• Facial Expressions of Emotion: Influences of Configuration

      Cook, Fay (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-12)
      The dominant theory in facial expression research is the dual mode hypothesis. After reviewing the literature pertaining to the dual mode hypothesis within the recognition of facial identities and emotional expressions, seven experiments are reported testing the role of configural processing within the recognition of emotional expressions of faces. The main findings were that the dual mode hypothesis can be supported within the facial recognition of emotional expression. This and other more specific findings are then reviewed within the context of extant literature. Implications for future research and applications within applied psychology are then considered.
    • Factors Associating with the Future Citation Impact of Published Articles: A Statistical Modelling Approach

      Thelwall, Mike; Didegah, Fereshteh (University of Wolverhampton, 2014)
      This study investigates a range of metrics available when an article is published to see which metrics associate with its eventual citation count. The purposes are to contribute to developing a citation model and to inform policymakers about which predictor variables associate with citations in different fields of science. Despite the complex nature of reasons for citation, some attributes of a paper’s authors, journal, references, abstract, field, country and institutional affiliations, and funding source are known to associate with its citation impact. This thesis investigates some common factors previously assessed and some new factors: journal author internationality; journal citing author internationality; cited journal author internationality; cited journal citing author internationality; impact of the author(s), publishing journal, affiliated institution, and affiliated country; length of paper; abstract and title; number of references; size of the field; number of authors, institutions and countries; abstract readability; and research funding. A sample of articles and proceedings papers in the 22 Essential Science Indicators subject fields from the Web of Science constitute the research data set. Using negative binomial hurdle models, this study simultaneously assesses the above factors using large scale data. The study found very similar behaviours across subject categories and broad areas in terms of factors associating with more citations. Journal and reference factors are the most effective determinants of future citation counts in most subject domains. Individual and international teamwork give a citation advantage in majority of subject areas but inter-institutional teamwork seems not to contribute to citation impact.
    • Factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care amongst women seen in one of the tertiary health facilities in Delta State, Nigeria

      Ekpenyong, Mandu Stephen (2017-10-01)
      Background/Aim: Historical evidences indicate that maternal health care by a skilled birth attendant is one of the key strategies for maternal survival. However, the rate of maternity care utilisation and reduction of maternal death is very low in Nigeria. This study was designed to investigate factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care with a view to guiding programmatic efforts targeted at overcoming these barriers and also contribute to health reforms in Nigeria. Hence, the need to understand factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care in Nigeria using the Socio-ecological Model (SEM) and Gender and Development (GAD) to identify associated factors operating at different levels. Methods: A mixed method was employed for this study. Data collection used questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to 330 respondents of which 318 of them were retrieved and qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted for 6 participants. Data collection were done using a sequential approach. The study was conducted in one of the tertiary health facilities in Nigeria from January-April, 2015, amongst mothers aged 15-45 years meeting the study inclusion criteria. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analysing the quantitative data. Bivariate and logistic regressions were conducted for the quantitative data whilst a qualitative content analysis was done for the qualitative data. Results: The study established that education, income level, costs associated with seeking care, distance and time taken to travel were significantly associated with maternity healthcare services utilisation. Quality of service, staff attitude and women’s autonomy showed consistent significant association with maternal health care utilisation. Conclusions: The study concludes that; costs of treatment, distance and time, income level, staff attitude and women’s autonomy were critical in determining women utilisation of maternity care services. Recommendation: As an outcome of this research, best practice framework has been developed. The framework presents a coherent and systematic approach for achieving sustainable MH by providing a roadmap for instituting measures at the policy, health facility, community and at the individual levels, taking into account factors that are likely to promote or impede the achievement of sustainable MH.
    • FEATURE EXTRACTION AND MATCHING OF PALMPRINTS USING LEVEL I DETAIL

      KITCHING, PETER (2017-03-16)
      Current Automatic Palmprint Identification Systems (APIS) closely follow the matching philosophy of Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS), in that they exclusively use a small subset of Level II palmar detail, when matching a latent to an exemplar palm print. However, due the increased size and the significantly more complex structure of the palm, it has long been recognised that there is much detail that remains underutilised. Forensic examiners routinely use this additional information when manually matching latents. The thesis develops novel automatic feature extraction and matching methods which exploit the underutilised Level I detail contained in the friction ridge flow. When applied to a data base of exemplars, the approach creates a ranked list of matches. It is shown that the matching success rate varied with latent size. For latents of diameter 38mm, 91:1% were ranked first and 95:6% of the matches were contained within the ranked top 10. The thesis presents improved orientation field extraction methods which are optimised for friction ridge flow and novel enhancement techniques, based upon the novel use of local circular statistics on palmar orientation fields. In combination, these techniques are shown to provide a more accurate orientation estimate than previous work. The novel feature extraction stages exploit the level sets of higher order local circular statistics, which naturally segment the palm into homogeneous regions representing Level I detail. These homogeneous regions, characterised by their spatial and circular features, are used to form a novel compact tree-like hierarchical representation of the Level I detail. Matching between the latent and an exemplar is performed between their respective tree-like hierarchical structures. The methods developed within the thesis are complementary to current APIS techniques.
    • Finding a Comfortable Fit: Practitioners’ Understanding of the Sociopolitical Context and its Role in Psychotherapy.

      Primrose,Yvette; Hart, Nicola; Allen, Lynn (University of Wolverhampton, 2011-04)
      Objectives: Inclusion of sociopolitical context in therapeutic interventions is under-researched, largely limited to practitioners’ addressing diversity issues in therapy. Relevant studies have shown both trainees and qualified practitioners experience anxiety and discomfort associated with uncertainties about effectively incorporating diversity and sociopolitical context. Although various models exist to aid systematic case conceptualisation incorporating sociopolitical factors, these are not widely used. The majority of relevant literature continues to concentrate on idiosyncratic conceptual models specific to theoretical approaches. This study aimed to discover how qualified practitioners currently conceptualise and incorporate diversity and sociopolitical factors into practice. Design: Given the lack of research available to inform the area, a grounded theory study was conducted as an exploratory exercise. The qualitative approach was adopted to investigate practitioners’ subjective experiences of their current practice. Constructivist assumptions underpinned the approach to the data, leading to use of Charmaz’s (2006) version of the grounded theory approach. Method: Theoretical sampling was used to recruit the 13 participants. Two focus groups and 8 individual interviews were conducted. Analysis: Two models emerged, representing the processes practitioners engaged in to “find a comfortable fit”, and the range of contexts within which the processes took place. Personal and professional dissonance emerged as a central feature of practitioner development. Discussion: The study highlighted the contribution of dissonance and the situated nature of the practitioner as major contributors affecting how sociopolitical issues are conceptualised and addressed in therapy. Further research is needed to clarify how these factors may most usefully contribute to best practice. However, multiple ecological contexts cited as levels of influence add a degree of complexity that will require operationalizing by those wishing to investigate this area in the future.
    • Finite element analysis of total knee replacement considering gait cycle load and malalignment

      Shi, Junfen (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-10)
      This research has investigated the influence of gait cycle, malalignment and overweight on total knee replacements using a finite element method. Dynamic and finite element models of fixed- and mobile-bearing implants have been created and solved; the fixed- and mobile-bearing implants demonstrated different performance on movement and contact pressure distribution in the tibio-femoral contact surfaces. More contact areas were found in the mobilebearing implant than in the fixed-bearing implant, but the maximum contact pressures were almost the same in both. The thickness of the tibial bearing component influenced the fixed- and mobile-bearing implants differently. A dynamic model of an implanted knee joint has been developed using MSC/ADAMS and MSC/MARC software. Stress shielding was found in the distal femur in the implanted knee joint. The stresses and strains in the distal femur were found to increase with body weight, especially during the stance phase. Serious stress shielding and more bone loss appear in condition of overweight. The increase of bone loss rate and stress in the distal femur with increase of body weight will result in a higher risk of migration of femoral component after total knee replacement. The peg size effect has been studied using this dynamic model; a longer peg with smaller diameter was found to be the best. Varus/valgus malalignment redistributed the tibio-femoral contact force and stress/strain distribution in the distal femur. The difference between contact forces on the medial and lateral condyle decreased in the valgus malalignment condition. Contact pressure increased in the varus/valgus malalignment condition in the dynamic models of both the fixed- and mobile-bearing implant. However, the mobile-bearing implant performed better in conditions of malalignment, especially malrotation. Body weight had less influence on the maximum contact pressure in the mobile-bearing implant.
    • First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post-1992 university

      Cohn, Eleanor Jr; McGinty, Samantha Jr (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education. First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education. First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education.
    • Fixed-shop retailing: Shrewsbury and Woverhampton 1660-1900

      Collins, Diane (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
    • Forensic Taphonomy: Investigating the Post Mortem Biochemical Properties of Cartilage and Fungal Succession as Potential Forensic Tools

      Bolton, Shawna N. (2015)
      Post mortem interval (PMI – the time elapsed since death and discovery) is important to medicolegal investigations. It helps to construct crucial time lines and assists with the identification of unknown persons by inclusion or exclusion of a suspect’s known movements. Accurate methodologies for establishing PMI are limited to about 48-hours. Such methods involve use of increasing levels of potassium in vitreous humour, and algor mortis. This study is two-fold. Firstly, it explores the biomolecular changes in degrading porcine cartilage buried in soil environments and its potential to determine PMI in the crucial two days to two months period. Trotters were interred in a number of graves at two distinct locations exhibiting dissimilar soil environments. Weekly disinterments (for 6 weeks) resulted in dissection for cartilage samples which were processed for protein immunoblot analyses and cell vitality assays. Results demonstrate that aggrecan, a major structural proteoglycan, produces high (230kDa) and low (38kDa) molecular weight cross-reactive polypeptides (CRPs) within cartilage extracellular matrix. The 230kDa CRP degrades in a reproducible manner irrespective of the different soil environments utilised. As PMI increases, aggrecan diminishes and degrades forming heterogeneous subpopulations with time. Immunodetection of aggrecan ceases when joint exposure to the soil environment occurs. At this time, aggrecan is metabolised by soil microbes. The molecular breakdown of cartilage proteoglycans has potential for use as a reliable indicator of PMI, irrespective of differing soil environments, beyond the 48-hours period. Likewise, vitality assays also demonstrated viable chondrocytes for as long as 35 PM days. The second component of this study examined the fungal activity associated with trotters buried below ground. Results indicate that fungal growth was considerably influenced by soil chemistry and changes in the environment. Fungal colonisation did not demonstrate temporal patterns of succession. The results of this study indicate that cartilage has the potential to prolong PMI determination well beyond the current 48- and 100-hour limitations posed by various other soft tissue methods. Moreover, the long-term post mortem viability of chondrocytes presents an opportunity to explore DNA extraction from these cells for the purpose of establishing a positive identification for unidentified remains. On the contrary, the growth and colonisation patterns of post putrefactive fungi in relation to decomposing porcine trotters proved to be futile for estimating PMI. Therefore, fungi may not be a suitable candidate for evaluating PMI during the early phase fungal activity.
    • Fulfilling roles: Midland women, developing roles and identities C.1760-1860

      Ponsonby, Margaret; Gildart, Keith; Maitland-Brown, Katrina (2018-09-15)
      This thesis examines the lives of a group of Midland women in the period c. 1760-1860. They were the wives, sisters, daughters and mothers of the middle-class entrepreneurial and professional men of the region. During this period the Midlands produced individuals who expanded production and commerce, often with little technical innovation, but with a shrewd sense of what was marketable. Men such as the Wedgwoods, Boultons and Kenricks built businesses, sponsored canals and highways, and invented, produced and sold an ever-expanding supply of goods world-wide. Yet while the lives of such men have been celebrated, the women of these families have often been overlooked. They are the focus of this thesis, which will address this gap in the history of the entrepreneurial and professional families of the Midlands. Examining the identities of these women through a range of archival and printed sources, both as individuals and as members of families, communities, networks and organisations, particular attention is paid to changing social and cultural attitudes. The thesis will investigate whether and how their experiences contributed to the wider debates on women’s roles in this period, examining the role of networks in assisting women to operate in a variety of spaces, broadening their political consciousness, and questioning what, if any, generational changes are visible. The thesis will argue that in this period, middle-class women negotiated social and cultural conventions of class and gender through a variety of roles which empowered them to shape their own identities. A microhistory study such as this highlights the more subtle and complex efforts made by women in search of autonomy, filling in gaps created in broader studies. In revealing contradictions of the norm, a more nuanced view of women’s experiences can also emerge. The thesis aims to extend existing knowledge in the field of social and cultural history by researching the experiences of these middle-class women of the Midlands who, for the most part, notwithstanding their achievements as businesswomen, religious figures and contributors to science and literature, have escaped the notice of scholars of women’s history. Yet knowledge of women’s activities beyond feminist campaigns can broaden our understanding of what may have been important to their social group. They all had something to say, even the quieter ones. In examining their activities this thesis restores their social and cultural histories and, by highlighting their concerns and interests, allows a more inclusive picture of British middle-class women’s experiences in the period 1760 to 1860 to emerge, with some surprising results.
    • Function and activation of human adipose tissue: The role of genes in the link between physical activity and brown adipose-like phenotype

      Ntinas, Petros (2017-03)
      Background: Excess white adipose tissue (WAT) in humans is considered as a harmful health index. However, increased brown adipose tissue (BAT) and brown-like adipose tissue activity are associated with increased resting energy expenditure (REE) that may help to control body weight. Exercise may enhance browning formation of WAT and reduce WAT that may lead to health improvements. Aims: a) to examine the effects of physical activity on the link between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and fibronectin type III domaincontaining protein 5 (FNDC5) genes in muscle, circulating Irisin and uncoupling protein one (UCP1) of WAT in humans (study 1); b) to examine the relationship between UCP1 mRNA and protein expression as well as PGC-1α, peroxisome proliferatoractivated receptor alpha (PPARα) and PPARγ genes with physical activity levels in WAT of healthy men (study 2); c) to examine the effects of different types of exercise and de-training on the UCP1 mRNA and protein expression (study 3), and d) on leptin mRNA in WAT of healthy men (study 4). Method: Study 1: A systematic review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta- Analyses. Studies 2-4: The total of 46 healthy men subjected to measurements for physical activity levels, diet, anthropometry, body composition, REE, peak oxygen consumption, 1-repetition maximum and provided subcutaneous fat biopsies to determine mRNA and protein expression of six genes in one cross-sectional study and one randomized controlled trial. Results: Study 1: No link was found between PGC- 1α and FNDC5, circulating Irisin and UCP1 of WAT in response to physical activity. Study 2: The mRNA of, UCP1, PGC-1α, PPARα and PPARγ genes of WAT were not associated with physical activity levels. The UCP1 protein expression however, was negatively associated with physical activity levels. Studies 3-4: Different types of chronic exercise and de-training do not affect UCP1 mRNA and protein expression 3 and leptin mRNA in WAT. However, effect size analyses demonstrated increased UCP1 mRNA and protein expression, PPARγ and leptin in response to chronic exercise. Conclusions: There is no evidence to support the link between PGC-1α and FNDC5 in human muscle or the link between FNDC5 and circulating Irisin and UCP1 in WAT in response to exercise. There are no effects of exercise and de-training on browning formation of WAT and no link between browning formation indices and REE, body weight as well as leptin mRNA in healthy men. Further research is required to elaborate the aforementioned phenomena.
    • Gender issues in the development of rural areas in Kazakstan

      Shreeves, Rosamund (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
    • Geomorphology and rehabilitation of erosion-degraded areas using soil bioengineering in the Rio Bacanga basin, São Luís, Maranhão State

      Bezerra, José Fernando Rodrigues; Fullen, Michael A.; Guerra, Antonio J. T.; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (2011)
      The research analysed the geomorphological characteristics of the Bacanga basin of São Luís municipality. Basin characteristics were related to highly developed erosion processes. The approach considered the identification of environmental fragility classes, the monitoring of an experimental station and the rehabilitation of a degraded area using soil bioengineering techniques. The adopted methodological procedures included: 1. Cartographic and bibliographic surveys. 2. Mapping of the hypsometry, slope, land use, rainfall index and geomorphology of the Bacanga basin, along with analysis of the morphostructure and morphosculture of the Gulf of Maranhense and environmental fragility mapping. 3. Establishing an experimental station with two replicate erosion plots and measuring the following parameters: vegetation cover index, soil surface changes using erosion pins, soil matric potential, runoff and sediment loss. 4. The rehabilitation of Sacavém gully using soil bioengineering techniques (using geotextiles constructed from palm leaves of the Buriti tree). Mapping showed that identified gullies are located on the plateau edges of the basin and are very fragile environments. The greatest interval of vegetation cover index development was between February (0%) and March (33.35%) (both 2009), whereas the smallest difference was 5.31%, between May (75.88%) and June (both 2009) (81.19%). The difference of erosion/deposition pin data within the bare and vegetated soil plots was significant using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test (P <0.001). The results obtained from tensiometers at 10, 20, 40 and 60 cm depth showed a significant difference (P <0.001) between the bare and geotextile-covered plots. Soil matric potential measurements indicate that geotextile plots had an improved soil water regime. Rainfall during the measuring period (February-June 2009) was 2,067.5 mm. This caused a total of 494.6 L m-2 runoff from the two bare plots and 208.6 L m-2 from the two geotextile plots. There were significant differences in soil loss between the plot treatments, demonstrating the effectiveness of geotextiles plus grass in decreasing erosion rates. The two bare soil plots lost a total of 4,391.0 g m-2 of sediment, while the geotextile plots lost 255.9 g m-2. Rehabilitation work on Sacavém gully showed that soil bioengineering was a very effective soil conservation technique.
    • Global Extraction and Cultural Production: An Investigation of Forms of Extraction Through the Production of Artist-Video

      Brand, Carina (2018-03-01)
      This research is a practice-based, theory-led, examination of forms of extraction under capitalism. The thesis addresses the question of where and how does extraction take place, both in and outside of the wage relationship. Directly employing Marx’s concept of surplus extraction, but further extending the concept of extraction as an analytic tool, artistic method, and identifying its aesthetic form. Through the production of an original body of artistic video work, I explore three disparate sites where ‘extraction’ takes place and employ Science Fiction methods of narrative, the utopian impulse and the ‘alienation effect’ to critique global capitalism. Drawing on political economic theory, I argue that these new ‘zones’ of extraction have; forced the further ‘subjectification’ of labour; supported continued and on-going primitive accumulation – through the creation of global space/time; and promoted the intensification of both relative and absolute surplus value, through the mechanisation of reproduction and the blurring of work and life, through digital technology. The Video Trilogy sets up a dialogue between – fictionreality and space–time, and situates current readings of global extraction in a future/past space, where the inconsistencies of capital are played out. Extraction as concept is utilised to bring together, and expand on, both theoretical readings of the political economy, and to identify that extraction can be redeployed as a cultural or artistic form. I argue that extraction is mobilised through culture, but more importantly, I identify the specific cultural forms of extraction itself. By situating the research between theory and practice, I am able to represent, or interpret, the forms extraction takes – appropriating, performing and re-making them as material and subject within the videos. The research contributes to current critiques of capitalism, in critical theory, art theory, political economy and art-practice-as-research. The video submission brings together a range of aesthetic styles and techniques to construct an original alien world, which is an allegory of our own.
    • Global new product introduction and development in the automotive sector

      Oraifige, I.; Odouza, C.; Laoui, T.; Atkinson, David (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      A Global New Product Introduction and Development (GNPID) process is one of the cornerstones towards a competitive advantage in the automotive marketplace today. A fully optimised GNPID process in combination with other lean and agile manufacturing techniques and systems is guaranteed to reduce lead-time and save on cost. In the typical post-launch product life-cycle the problems faced by most manufacturing companies lies not only in accelerating and maintaining sales after the launch but in reducing the costly development time before the launch. In an effort to improve timelines and effectiveness, a number of firms within the automotive industry are experimenting with different best practices in their NPID processes. While much of the previous research has focused on NPID in a single location, little has been reported on how actual companies are addressing the problems with globalisation of NPID. The author aims to develop a set of methodologies for rapid new product introduction in a global manufacturing environment using an integrated framework of concurrent engineering tools and methods. This is to support the development of customer focused agile product and to meet customer expectations in terms of innovation and customisation, quality, competitive price, sustainable and environmentally friendly product.
    • Globalisation and Architectural Behaviour in The United Arab Emirates - Towards Reformation of humanitarian Architecture

      Mushatat, Sabah; Ahmed, Mohammed M. (University of Wolverhampton, 2011)
      This study seeks to investigate the impact of globalisation on the architectural behaviour in the United Arab Emirates, to clarify the benefits and risks of globalised architecture in architectural behaviour. Although there are several supporters of globalisation who see the phenomenon as a means of progress and development, many experts have indicated that this phenomenon has been demolishing local culture and regional considerations, and ignoring residents’ requirements. As a result, this study presents all the views about this phenomenon from many aspects, such as political, social, economic and environmental, whereby it investigates the changes in architecture and urban planning due to global standards, methods of construction, and building materials. The literature review was the first part of the study and the theoretical studies were divided into three pivots in this thesis: The globalisation impacts and features, the relationship between globalisation and architecture and the last pivot concentrates on the human needs in architecture. The study also concentrates on the impact of globalisation on architecture through the terminology of “globalised architecture”, and focuses on some global phenomena in the architectural domain, such as skyscrapers, multi-storey buildings and iconic landmarks. The empirical study examines this argument about globalisation through questionnaires and interviews. A comparison is drawn between two groups: globalised houses is the first group, which reflects globalisation’s impacts on architecture, where this provides easier ways to specify features, elements and specifications for the era. In contrast, the non-globalised sample is the opposite of the first group, because it reflects the features of houses without the impacts of globalisation. Ultimately, the findings indicated that there are differences between the two groups. Both samples occurred in the same place and time, but the form of architecture and urban design has affected human behaviour. Thus, this study suggests a paradigm that could provide more humanitarian elements in architecture and urban design. It also suggests some general recommendations supporting human needs, and local considerations such as standards and codes.