Access' routes underestimates the diversity of student prior educational and other life experiences. A model of influences surrounding entry to higher education was developed from the literature and in testing this against the study results two interacting factors emerged as particularly significant. Social class, as a student characteristic, was found to interact with the development, via prior experiences in the home, of a positive perspective towards education. Results obtained from both the quantitative and qualitative elements of the study demonstrated the significance of parental knowledge of the education system and their perspective towards education on the educational progress of their offspring. Four categories of parental educational perspective were isolated: supportive and knowledgeable, supportive and lacking in knowledge, disinterested and negative. Social class and a positive educational perspective in interaction were found to influence the likelihood that a student would stay in the education system beyond school leaving and return to education in later life. A positive predisposition towards education was supported by high expectations of the higher education experience and its outcomes in encouraging applicants.