• Facial Expressions of Emotion: Influences of Configuration

      Cook, Fay (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-12)
      The dominant theory in facial expression research is the dual mode hypothesis. After reviewing the literature pertaining to the dual mode hypothesis within the recognition of facial identities and emotional expressions, seven experiments are reported testing the role of configural processing within the recognition of emotional expressions of faces. The main findings were that the dual mode hypothesis can be supported within the facial recognition of emotional expression. This and other more specific findings are then reviewed within the context of extant literature. Implications for future research and applications within applied psychology are then considered.
    • Facilitating pedagogical change in online learning in higher education through professional development

      Traxler, John; Lawton, Megan; Miles, Carmen; School of Education, Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
      The onset of Covid-19 gave rise to a huge wake-up call across the higher education sector as it switched to what has been termed ‘emergency remote teaching’ during 2020. This unprecedented rise in the uptake of online learning accentuated the need for lecturers to develop pedagogically-informed online teaching practices. This research used an appreciative inquiry methodology during the first wave of the pandemic to explore enacted TPACK (technology, pedagogy and content knowledge) knowledge of in-service teachers. The research makes an original contribution to research, addressing a gap in knowledge arising from the literature review relating to the use of TPACK to support in-service lecturers. As practice- based research, findings illustrated how teaching practices can be developed using professional development strategies to uncover the potential of online learning to deliver a transformative learning experience. Key findings of the research included a set of indicators for student-centred online teaching practices, examples of core and advanced teacher competences, and a mapping of technology affordances to support student-centred learning (SCL) pedagogies. The findings highlighted the importance of lecturers having permission to experiment, and the relevance of TPACK to support the development of a collective knowledge of SCL pedagogies to create innovation and reflection within communities of practice. The findings include a conceptualisation of the TPACK framework for use by lecturers and programme teams to support the design and development of SCL online pedagogies. In addition, recommendations arising from the research include a framework for supporting communities of practice develop contextual TPACK indicators using appreciative inquiry, and the need for strategic leadership through institutionally-led initiatives that take into consideration elements within the conceptualised TPACK framework.
    • Factors Associating with the Future Citation Impact of Published Articles: A Statistical Modelling Approach

      Thelwall, Mike; Didegah, Fereshteh (University of Wolverhampton, 2014)
      This study investigates a range of metrics available when an article is published to see which metrics associate with its eventual citation count. The purposes are to contribute to developing a citation model and to inform policymakers about which predictor variables associate with citations in different fields of science. Despite the complex nature of reasons for citation, some attributes of a paper’s authors, journal, references, abstract, field, country and institutional affiliations, and funding source are known to associate with its citation impact. This thesis investigates some common factors previously assessed and some new factors: journal author internationality; journal citing author internationality; cited journal author internationality; cited journal citing author internationality; impact of the author(s), publishing journal, affiliated institution, and affiliated country; length of paper; abstract and title; number of references; size of the field; number of authors, institutions and countries; abstract readability; and research funding. A sample of articles and proceedings papers in the 22 Essential Science Indicators subject fields from the Web of Science constitute the research data set. Using negative binomial hurdle models, this study simultaneously assesses the above factors using large scale data. The study found very similar behaviours across subject categories and broad areas in terms of factors associating with more citations. Journal and reference factors are the most effective determinants of future citation counts in most subject domains. Individual and international teamwork give a citation advantage in majority of subject areas but inter-institutional teamwork seems not to contribute to citation impact.
    • Factors controlling the establishment of species-rich grasslands in urban landscaping schemes

      Jones, Grant Harvey (University of Wolverhampton, 1993)
      In Britain, the creation of species-rich grasslands has generally involved the use of commercial seed mixtures. The present study has experimented with the use of freshly cut hay as a seed carrying medium and has considered some of the factors thought to be important for the creation of new species-rich grasslands. Two meadows, established in the early 1980's using hay cut from a single species-rich donor, were surveyed and a high degree of similarity with the donor meadow was noted. It was apparent, however, that the donor meadow had been replicated with a greater level of success by using fresh hay as opposed to dry hay. A total of 41 plant species were recorded in the meadow created using fresh hay, 26 of which may have been introduced as seed from the donor meadow. The importance of consistent management to sustain diversity was highlighted during the present study. A created meadow which had been poorly managed following its establishment displayed a marked division in its vegetation with large areas dominated by rank grassland species. Some form of site preparation, other than simply cutting the existing grass sward, favoured a more successful introduction of species from the donor meadow. However, it became clear that high levels of soil cultivation encouraged undesirable weeds and may not be necessary. Big baling proved to be an efficient method of collecting fresh hay from a donor meadow. It appeared to maximise seed transfer at any one time and a more diverse grassland was created. A meadow created using big baled hay supported a total of 50 plant species in the second year following its seeding, 32 of which were present in the donor sward. Elevated soil fertility is known to limit plant species diversity in semi-natural and created grasslands. Cropping prior to grassland creation proved to be an effective approach to reducing the effects widely attributed to elevated soil fertility. Although no measurable differences were recorded by chemical analyses, a better species composition and sward structure, and a lower standing crop, were recorded in the created meadows following cropping. Some crops were more effective at reducing the standing crop of the created sward than others. Potatoes and barley worked particularly well with mean standing crop values for the created sward as low as 335.38g/m 2 in the first year following seeding. In comparison, values of 581.68g1m2 were recorded in leaching plots which had been cultivated but not cropped and 837.88g/m2 in control plots in which the original grassland had been retained and which had not been cropped or received hay from the donor meadow. A novel approach to the use of DECORANA (Hill, 1979b), as presented in the VESPAN software package (Malloch, 1988), proved to be a valuable way of analysing the multivariate species data generated during one cropping experiment. The analysis indicated that, in addition to producing a lower standing crop, cropping with potatoes and barley encouraged a diverse sward to develop which included more species associated with the donor meadow. Experiments showed that meadow plots created using strewn hay supported a more diverse grassland sward than similar plots created using a purchased seed mixture with mean numbers of species per quadrat recorded of 16.4 and 7.3 respectively in the second year following seeding. Experiments using different types of donor grassland indicate that the creation of wet grasslands is more problematic than the creation of dry grasslands. In particular created wet grasslands require a longer period in which to become established.
    • Factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care amongst women seen in one of the tertiary health facilities in Delta State, Nigeria

      Ekpenyong, Mandu Stephen (2017-10-01)
      Background/Aim: Historical evidences indicate that maternal health care by a skilled birth attendant is one of the key strategies for maternal survival. However, the rate of maternity care utilisation and reduction of maternal death is very low in Nigeria. This study was designed to investigate factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care with a view to guiding programmatic efforts targeted at overcoming these barriers and also contribute to health reforms in Nigeria. Hence, the need to understand factors influencing access to emergency obstetric care in Nigeria using the Socio-ecological Model (SEM) and Gender and Development (GAD) to identify associated factors operating at different levels. Methods: A mixed method was employed for this study. Data collection used questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to 330 respondents of which 318 of them were retrieved and qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted for 6 participants. Data collection were done using a sequential approach. The study was conducted in one of the tertiary health facilities in Nigeria from January-April, 2015, amongst mothers aged 15-45 years meeting the study inclusion criteria. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in analysing the quantitative data. Bivariate and logistic regressions were conducted for the quantitative data whilst a qualitative content analysis was done for the qualitative data. Results: The study established that education, income level, costs associated with seeking care, distance and time taken to travel were significantly associated with maternity healthcare services utilisation. Quality of service, staff attitude and women’s autonomy showed consistent significant association with maternal health care utilisation. Conclusions: The study concludes that; costs of treatment, distance and time, income level, staff attitude and women’s autonomy were critical in determining women utilisation of maternity care services. Recommendation: As an outcome of this research, best practice framework has been developed. The framework presents a coherent and systematic approach for achieving sustainable MH by providing a roadmap for instituting measures at the policy, health facility, community and at the individual levels, taking into account factors that are likely to promote or impede the achievement of sustainable MH.
    • Factors influencing the popularity of YouTube videos and users’ decisions to watch them

      Thelwall, Michael; Foster, David (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08)
      YouTube has substantial impact on modern society as the second most popular website in the world. Despite its sustained popularity, little is known about which types of video are most viewed and the reasons why people choose to watch them. This research critically analyses the sample of videos provided by the YouTube API, then uses the metrics associated with these videos to help assess which types of YouTube video are popular. It also harnesses a questionnaire of mainly UK teacher education graduate YouTube users to investigate which factors influence decisions to watch YouTube videos. This was a convenience sample selected to achieve a high response rate, which it achieved (81%), minimising non-response bias. The video lists provided by the YouTube API were not random samples but contained a wide range of types of video (including both popular and unpopular), except that older videos were avoided. There were substantial differences between categories in the average properties of the videos returned and the proportion of videos returned on multiple days. The most popular categories from the YouTube metadata collected based on average view counts are varied: From TV, Best of, Animation and How-to. Cause-based video categories tended to be unpopular. Video popularity did not seem to be affected by video duration, on average. Users are more likely to interact with (comment, like, dislike) videos that are useful or supporting in some way. Videos that are interacted with more are not always more popular, with subject content affecting this relationship. In addition, high view counts associated with fewer likes, dislikes and comments per view, suggesting that indicators of popularity may not attract new viewers. The most popular categories with survey respondents were slightly different, partly reflecting their educational background (e.g., Education videos), and there were some (stereotypical) gender differences in the most popular categories. Respondents rarely believed that they were influenced by a video’s popularity or evidence of other users’ reactions to it when deciding to watch the video. Instead, they were most likely to be influenced by content-related factors, such as a video’s title and thumbnail picture. Despite previous research showing that people can be influenced by the opinions and watching habits of others, respondents claimed to be little influenced by this. Nevertheless, they frequently reported watching videos posted to Facebook, possibly trusting the person that posted the video. Thus, despite extensive discussion of various forms of viral information spreading, content, rather than popularity, is king in YouTube, although online word-of-mouth sharing through trusted relationships is also important. The main limitations of this research are that the data used may not be representative of YouTube and all UK YouTube users overall, so the conclusions should be interpreted cautiously.
    • Factors that influence how relationships adjust to a diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome: A grounded theory

      Chadwick, Darren; Gutteridge, Robin; Swinton, Jennifer; Faculty of Education, Health and Wellbeing (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-01)
      Background: There is relatively little research explaining how an intimate couple jointly adapt to a diagnosis of myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME)/ chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). A large body of literature exists that investigates the impact of ME/CFS on the individual and a smaller body of work addresses the effect on the partner and the influence the partner has in the management of the condition. This research, therefore, sought to illuminate couples’ experiences of ME/CFS, in order to gain a greater understanding of the factors that influence adaptation to the condition in their joint relationship. A Grounded Theory Methodology was adopted to create a tentative theory of adaptation which could supplement the current evidence base and begin to inform future professional practice. Method: Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with experiencers diagnosed with ME/CFS. Five interviews were conducted with the experiencer alone and three interviews also involved the experiencer’s partner. Interviews focused upon the couple’s experience of living with and adapting to ME/CFS. Interviews were analysed following the constructivist grounded theory principles outlined by Charmaz (2006). Findings: A tentative model of reconciliation was constructed which explained the couple’s journey from disruption towards adaptation. This tentative model explained how the couple manage ‘fundamental disruptions’ to their identities and expectations brought about by the introduction of a powerful entity ME/CFS (‘Illness identity or It’). The couple managed these disruptions by working through periods of ‘loss and grief’ using skills such as humour, communication and understanding. Through this process the couple were able to identify and begin to implement appropriate ‘adaptations’ that helped them to manage the impact of ME/CFS within their relationship. Conclusion: This research identified how ME/CFS impacts upon the individual with the diagnosis and their partner and illuminates that the process of reconciling with loss and grief and implementing adaptations is a joint journey. It highlights the importance of considering the couple and not just the individual in the management of ME/CFS and makes tentative recommendations that could inform professional support interventions in the future.
    • Family learning in English for speakers of other languages (FLESOL): a case study of Yemeni women’s perspectives

      Linda Devlin; Brendan Bartram; Patel, Hasumatiben (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
      This research examined a group of Yemeni women enrolled on a Family Learning (FL) and English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) programme in the UK. The study addressed three central elements: the ways in which the women conceptualise learning, their motives for engaging in FLESOL, and the barriers to learning they experience. The investigation begins by reviewing Government policies on ESOL learning in Adult Education (AE) and considers the challenges faced by ESOL learners. The review explores the wide-ranging factors which impact upon learning as discussed in existing research and literature. This research argues that government policy and cuts in funding underestimate the complexities of developing life chances for learning. The study contributes to the debate about the value of FLESOL in community learning and aims to provide a deeper understanding of the benefits for this group of learners. The notion of community underpins the learner-centred approach employed in the study, which used a narrative inquiry methodology. An in-depth narrative inquiry was conducted with five participants, involving qualitative semi-structured interviews and a focus group. The study employed imaginative strategies including memorable items and photo elicitation to prompt the views of the participants and to examine their experiences. By selecting a group of FLESOL participants who have not received consideration before, and whose voices are rarely heard, the research demonstrates the nuances of their learning, motivations and perceived barriers. Participants’ stories provide insights into what they feel is important for their learning in a FLESOL environment. Their stories have important implications for decision-makers regarding funding allocation and eligibility criteria to access ESOL. The emergent findings highlight the importance of learning English as a tool which supports change in women’s social capital, well-being and empowerment. It also illustrates that these changes have to come from within the Yemeni women themselves through balancing their new life in the UK with traditional family roles and expectations.
    • A feasibility study for the reporting of cervical large loop excisions of the transformation zone (LLETZ) biopsies by consultant biomedical scientists in the UK

      Dunmore, Simon; Ellis, Kay M. (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-09-30)
      Objective – A previous pilot study had shown that there was potential to extend the roles of advanced biomedical scientist practitioner (ABMSPs) now referred to as Consultant Biomedical Scientists (BMS) to report the histology of large loop excision biopsies of the cervical transformation zone (LLETZ) within the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP). Methods - 157 consecutive LLETZ specimens reported by four experienced Gynae-specialist Consultant Histopathologists at Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, were also reported by six Consultant BMS, and compared against the final issued report. Neoplastic abnormalities were reported to NHSCSP standards as well as the Bethesda system. Completeness of excision and histological features associated with the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection were also assessed. The reporting of HPV is part of the proforma for reporting cervical samples, it does not affect the patient management but allows for correlation with the cervical cytology report and hence was included as part of the study. Results - There was overall good inter-observer agreement for both the three tier and two tier system of grading squamous lesions plus good agreement for glandular and invasive carcinomas identified by the Consultant BMS. There was variable inter-observer agreement for the completeness of the excision of the margins and the presence of HPV. Conclusions - This report provides evidence that suitably experienced Consultant BMS can be ‘fast-tracked’ through an approved training programme of selected specimens to meet the needs of the Histopathology service that is facing a chronic shortage of Histopathologists in a timely manner and provide a cost-effective solution.
    • FEATURE EXTRACTION AND MATCHING OF PALMPRINTS USING LEVEL I DETAIL

      KITCHING, PETER (2017-03-16)
      Current Automatic Palmprint Identification Systems (APIS) closely follow the matching philosophy of Automatic Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS), in that they exclusively use a small subset of Level II palmar detail, when matching a latent to an exemplar palm print. However, due the increased size and the significantly more complex structure of the palm, it has long been recognised that there is much detail that remains underutilised. Forensic examiners routinely use this additional information when manually matching latents. The thesis develops novel automatic feature extraction and matching methods which exploit the underutilised Level I detail contained in the friction ridge flow. When applied to a data base of exemplars, the approach creates a ranked list of matches. It is shown that the matching success rate varied with latent size. For latents of diameter 38mm, 91:1% were ranked first and 95:6% of the matches were contained within the ranked top 10. The thesis presents improved orientation field extraction methods which are optimised for friction ridge flow and novel enhancement techniques, based upon the novel use of local circular statistics on palmar orientation fields. In combination, these techniques are shown to provide a more accurate orientation estimate than previous work. The novel feature extraction stages exploit the level sets of higher order local circular statistics, which naturally segment the palm into homogeneous regions representing Level I detail. These homogeneous regions, characterised by their spatial and circular features, are used to form a novel compact tree-like hierarchical representation of the Level I detail. Matching between the latent and an exemplar is performed between their respective tree-like hierarchical structures. The methods developed within the thesis are complementary to current APIS techniques.
    • Female genital mutilation (FGM): An analysis of the silences in maternity care experiences of FGM survivors and the silences of health care professionals providing maternity care to FGM survivors

      Morgan, Angela; Khutan, Ranjit; Danks, Emma (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-09)
      The consequences of female genital mutilation (FGM) during the perinatal period are significant, but the experiences of FGM survivors accessing maternity care are under-reported in the literature. This thesis reports on the analysis of experiences of FGM survivors in maternity care and the experiences of health care professionals providing such care. This qualitative study was methodologically structured around the Sound of Silence framework which was developed for research with marginalised groups and communities. Two separate cohorts of participants took part in this study; 20 FGM survivors and eight health care professionals. FGM survivors met the inclusion criteria if, (i) they had given birth within the previous few days of data collection, (ii) they and their baby were of sufficient health to be discharged home and, (iii) were able to communicate in one of the languages identified for use in this study; namely Arabic, English and/or French. Health care professionals were excluded from this study if they had provided maternity care within the service where they FGM survivor participants had accessed care. Data analysis was conducted using a combination of thematic and discourse analysis to interpret overarching themes and elicit silences in the dominant discourses that were interpreted across the data. The findings from the analysis suggest that health care professionals’ education and training lacks the cultural context of FGM which seems to have an impact on the provision of maternity services for FGM survivors. Although risk assessments appeared to be dominant in the discourse of maternity care, this discourse appears to constrain health care professionals in maternity services from providing culturally responsive care. This appeared to lead to a silence of cultural sensitivity when providing care to FGM survivors. Themes that were interpreted from the data suggest that mental health services are not seamless in maternity services for FGM survivors which appeared to relate to constraints in care provision as well as knowledge and education and communication issues with and amongst health care professionals. This finding led to the conception of a novel model of cultural silence around FGM which can be used to determine cultural dissonance in health care settings. Furthermore, recommendations include the development of working groups of FGM survivors and key stakeholders in the co-design and production of clinical guidance and education for health care professionals. Strategic planning for the implementation of mental health care collaboration in maternity services is recommended as well as the requirement of further research of mental health care in maternity services for FGM survivors.
    • Finding a Comfortable Fit: Practitioners’ Understanding of the Sociopolitical Context and its Role in Psychotherapy.

      Primrose,Yvette; Hart, Nicola; Allen, Lynn (University of Wolverhampton, 2011-04)
      Objectives: Inclusion of sociopolitical context in therapeutic interventions is under-researched, largely limited to practitioners’ addressing diversity issues in therapy. Relevant studies have shown both trainees and qualified practitioners experience anxiety and discomfort associated with uncertainties about effectively incorporating diversity and sociopolitical context. Although various models exist to aid systematic case conceptualisation incorporating sociopolitical factors, these are not widely used. The majority of relevant literature continues to concentrate on idiosyncratic conceptual models specific to theoretical approaches. This study aimed to discover how qualified practitioners currently conceptualise and incorporate diversity and sociopolitical factors into practice. Design: Given the lack of research available to inform the area, a grounded theory study was conducted as an exploratory exercise. The qualitative approach was adopted to investigate practitioners’ subjective experiences of their current practice. Constructivist assumptions underpinned the approach to the data, leading to use of Charmaz’s (2006) version of the grounded theory approach. Method: Theoretical sampling was used to recruit the 13 participants. Two focus groups and 8 individual interviews were conducted. Analysis: Two models emerged, representing the processes practitioners engaged in to “find a comfortable fit”, and the range of contexts within which the processes took place. Personal and professional dissonance emerged as a central feature of practitioner development. Discussion: The study highlighted the contribution of dissonance and the situated nature of the practitioner as major contributors affecting how sociopolitical issues are conceptualised and addressed in therapy. Further research is needed to clarify how these factors may most usefully contribute to best practice. However, multiple ecological contexts cited as levels of influence add a degree of complexity that will require operationalizing by those wishing to investigate this area in the future.
    • Finite element analysis of total knee replacement considering gait cycle load and malalignment

      Shi, Junfen (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-10)
      This research has investigated the influence of gait cycle, malalignment and overweight on total knee replacements using a finite element method. Dynamic and finite element models of fixed- and mobile-bearing implants have been created and solved; the fixed- and mobile-bearing implants demonstrated different performance on movement and contact pressure distribution in the tibio-femoral contact surfaces. More contact areas were found in the mobilebearing implant than in the fixed-bearing implant, but the maximum contact pressures were almost the same in both. The thickness of the tibial bearing component influenced the fixed- and mobile-bearing implants differently. A dynamic model of an implanted knee joint has been developed using MSC/ADAMS and MSC/MARC software. Stress shielding was found in the distal femur in the implanted knee joint. The stresses and strains in the distal femur were found to increase with body weight, especially during the stance phase. Serious stress shielding and more bone loss appear in condition of overweight. The increase of bone loss rate and stress in the distal femur with increase of body weight will result in a higher risk of migration of femoral component after total knee replacement. The peg size effect has been studied using this dynamic model; a longer peg with smaller diameter was found to be the best. Varus/valgus malalignment redistributed the tibio-femoral contact force and stress/strain distribution in the distal femur. The difference between contact forces on the medial and lateral condyle decreased in the valgus malalignment condition. Contact pressure increased in the varus/valgus malalignment condition in the dynamic models of both the fixed- and mobile-bearing implant. However, the mobile-bearing implant performed better in conditions of malalignment, especially malrotation. Body weight had less influence on the maximum contact pressure in the mobile-bearing implant.
    • First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post-1992 university

      Cohn, Eleanor Jr; McGinty, Samantha Jr (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education. First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education. First year Humanities and Social Science students’ experiences of engaging with written feedback in a post- 1992 university This thesis examines students’ experiences of engaging with written formative feedback in a post-1992 university. A body of literature on ‘engagement with feedback’ in higher education presents the student as somehow lacking the motivation to engage with feedback. The principles of a feminist methodology were adopted in an attempt to present the underrepresented views of students on the issue of their engagement with feedback. Participants were from two first year undergraduate modules which provided formative feedback on assignments. Qualitative research methods were used: 24 semi-structured interviews, 50 reflective writing documents and 83 questionnaires were collated for open-ended responses and descriptive patterns. Following an analysis of this data, an innovative model was developed. The ‘Student perspective on engaging with feedback model’ was based on the three phases students moved through when engaging with feedback, which was influenced by the type and style of feedback they required at different stages of their transition. This transition involved a period of liminality (a state of betwixt and between) as individuals waited to go through a rite of passage, which often led to students finding themselves in ‘stuck places’ and experiencing feelings of ‘being wrong’. The model demonstrates how firstly, students used the feedback as a ‘sign’ to confirm their learner identities. Secondly, students used the feedback to improve. They valued a personalised dialogue to enable them to do this successfully. Thirdly, they focused on future-orientated feedback, relating to employability and grades. These findings provide the basis for recommendations to HE tutors suggesting that changes to assessment practices and feedback comments may be beneficial for first year undergraduates as they navigate their transition to learning in higher education.
    • Fish consumption and dementia in older people: impacts and determinants

      Chen, Ruoling; Bakre, Aishat T (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-01)
      Background: Dementia is one of the world's biggest health problems and is a major public health challenge that is becoming more common as the aged population grows. There is no known cure for dementia, and thus more efforts have been made to investigate its risk or protective factors for prevention. Previous studies suggested that increased consumption of fish reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, it is unclear whether the consumption of fish was associated with the risk of dementia and outcomes of people with dementia. Also, few studies have specifically examined factors influencing the consumption of fish in older people, despite the world population aging. The purpose of this research project was to conduct a systematic literature review and examine the determinants and impacts of fish consumption on the incidence and mortality of dementia in older people using a convergent parallel database mixed methodological approach. Methods: This study employed a systematic literature review and a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches that is based on a large cohort study dataset from China and two focus group discussions from the United Kingdom. In 2007-2009, 6071 participants aged ≥60 years were randomly selected from urban and rural communities in five-provinces, China. Using a standard interview method, participants’ socio-economic status, disease risk factors and fish consumption over the past two years were documented at baseline and this was followed up until 2012. The data of the cohort were analysed in multivariate adjusted logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models. In 2018, the focus group discussions that consisted of 12 older adults were conducted in the UK, and the qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis. Results: The findings of these studies demonstrated that increased consumption of fish was associated with reduced risk of dementia and all-cause mortality among older people. The study also examined and found that large socioeconomic inequalities, and certain lifestyle, psychosocial factors and health-related conditions are significant determinants of fish consumption. The qualitative study further revealed that participants consume fish for its taste, flavour, the desire for variety of food and the nutritional and health benefit including reducing the risk of dementia and other health outcomes. Although cost, bony/scaly fish, smell and availability/accessibility of fish were highlighted as the major barriers of fish consumption. Conclusions: This research has provided evidence for preventing dementia and reducing all-cause mortality through adequate fish consumption. The findings of the study should be extended to improve public health policy, and this could form the basis for further research.
    • Five go to academia: narratives of becoming

      Devlin, Linda; Harris, Stephen (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09-23)
      This autoethnographic inquiry aims to capture the complexity within the storied life history accounts of five academics, including my own, regarding the experiences they believe shaped the becoming of their workplace self. The individual stories are narrated, and then discussed collectively to encourage dialogue and deepen understanding. This inquiry is set against the context of previous research that focusses on the impact neoliberal policy and practice places upon the academic (Shore & Wright 2000; Morley, 2004; Harris, 2005; Billot, 2010; Floyd & Dimmock, 2011; Fanghanel, 2012). However, as a postmodern study, recognising ‘self’ as a transposable, contested and fluid entity it casts a wider lens to support this inquiry’s aim, and its two subordinate research outcomes. The first outcome is to inform my own academic and management practice by drawing on Bourdieu’s (1992; 1996) notion of capital and habitus. The second outcome is to develop and then test two multi-disciplinary conceptual frameworks that can be used, amended, or indeed discarded by self and identity researchers when meaning-making qualitative findings (Rainbow & Rose, 1994). The first of these frameworks draws mainly on the three broad categories of differing selves identified by Trede (2012), while the second returns to Bourdieu to consider his notion of ‘world hypothesis’, one that rejects dualisms (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992, p.11). The methodological strategy I use is informed primarily by both the five key features of analytic autoethnography (Anderson, 2006, pp.379-386) and Frank’s (2010, pp.105-110) six acts of dialogical narrative analysis preparation. I use four research questions to individually examine each storied transcript from different epistemic angles. The four questions, two aligned to each research outcome, seek out the socio-cultural power constructs that influence a participant’s temporal, synchronic and agentic understanding of the becoming of their academic self (Bamberg, 2011). Findings of the influences that shape academic self include, but are not limited to, parental expectations, life-history influences, immigration, race, gender, workplace experience outside of the university, as well as the impact of neoliberalism. These then inform recommendations that centre on the development of my own academic practice, as well as wider scholarly, and institutional ones.
    • Fixed-shop retailing: Shrewsbury and Woverhampton 1660-1900

      Collins, Diane (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      Disregard for the everyday and the ordinary often leads to unwarranted neglect. This for many decades was the fate of shop retailing in terms of historical investigation and even intellectual debate. Yet, more recently research concerned with identifying the emergence of a consumer society has stimulated interest in the development of the retail sector in terms of the timing of growth and the extent of change. Within this context this thesis investigates the structure and organisation of shop retailing, and the gender of shop retailers in two contrasting communities: Shrewsbury and Wolverhampton 1660-1900. The aims of this research are twofold. First it will be demonstrated that a longitudinal perspective is not only possible but also imperative in determining the nature of short-term change in the retail sector. Diverse sources are used comparatively to address the conceptual and methodological difficulties, which have previously hindered analyses of existing research. A numerical analysis of the number of shops, trades within shops, specialist nature and scale of shops indicates that the move towards a modem system of retailing was determined as much by factors of demand as changes in supply. An evaluation has also been made of the impact of retail change on the gender of shop owners, employers and employees. Throughout the period men owned-more shops, employed more shop workers and had access to more trades than women. Yet, by 1900 they served apprenticeships less often, were less likely to become shop owners than two centuries earlier and faced increasing competition for employment in large-scale drapery stores. The pattern was somewhat reversed for women. With the exception of the millinery trades women only became shop owners c1700 when they were widowed. In this capacity they were not restricted regarding the trades they could enter. Single women rarely owned shops and had no access to the great majority of trades. By c1900 single, married and widowed women owned shops but are found in a limited number of trades. This study shows that not only is it possible to adopt a longitudinal framework but also necessary if the extent and pace of change recorded for the nineteenth century is to be accurately assessed. Thus it has been possible to determine that despite the move to modernity, and this was more incremental than rapid, most shops were still owner or family run, small rather than large-scale and with the exception of one or two trades the province of male ownership and male labour.
    • Forensic Taphonomy: Investigating the Post Mortem Biochemical Properties of Cartilage and Fungal Succession as Potential Forensic Tools

      Bolton, Shawna N. (2015)
      Post mortem interval (PMI – the time elapsed since death and discovery) is important to medicolegal investigations. It helps to construct crucial time lines and assists with the identification of unknown persons by inclusion or exclusion of a suspect’s known movements. Accurate methodologies for establishing PMI are limited to about 48-hours. Such methods involve use of increasing levels of potassium in vitreous humour, and algor mortis. This study is two-fold. Firstly, it explores the biomolecular changes in degrading porcine cartilage buried in soil environments and its potential to determine PMI in the crucial two days to two months period. Trotters were interred in a number of graves at two distinct locations exhibiting dissimilar soil environments. Weekly disinterments (for 6 weeks) resulted in dissection for cartilage samples which were processed for protein immunoblot analyses and cell vitality assays. Results demonstrate that aggrecan, a major structural proteoglycan, produces high (230kDa) and low (38kDa) molecular weight cross-reactive polypeptides (CRPs) within cartilage extracellular matrix. The 230kDa CRP degrades in a reproducible manner irrespective of the different soil environments utilised. As PMI increases, aggrecan diminishes and degrades forming heterogeneous subpopulations with time. Immunodetection of aggrecan ceases when joint exposure to the soil environment occurs. At this time, aggrecan is metabolised by soil microbes. The molecular breakdown of cartilage proteoglycans has potential for use as a reliable indicator of PMI, irrespective of differing soil environments, beyond the 48-hours period. Likewise, vitality assays also demonstrated viable chondrocytes for as long as 35 PM days. The second component of this study examined the fungal activity associated with trotters buried below ground. Results indicate that fungal growth was considerably influenced by soil chemistry and changes in the environment. Fungal colonisation did not demonstrate temporal patterns of succession. The results of this study indicate that cartilage has the potential to prolong PMI determination well beyond the current 48- and 100-hour limitations posed by various other soft tissue methods. Moreover, the long-term post mortem viability of chondrocytes presents an opportunity to explore DNA extraction from these cells for the purpose of establishing a positive identification for unidentified remains. On the contrary, the growth and colonisation patterns of post putrefactive fungi in relation to decomposing porcine trotters proved to be futile for estimating PMI. Therefore, fungi may not be a suitable candidate for evaluating PMI during the early phase fungal activity.
    • Fostering personal resilience in the Royal Air Force: a study of Force Development and Adventurous Personal Development Training

      Devlin, Linda; Riley, Steve (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-07)
      Resilient airmen and women are pivotal strategic game-changers in the RAF's next generation contribution to the United Kingdom's Defence Strategy. Resilience is the ability to learn and bounce forward from adversity, thus developing an increased personal resilience baseline to cope with future challenges. Whilst providing these strategic capabilities, RAF personnel must remain physically, spiritually, socially and psychologically resilient. In addressing this force resilience tetrad, contextualised Force Development and Adventurous Personal Development Training (FD/APDT) interventions contribute towards RAF participant’s resilience development. This thesis provides participant responses of RAF FD/APDT participant’s (n=237) perceived resilience, before and immediately after, a five-day RAF FD/APDT intervention with focus groups (n=33) conducted six months later. The initial data from the sequential explanatory mixed-methods research (Connor Davidson Resilience Scale (CDRS)-25 questionnaire and focus groups) confirmed perceived resilience development for psychological, physical, social and spiritual resilience factors identified within the CDRS-25. Evidence from follow-up focus groups suggests that resilience is further enhanced over time, with greater perceived resilience growth positively affecting resilience across the four domains reported after six months. Findings from this research further outlines the requirement for a through-career resilience educational pathway for RAF personnel to reinforce longitudinal resilience behaviours and attitudes. The enhanced personal and organisational resilience combined with the improvements in primary role efficiency developed through FD/APDT, is proposed as a key enabler for the RAF’s Whole Force socio-cultural resilience enhancement, to empower RAF personnel to meet the demands of ‘next generation’ RAF resilience requirements.
    • Fountain in perpetuity: a historical examination of Islamic fountain design from the ninth to the sixteenth centuries and a contemporary interpretation

      Shokri, Hassan M. (University of Wolverhampton, 2000)
      This thesis is an examination of the development of fountain design in the work of selected key Muslim engineers, covering the period from the ninth to the sixteenth centuries lt first introduces, translates and examines a previously undocumented fifteenth -century manuscript, Al-Riv. %a/r a! -Qudsiya fi Amel a! -Shadriºw-ßu»1 wal Fisgit'u (The Qudsiya Treatise in Constructing a Cascade and a Fountain), which was discovered by the researcher'. Since the manuscript describes a self-operated fountain, the notion of perpetual motion in philosophical and engineering concepts is analysed and presented with an attention to historical accounts, and in the light of practical experiments The investigation of the design of eighteen fountains designed at the high point of Islamic civilisation by the renowned engineers: Banu Musa (9th century), alJazari (13`s century) and Taqi al-Din (161h century) is also characterised by my discovery of two manuscripts-. These appear to be originally contemporary copies but have clearly been copied by hand many times with a resulting lack of clarity. The works of these engineers have been studied, in modem times, by prominent Western historians and engineers The evidence for the existence of the 18 fountains takes the form of descriptions and simple diagrams. However, these studies have not been carried out in any depth, and therefore have not resulted in any greater understanding of the nature of such engineering design. In my study, design, manufacture and operation of these fountains are studied as a specialised and specific branch of Islamic engineering Furthermore, a historical understanding of the significant nature of the fountain as a cultural, artistic and engineering product of the Islamic civilisation is brought into focus, and subjected to a practical verification. A major aspect of this study has been to interpret these accounts and through practical experiments verify the original claims and present an account through drawings and video-tape of their original working formats. This, together with the translation of the hitherto unrecorded document has allowed me to present fuller and more comprehensible account of Islamic fountain design with special reference to the roles of the identified engineers. From the experimental work carried out on specific engineering designs, remarkable result are documented which may introduce, as this thesis suggests, a new concept of designing fountain based on the new application of medieval techniques. The investigative and experimental works in this study have enhanced the statement the researcher has tried to deliver in a form of a contemporary fountaindesign. The development of the fountain mechanism as well as the concept of design, the researcher introduces, allows for a fruitful interplay between art, science and particularly engineering, of the past with their counterparts of the present.