• Can elite male academy players be taught to perform under pressure?

      Devonport, Tracey; Lane, Andy; Nicholls, Wendy; Kent, Sophie (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-04)
      To gain a professional contract in UK academy football, young players must demonstrate an ability to perform under pressure (Larsen et al., 2014). A systematic review was conducted to synthesise findings from applied studies that focus on interventions developed to enhance an individual's ability to cope under performance pressure. Simulation training alongside cognitive-behavioural (CB) workshops was an intervention format that may develop an academy football player’s ability to perform within the highly-pressurised environment of academy football (Bell, Hardy and Beattie, 2013). A limitation of much simulation training that is intended to help individuals perform in highly-pressurised environments is the failure to generate meaningful performance pressure. Similarly, CB workshops can also be limited in their effectiveness due to a failure to identify contextually specific factors that may develop coping skills. Such factors should be embedded within CB workshops to align with the needs of individuals in their respective pressure domain. Moreover, study one of this programme of research aimed to identify meaningful pressure conditioned stimuli, along with factors perceived to be facilitative or debilitative of performance under pressure within academy soccer. The perceptions of pressure, and factors of influence identified within study one were used by academy coaches to inform the design of a contextually specific pressure intervention. Study two, presents and evaluates this pressure training intervention. A mixed-methods approach using quantitative (simulation training data) and qualitative data (interviews with players and reflective diary extracts) provided insight into the effectiveness of the pressure intervention. Findings indicate that simulation training alone could enhance performance under pressure within age groups 11-14 years. Players across all age groups described improvement in confidence, emotional intelligence, meta-cognition, focus and challenge appraisal following the intervention. Future research is warranted to investigate the benefits of simulation training and CB workshops within a larger sample, over-time.
    • Can the empathic underpinning of counselling psychologists detect gelotophobic responses to expressions of joy above non-counselling psychologists and psychology others?

      Danny Hinton; Tracey Platt; Flowers, Trevor A. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021)
      Gelotophobes have a negative attribution bias skewing appraisal of laughter meaning expressions of joy negatively affect interpersonal interactions and could be a barrier to positive outcomes in therapy. This study investigated participants’ perceptions of gelotophobes and non-gelotophobes responding to expressions of joy and examined whether the empathic underpinnings of counselling psychology afforded greater empathy and was a predictive factor in correctly identifying facial affect. This study was a quasi-experimental design employing a quantitative method. Participants (N = 144) consisted of counselling psychologists (CP) (n = 44), non-psychologists (NP) (n = 54), and psychology other (PO) (n = 46). Participants were shown emotional stimuli, pre-coded using Facial Action Coding System (FACS), depicting gelotophobes and non-gelotophobes responding to expressions of joy and asked to identify the emotion from a choice of seven basic emotions. Participants also completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and the Empathy Quotient (EQ) questionnaires to discern affective and cognitive empathy levels. Results found significant differences in the correct identification, and perception, of non-gelotophobes’ and gelotophobes’ facial affect. CP had significantly higher levels of cognitive empathy and identified significantly more gelotophobe emotional states than NP, but differences with the PO were non-significant. There was also a positive correlation between cognitive empathy and number of emotions correctly identified. Cognitive empathy, however, did not mediate between participant group and correctly identifying gelotophobes’ facial affect; as such, further research is needed to understand these findings. There were also no significant differences in affective empathy. Research highlights factors contributing to gelotophobes’ interpersonal difficulties, a factor in the development of gelotophobia, as well as factors that will facilitate positive therapeutic outcomes.
    • Can web indicators be used to estimate the citation impact of conference papers in engineering?

      Aduku, Kuku Joseph (2019-02-08)
      Although citation counts are widely used to support research evaluation, they can only reflect academic impacts, whereas research can also be useful outside academia. There is therefore a need for alternative indicators and empirical studies to evaluate them. Whilst many previous studies have investigated alternative indicators for journal articles and books, this thesis explores the importance and suitability of four web indicators for conference papers. These are readership counts from the online reference manager Mendeley and citation counts from Google Patents, Wikipedia and Google Books. To help evaluate these indicators for conference papers, correlations with Scopus citations were evaluated for each alternative indicator and compared with corresponding correlations between alternative indicators and citation counts for journal articles. Four subject areas that value conferences were chosen for the analysis: Computer Science Applications; Computer Software Engineering; Building & Construction Engineering; and Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering. There were moderate correlations between Mendeley readership counts and Scopus citation counts for both journal articles and conference papers in Computer Science Applications and Computer Software. For conference papers in Building & Construction Engineering and Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, the correlations between Mendeley readers and citation counts are much lower than for journal articles. Thus, in fields where conferences are important, Mendeley readership counts are reasonable impact indicators for conference papers although they are better impact indicators for journal articles. Google Patent citations had low positive correlations with citation counts for both conference papers and journal articles in Software Engineering and Computer Science Applications. There were negative correlations for both conference papers and journal articles in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering. However, conference papers in Building and Construction Engineering attracted no Google Patent citations. This suggests that there are disciplinary differences but little overall value for Google Patent citations as impact indicators in engineering fields valuing conferences. Wikipedia citations had correlations with Scopus citations that were statistically significantly positive only in Computer Science Applications, whereas the correlations were not statistically significantly different from zero in Building & Construction Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering and Software Engineering. Conference papers were less likely to be cited in Wikipedia than journal articles were in all fields, although the difference was minor in Software Engineering. Thus, Wikipedia citations seem to have little value in engineering fields valuing conferences. Google Books citations had positive significant correlations with Scopus-indexed citations for conference papers in all fields except Building & Construction Engineering, where the correlations were not statistically significantly different from zero. Google Books citations seemed to be most valuable impact indicators in Computer Science Applications and Software Engineering, where the correlations were moderate, than in Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering, where the correlations were low. This means that Google Book citations are valuable indicators for conference papers in engineering fields valuing conferences. Although evidence from correlation tests alone is insufficient to judge the value of alternative indicators, the results suggest that Mendeley readers and Google Books citations may be useful for both journal articles and conference papers in engineering fields that value conferences, but not Wikipedia citations or Google Patent citations.
    • Caregiver wellbeing and the role of resilience in seeking support when caring for an individual with dementia

      Darby, Richard; Taiwo, Abigail; Jew, Ellen (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-03-31)
      Background & aims: To provide appropriate and suitable support to caregivers of people with dementia, it is important to explore the risk and protective factors related to their psychological wellbeing. The aim of this thesis, is firstly, to highlight lived experiences of dementia caregiver’s; secondly, to explore the role of psychological resilience in their ability to adapt and maintain their role; and finally, to identify and examine their perspectives of current support services in meeting their needs. Method: A sequential explanatory mixed method design was used. In Phase I participants completed a postal survey (n=45), including demographic information, a healthrelated quality of life measure and a psychological resilience scale. Results were used to inform and direct Phase II, in which semi-structured interviews were conducted (n=11), transcribed and analysed using thematic analyses. Results: The quantitative findings indicated that participants with higher mental health outcomes and high psychological resilience were more likely to access support services. Physical wellbeing had a greater association with factors related to providing care. Seven main themes were identified in the qualitative analysis, the majority relating strongly to a high degree of restricted opportunities and encroaching responsibilities. The findings indicate that caregivers are required to be flexible and adapt to their individual circumstances, within an ever-evolving situation. Implications: The results of this study suggest that identifying those with low levels of psychological resilience and wellbeing may be useful in identifying those in greater need of support. Recommendations for potential service developments are discussed, as well as the implications for Counselling Psychology practice.
    • “Catching” emotions: Emotion regulation in sport dyads

      Friesen, Andrew P. (2013-06-01)
      The purpose of the present research programme was to inform the development and subsequent delivery of an intervention to enhance interpersonal emotion regulation. Although emotion regulation has been emphasised due to its importance in explaining performance and well-being, the focus of research has predominantly been on intrapersonal emotion regulation. The present study addressed the dual-gap in research by extending research in interpersonal emotion regulation in general and developing and testing theory-led interventions for use in sport. A three-stage programme of research was set up with stage one reviewing the extant literature before proposing a social-functional approach to emotions, and in particular the Emotions As Social Information (EASI) model, as possible theoretical frameworks for use in sport. Qualitative methods were emphasised as these are particularly useful in studies seeking to identify mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of interventions. Stage two began with a narrative analysis to outline the potential social functions and consequences of emotional expressions, verbalisations, and actions in ice hockey. Two ice hockey players, each captain of their respective team, participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants described how emotions informed them of important circumstances in their environment that required attention and prepared them for such challenges at the individual level. At a dyadic level, emotions helped participants understand the emotional states and intentions of their teammates contributing toward an assessment of the extent to which they were prepared to face their challenges. At a group level, emotions helped participants lead their teammates in meeting team goals. Finally, at the cultural level, emotions helped participants maintain culture-related identities. Stage two continued with examining the processes, strategies used, and potential moderating factors in interpersonal emotion regulation among 16 ice hockey players from an English professional league. An inductive and deductive analysis revealed 22 distinct strategies used to regulate teammates’ emotions. These were distinguished between strategies that were verbal or behavioural in nature. They were further distinguished between strategies employed to initiate interpersonal emotion regulation through affective and cognitive channels. Moderating factors in the interpersonal emotion regulation process were consistent with the EASI model. Stage three involved the development, delivery and assessment of the intervention. A British ice hockey team was recruited and the intervention was delivered over the course of three competitive seasons. The primary intervention goal was to improve interpersonal emotion regulation as evidenced by being able to accurately identify when an emotion regulation strategy was needed, and select and use a strategy that changed emotions in the direction and strength intended (Webb, Miles, & Sheeran, 2012). Given the link between emotion and performance, it was expected that the intervention would bring about improvements in individual and team performance. Techniques to bring about change comprised of brief contact interventions, dressing room debriefs, feedback from emotional intelligence assessments, and the practitioner managing himself as an intervention tool. The merit of the intervention was judged through practitioner reflections, social validity assessments, pre- and post-intervention measures of emotional intelligence and performance. Collectively, the present research programme contributes to the emotion regulation literature not only in sport, but also in psychology in general. A key achievement of the programme has been the development of a theoretically sound but ecologically valid intervention designed to improve the interpersonal emotion regulation skills of athletes. Although the intervention primarily catered to the needs of the current team and utilised the professional philosophy of the researcher-practitioner, the intervention provides support for enhanced performance derived from theory explaining a social-functional account of emotions. Future research might use the theory and approach to testing the theory in different sports to examine the role of each sport sub-culture on interpersonal emotion regulation.
    • Changes to Associative Learning Processes in Later Life

      Walford, Edward (University of Wolverhampton, 2007)
      The present research sought to describe and explain age related changes to associative learning processes. Eleven experiments were conducted using a human conditional learning paradigm. Background data on health, lifestyle, and cognitive ability were collected and used as predictor variables in multiple regression analyses. Experiments 1 to 8 were formative, and found that older participants showed an overall age related decline in learning ability exacerbated by the number of stimuli and outcomes used, and the concurrent presentation of different problem types. Configural models of learning (e.g. Pearce, 1994, 2002) best predicted young participants’ learning whereas older people’s learning was more consistent with elemental models (e.g. Rescorla-Wagner, 1972), suggesting an age related change in generalisation processes. Those who learned problems better were also more likely to be able to articulate a rule that had helped them learn the problem. Age itself was the most predominant predictor of accuracy in these experiments. Experiments 9, 10, and 11 were multiple stage experiments that looked at the extent of pro- and retro-active interference in learning. Experiments 9 and 10 used easy and hard HCL problems to examine the role of rule induction in learning. Older participants who had learned initial discriminations better were more prone to pro-active interference in both experiments, the extent of which was predicted most reliably by fluid intelligence. Rule learning had a profound effect on participants’ predictions during the unreinforced test stage. In Experiment 9 (Easy-Hard) younger participants suffered from more retroactive interference than older people. This pattern was far less pronounced in Experiment 10, (Hard-Easy) suggesting that problem order affected the way participants generalised from rule-based knowledge. This observation is inexplicable by associative learning theories, and explanation may require a problem solving approach. Experiment 11 examined feature-based generalisation. Again older participants suffered more proactive and retroactive interference and elemental theories predicted their responses best, whereas younger participants responses were consistent with configural models of learning. In this instance, resistance to pro- and retro-active interference was predicted by fluid intelligence. Overall the research concluded that there is a demonstrable, complexity dependent change in associative learning processes in later life. It appears that humans have an increasing tendency to rely on elemental, rather than configural processes of generalisation in later life, and this leads to overgeneralisation between stimuli and an inability to resist pro- and retroactive interference in learning. This may be as a result of an inhibitory or source monitoring failure as a consequence of atrophy in the frontal lobes of the brain, although some of the learning deficits are explicable through mnemonic decline.
    • Characterisation of genetic and epigenetic aberrations in paediatric high grade glioma

      Channathodiyil, Prasanna (2016)
      Paediatric high grade glioma (HGG), including diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) are highly aggressive tumours with no effective cures. Lack of understanding of the molecular biology of these tumours, in part due to lack of well-characterised pre-clinical models, is a great challenge in the development of novel therapies. Analysis of paired cell culture/biopsy samples in this study revealed that paediatric HGG short-term cell cultures retain many of the tumour characteristics in vivo. Using a genome-wide approach, copy number, gene and miRNA expression, and methylation changes were characterised in 17 paediatric HGG-derived short-term cell cultures including 3 from DIPG. The majority of the genomic changes were unique from those arising in adult HGG. Approximately 65% (11/17) of paediatric HGG short-term cell cultures had balanced genetic profiles resembling normal karyotypes. The most frequent copy number gain and loss were detected at 14q11.2 (94%) and 8p11.23-p11.22 (59%), respectively. H3F3A (K27M) mutation was present in 2/17 (12%) cases and concurrent loss of CDKN2A and BRAFV600E in 1/17 (6%) case. Genes involved in reelin/PI3K signaling (DAB1), RTK signaling (PTPRE), and arginine biosynthesis (ASS1 and ASL) were frequently deregulated by methylation in these tumours. The anti-growth and anti-migratory properties of DAB1 and PTPRE were demonstrated in vitro. Preliminary investigations validated the therapeutic potential of ADI-PEG20 (arginine depletion), and PI-103 (PI3K/mTOR inhibition) in a subset of paediatric HGG short-term cell cultures. This study has identified novel genetic and epigenetic changes in paediatric HGG that may, following further validation, be translated into potential biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets.
    • Characterisation of mechanically alloyed feedstock for laser-powder bed fusion: titanium silicon carbide metal matrix composite

      Lyall, Iain (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-03)
      The research presented investigates the characterisation of new materials for the additive manufacturing (AM) industry. Herein, a metal matrix composite (MMC) with a titanium (Ti6Al4V) matrix reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) is characterised. The research investigated an innovative and novel feedstock production process involving elements of mechanical alloying, tailored to the requirements of the layer based additive manufacturing (ALM) process. Systematic evaluation and subsequent characterisation of process parameters including laser power, scan speed and hatch spacing are presented. A new and novel experimental route is discussed. Detailed findings are presented with a robust methodology for producing elemental feedstock in small batch sizes, and process parameter characterisation for in-situ alloying for laser bed fusion. Evidence showed that acceptable parameters could be found for mechanical alloying with a rotational speed of 500 rev/min and an alloying time of twenty-four minutes that showed minimal and acceptable changes in size and morphology, therefore enabling the feedstock to be used within the Laser-Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) process also referred to as Powder Bed Fusion (PBF). New knowledge is presented in the form of experimental methodologies, namely single bead evaluation in relation to energy density, the evaluation and comparison of single beads, the use of mini-chambers to experiment with reduced levels of feedstock, the two-rail system to accurately deliver powder for single layer experimentation and equations developed to calculate energy density for single beads and the maximum volume of reinforcement material achievable from particle size data. MMC material was successfully synthesised due to the use of the methodologies described, with silicon carbide (SiC), silicon oxide (SiO2) and titanium silicide (Ti5Si4) detected as chemical compositions within the sample.
    • Characterisation of Potential Replacements for Nickel Compounds used in Decorative Chromium Plating

      Oduoza, Chike.F.; Hingley, Stacey Louise (University of Wolverhampton, 2013-11)
      The electroplating industries use soluble nickel salts in numerous applications. Over the past few years this has become problematic due to the reclassification of these salts from a harmful substance to now a toxic substance. The introduction of the legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & restriction of CHemicals) has meant the electroplating industry has had to use less harmful chemicals where possible, thus meaning companies are investing in research to find an alternative to the nickel deposit. In this study, alternative deposits under investigation as a potential replacement to the nickel deposit under the decorative chromium deposit has been characterised in terms of the appearance, surface topography and corrosion resistance by using spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), linear polarisation, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and accelerated corrosion salt spray methods. Spectrophotometry identified that a white Cu-Sn alloy gave a bluer appearance in comparison to the nickel deposit, when the chromium deposit was plated on top this modified the colour slightly giving the white Cu-Sn alloy with chromium a similar appearance to the nickel and chromium deposit. The yellow Cu-Sn alloy was yellow in colour with a visibly dull appearance, but when chromium was plated on top of the yellow Cu-Sn alloy the colour was improved but still remained dull. The SEM and AFM results identified that the white Cu-Sn alloy deposit had similar nodulated topography to the nickel deposit and when the chromium was plated on top the topography changed only slightly. While the yellow Cu-Sn alloy deposits showed a more crystalline structure and increased roughness in comparison to the nickel deposit, the chromium deposit plated on top did not change the structure of the underlying deposit but it did reduce the roughness slightly. Electrochemical corrosion tests showed the white Cu-Sn alloy to have a higher polarisation resistance compared to the nickel deposit, thus suggesting it would provide similar corrosion protection to the nickel deposit. The yellow Cu-Sn alloy proved to have a faster corrosion rate in comparison to the nickel deposit. Accelerated corrosion tests proved the white Cu-Sn alloy to be more corrosive than the nickel despite the electrochemical test results, it was concluded that the white Cu-Sn alloy deposit was porous and therefore provided less corrosion protection to the substrate in comparison to the nickel deposit. The yellow Cu-Sn alloy had a lower corrosion protection than the nickel deposit and when combined as a duplex Cu-Sn alloy with the white Cu-Sn alloy deposit there was no improvement in corrosion performance. The plated chromium deposit did improve the corrosion protection for most deposits but none of the alternatives could match the corrosion protection offered by the standard nickel with chromium deposit. This study concluded that the white Cu-Sn alloy with chromium deposit was found to be a potential alternative to the nickel with chromium deposit for applications where appearance is primary, no alternative could be found to match the corrosion protection provided by the standard nickel and chromium process.
    • Characterisation of shape of fine recycled crushed coloured glass and the effect on the properties of structural concrete when used as a fine aggregate replacement

      Koh, Chon Jin (2014-12)
      In order to reduce the use of landfilling within waste management great emphasis is being placed on waste reduction and recycling. Each year in the UK approximately 2.5 Mt of waste glass is produced and approximately half of this waste is not recyclable. Therefore alternative ways need to be found for using waste glass and one possibility is to use it within concrete as a replacement for cement and/ or aggregate. In the research programme concrete mixes were tested which had 0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of the fine aggregate replaced by crushed waste glass. All glass was originally in bottle form and was crushed to produce ‘sand’ which had a grading curve more-orless identical to fine aggregate obtained from a commercial supplier. Three colours of glass were studied, i.e. flint (clear), amber and green. Concretes were also made which contained a mixture of colours (in proportion according to the weight of each type of waste glass produced annually within the UK) and also a mixture of unwashed waste glasses. The overall concrete mix adopted for investigation, i.e. 1:2:4, was selected because of its wide use within industry, and all concrete was made with a water:cement content of 0.6 without the addition of plasticiser or ASR-retarding agents. The suite of laboratory tests included; slump, flow, initial and final setting time, ultrasonic pulse velocity, water absorption by immersion and capillarity rise, ASR measurement (volumetric and linear), compression strength at ages from 7 days to 365 days. Techniques of developed digital imaging and processing have been applied to the glass aggregate to quantify various particle shape factors, i.e. aspect ratio, percentage concavity, Riley inscribed sphericity and surface texture index. Statistical analysis has been used to compare the distribution of particle forms present within the fine aggregate materials used in the experimental work. Dimensional changes (in three orthogonal directions) were measured as concrete cubes hardened over a period up to 365 days. The length changes of concrete prisms were also measured over the same period of time. The resultant data indicated that a fine aggregate which comprised 25% glass and 75% sand would be categorised as “non-expansive”, i.e. the same as the sand on its own. As the proportion of glass in the fine aggregate became greater than the aggregate became more expansive but it did not exceed recommended limits.
    • Christian brethren, union brother: a study of the relationship between religious nonconformity and trade union leadership, in the life of the coal mining deputies' official, W. T. Miller (1880-1963)

      Ackers, Peter (University of Wolverhampton, 1993)
      This thesis explores, through a study of the life, work and times of WT Miller (1880-1963), the relationship between religious nonconformity and trade union leadership. It does this with with specific reference to two organisations with which Miller was involved during his life. One was the British protestant religious sect, the Churches of Christ, in the Wigan coalfield between the mid-nineteenth century and the Second World War. The other was the colliery deputies' trade union from its formation early In this century, through the inter-war period (when Miller became national President and Secretary), to the union's re-formation as the modern National Association of Colliery Overmen, Deputies, and Shotfirers, after coal nationalisation. The study attempts to understand the connection between Miller's religious ethic, developed within the Churches of Christ, and his trade union leadership style, as displayed In the colliery deputies' trade union between the wars. It draws on Max Weber's 119761 understanding of the 'elective affinity' between ascetic protestantism and this-wordly business entreprenuership, to analyse the relationship between a similar, but later form of religous sectarianism and labour movement leadership. To this end, the thesis employs and explores a biographical method of studying the 'social meaning' of working class religious attachment in labour history. This draws on a wide range of documentary and oral sources, relating to Wigan, Miller's family, the Churches of Christ, and the colliery deputies. Chapter One provides a critical summary of the coal mining labour history literature, with special reference to the main theme of trade union leadership, and the treatment of religious nonconformity, trade union moderation and the biographical method. Chapter Two considers Killer's hometown of Wigan, showing that though the unusual character of the Lancashire coalfield did not work to their advantage, nonconformists still played a key role in Wigan coal mining labour leadership, in both its Lib-Lab and Labour phases. Chapter Three depicts the specific circumstance of Miller's religious upbringing In a coalfield Back Street Bethel [McLeod 19841 between 1880 and the Great War, and contrasts this to the atmosphere of a more middle class chapel at the same time, and the same chapel in a later time period. It concludes that a combination of general ascetic protestant characteristics and the special circumstances of a democratic, self-governing, coal mining chapel account for Miller's gravitation into trade union leadership. Chapter Four explores Miller's adult trade union career through a number of themes - individual and collective status, industrial co-operation, individual and social responsibility, public service - which link his protestant religious ethic to a distinctive trade union style. Care is taken not to crudely explain the corporate policy of the trade union by one individual's religious beliefs. Instead, an 'elective affinity' is drawn between the type of union the deputies became and the sort of trade union style Miller's religious ethic predisposed him towards. Chapter Five summarises the evidence on Wigan, the Churches of Christ, and the deputies' trade union, and returns to the strengths and weaknesses of the biogrpahical method. After returning to Weber's framework, it concludes that Miller was a representative labour figure, who, along with many others like him, continued to play a central role in labour movement leadership up to the Second World War.
    • Chronic cardiac diseases and patients’ mental health: Exploring the impact of improving mental health on chronic heart failure prognosis and adherence to treatment behaviour in primary care based patients

      Morrissey, Hana; Ball, Patrick; Ahmed, Mariam; School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Science and Engineering (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-08)
      Introduction: Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome. In this study, the clinical area of focus is chronic heart failure (HF). The average age of chronic HF onset is 77-years-of-age, with most patients likely to be exposed to polypharmacy and to display poor adherence to therapy. HF management depends upon symptomatic treatment and cardiac-respiratory rehabilitation. Chronic conditions are known to increase the risk of mental ill health, which can increase the risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and poor self-caring behaviour including poor adherence to therapy. Aim: This study aimed to explore whether improving mental health and medication adherence behaviour, could improve heart failure prognosis. Methods and design: This was a mixed-methods study, where HF patients were reviewed face to face at 3-monthly intervals. Consultations included screening for medication adherence, depression, and anxiety; diagnostics and laboratory results review, referral to specialist services as required, and conversation with the patients regarding their medical conditions and medications. Results: Non-adherence was present in 28% (n=17) of the cohort. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was 31.1% (n=19). There was a 14.7% improvement of baseline blood pressure over the course of 6-months. Smoking was identified to have a significant negative impact on blood pressure over the course of the study (p < 0.05). There was a significant improvement in mental illhealth, and medication adherence behaviour (p < 0.05). Depression was found to have a significant impact on overall wellbeing (p < 0.01). Depression and anxiety were also found to have a significant effect on medication adherence behaviour (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05), respectively. Conclusion: This study draws the attention to the need for introduction of a new pathway for the management of patients diagnosed with HF. It is recommended that there should be concurrent screening and management of the patients’ mental health, wellbeing, and adherence to therapy in addition to the traditional HF management.
    • The chronotope of walking in the films of Andrea Arnold

      Colbert, Benjamin; Hanson, Lance (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      This thesis proposes that the act of walking functions as a dominant chronotope in the work of British filmmaker Andrea Arnold. Using Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept (1988), it demonstrates how walking mobilises a reading of the landscape and the female body that articulates their combined resistance to hegemonic narratives of exclusion and deprivation. Furthermore, by examining its chronotopicity, the function of walking as a discrete element is analysed to reveal its narrative, aesthetic, and contextual significance. Whilst previous studies of the cinematic flâneuse are restricted mainly to European and art-house cinema and their middle class protagonists, this thesis focuses attention on less affluent female characters whose walking takes place not in the metropolis but in the edgelands, suburbs, and social housing estates that constitute the contemporary built environment, along with Arnold’s depiction of the harsh rural landscape of nineteenth-century Yorkshire in Wuthering Heights (2011). This is a study of walking as depicted in Arnold’s cinematic output, along with the three short films with which she began her career, all of which focus upon strong female characters living in areas of economic and social deprivation. From a feminist perspective, her films are “power-to” narratives (Sutherland and Feltey, 2017) that show how female agency is predicated on emotional, and practical, resilience, and Arnold demonstrates this agency by foregrounding her protagonists’ physical and geographical mobility, using walking as their dominant mode of movement. The textual analysis draws on Laura U. Mark’s theories of haptic cinema to examine Arnold’s visual style, combined with a reading of Michel de Certeau whose work emphasises walking as a form of tactile, urban remapping. From this, a new way of interpreting women and walking emerges, and the term ‘haptic flâneuse’ is proposed to describe women’s sensory investigations, explorations, and encounters with the new urban landscape. The conclusions drawn show how walking scenes provide opportunities for female agency, and that such journeys function in excess of their narrative significance, creating an interpretative space to examine the structural, aesthetic, and contextual elements of the films. In this way, the walking chronotope acts as a lens through which Arnold’s work can be interpreted. In summary, this thesis contributes to knowledge in three ways: by providing the first detailed study of walking in Arnold’s oeuvre; by proposing the figure of the haptic flâneuse as a way of thinking about the experiences of women who walk in marginalised spaces; and by demonstrating how a chronotopic reading of walking scenes elevates them from a narrative means to an end to significant film elements in themselves.
    • Claims on construction contracts: a new management framework

      Vidogah, William (University of Wolverhampton, 1997)
      The contractor is required to submit well argued staternents of his entitlements upon the occurrence of defined events recognised by construction contracts. These are generally referred to as "clainis". It is a matter of record that the high incidence of disputes are the result of such claims. Two main strands of research and expert commentary has been followed to stem this tide. The first focuses on ensuring that the legal implication of terms of contract are understood. The other attempts to ensure that there is equitable risk allocation tinder construction contracts. Some reported research indicates that poor quality of claims management practice was perhaps one of the most important factors responsible for this phenomenon. Unfortunately, there has been no reported research into the most deficient aspects of the claims management process. The general aim of the research reported in this thesis attempts to fill the gap in the construction industry's understanding of claims management. The research involved: (i) an extensive review of the literature on claims, information management and technology, (ii) surveys and structured interviews of contractors and consultants and; (iii) case studies. Tile research confirmed the perceived central role of the Quantity Surveyor (QS) in claims management in addition to his traditional functions. It suggests that as a result of the QS's workloads, claims are usually left until projects are practically complete. Also contrary to conventional wisdom, most consultants to not object to tile principle of claims but rather reject claims because of lack of factual evidence to support them. This deficiency in clairn submissions frorn contractors is the result of lack of resources, the high cost of accessing the relevant paper records and/or the fact that information they submitted to support claims is usually captured by systems designed to produce internal accounting information which has, at best, only the most tenuous connection with claims. Further, although the technology required to reduce the expense of access to information from paper-sources is now well established, few contractors are even beginning to appreciate the values of these systerns. In addition no systems exist that are capable Of SUpporting every aspect of claims management. To improve the situation, the research proposes that : (i) a rnatrix of documents or their near equivalents that record resource use, performance and site events with reference to scheduled project activities be implemented; (ii) there should be a requirement to prepare and maintain resource-loaded CPM network schedules to aid the ascertainment of the cost and time impact of site events on specific activities. Standard specifications for these programmes and tile minirnurn requirements for keeping site records should also be incorporated with all standard forms of building and civil engineering contracts; (iii) to ensure an adequate standard of clairn documentation, it is desirable that tile requirements for claim submittals should be specified at project inception; (iv) the problerns with documents assembly, retrieval and access to data can be overcorne through the implementation of electronic document management systems; (v) ideological training of personnel to use IT tools and understand the need to change current clairris managernent practice should be undertaken and; (vi) the claims management function should be assigned to a member of tile project team specifically trained on large and mediurn sizes projects.
    • Cognitive, Emotional and Environmental Mediators of Early Parenting in High Risk Families

      Adamson-Macedo, Elvidina N.; Redshaw, Maggie; Del Priore, Christina; Barnes, Christopher (University of Wolverhampton, 2008)
      The UK currently has the highest number of premature births (babies born before 37 weeks gestation age and below 2.5kg) in Europe affecting around 70,000 babies and their caregivers each year. Consequently many interventions have been created to support the development of the preterm newborn and minimise the complications of prematurity. Many of the interventions developed have been predominantly tactile and have almost exclusively focused upon their effect upon the baby and not, for example considered the effect that this type of intervention might have upon the parents; specifically the mother, when they are the ones who perform the therapy. In fact there is a severe lack of systematic studies investigating the latter. Hence, the aim of this thesis was to search for research-based evidence on the benefits of environmental support to both babies (e.g. increased weight gain or awake periods) and their mothers (e.g. higher perceptions of themselves as a mother) during hospital confinement and within the context of Neonatal Health Psychology (NNHP). For this reason, the main hypothesis investigated whether mothers’ cognitions and emotions; specifically Maternal Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem and Attachment, would be affected by environmental mediators in the form of structured or non-structured tactile sensory nurturing interventions. The empirical work reported in this thesis is divided into 3 distinct phases. Firstly, as their was no appropriate measure of maternal Self-Efficacy for mothers of hospitalised preterm neonates the main aim of Phase-1 was to develop and validate an appropriate measure. Using a prospective survey method and a mixed design (between/within and correlational) a total of 160 mother-preterm dyads (pooled from 2 cohorts; cohort 1, N=100; cohort 2, N=60) were recruited. The results demonstrated that the Perceived Maternal Parenting Self-Efficacy (PMPS-E) tool had good initial psychometric properties (including internal/external reliability and construct validity) for its use with mothers of relatively healthy hospitalised preterm neonates. Secondly, in order to investigate mothers’ perceived maternal parenting self-efficacy beliefs further Phase-2 examined whether the type of feeding a mother chose to give to her baby mediated her self-efficacy beliefs. The results suggested that breastfeeding a preterm neonate during hospital confinement may adversely affect mothers’ perceptions of their efficacy in all aspects of parenting. Finally, using an experimental method Phase-3 tested the main hypothesis of this thesis and used a randomised cluster control trial (RCCT) design to allocate 60 mothers and their preterms equally to one of three cluster groups; consisting of either structured (e.g. TAC-TIC therapy or Using a Toy) or non-structured (Placebo/Control) tactile sensory nurturing interventions. The main findings illustrate that tactile sensory nurturing interventions do mediate maternal cognitions and emotions, preterm weight gain and behavioural state. In particular, mothers who performed TAC-TIC demonstrated significantly higher self-reported perceptions in their self-efficacy, self-esteem and attachment, which was attributed to the fact that these babies spent increased amounts of time in an alert and responsive behavioural state, and gained more weight throughout the study period. Thus, the work presented throughout this thesis has implications for Neonatal Health Psychologists and other Health Care professionals’ practice within neonatal units, the use of Neonatal Health Psychology as a framework to study the preterm neonate and their family, and also the way in which both mothers and their hospitalised preterm neonates are supported during hospital confinement.
    • Collaboration between UK Universities: A machine-learning based webometric analysis

      Kenekayoro, Patrick (2014-09)
      Collaboration is essential for some types of research, which is why some agencies include collaboration among the requirements for funding research projects. Studying collaborative relationships is important because analyses of collaboration networks can give insights into knowledge based innovation systems, the roles that different organisations play in a research field and the relationships between scientific disciplines. Co-authored publication data is widely used to investigate collaboration between organisations, but this data is not free and thus may not be accessible for some researchers. Hyperlinks have some similarities with citations, so hyperlink data may be used as an indicator to estimate the extent of collaboration between academic institutions and may be able to show types of relationships that are not present in co-authorship data. However, it has been shown that using raw hyperlink counts for webometric research can sometimes produce unreliable results, so researchers have attempted to find alternate counting methods and have tried to identify the reasons why hyperlinks may have been created in academic websites. This thesis uses machine learning techniques, an approach that has not previously been widely used in webometric research, to automatically classify hyperlinks and text in university websites in an attempt to filter out irrelevant hyperlinks when investigating collaboration between academic institutions. Supervised machine learning methods were used to automatically classify the web page types that can be found in Higher Education Institutions’ websites. The results were assessed to see whether ii automatically filtered hyperlink data gave better results than raw hyperlink data in terms of identifying patterns of collaboration between UK universities. Unsupervised learning methods were used to automatically identify groups of university departments that are collaborating or that may benefit from collaborating together, based on their co-appearance in research clusters. Results show that the machine learning methods used in this thesis can automatically identify both the source and target web page categories of hyperlinks in university websites with up to 78% accuracy; which means that it can increase the possibility for more effective hyperlink classification or for identifying the reasons why hyperlinks may have been created in university websites, if those reasons can be inferred from the relationship between the source and target page types. When machine learning techniques were used to filter hyperlinks that may not have been created because of collaboration from the hyperlink data, there was an increased correlation between hyperlink data and other collaboration indicators. This emphasises the possibility for using machine learning methods to make hyperlink data a more reliable data source for webometric research. The reasons for university name mentions in the different web page types found in an academic institution’s website are broadly the same as the reasons for link creation, this means that classification based on inter-page relationships may also be used to improve name mentions data for webometrics research. iii Clustering research groups based on the text in their homepages may be useful for identifying those research groups or departments with similar research interests which may be valuable for policy makers in monitoring research fields; based on the sizes of identified clusters and for identifying future collaborators; based on co-appearances in clusters, if identical research interests is a factor that can influence the choice of a future collaborator. In conclusion, this thesis shows that machine learning techniques can be used to significantly improve the quality of hyperlink data for webometrics research, and can also be used to analyse other web based data to give additional insights that may be beneficial for webometrics studies.
    • A collaborative and co-ordinated approach to success – how can the rail industry learn from the recent military campaigns (2001–2015) for the development of strategic resilience management leadership?

      Badsey, Stephen; Gracey, Aaron (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-05)
      According to business and military researchers, the world within which today’s organisations operate is more technologically advanced than a decade ago, with globalisation making businesses and supply chains more interdependent. The impacts of disruptive events are increasingly felt across operational, tactical and strategic operating levels and in some cases, they can cause national and international crises. Simultaneously, organisations are being forced to diversify and innovate to maintain their share of global or local markets, thus importing risk into the daily operating model. These organisations maintain the foundation of society by building the economy; they provide employment, wealth generation, material goods, services and a spirit of community. If a large organisation collapses, invariably the community within which it operates will also feel the impact. It is impossible for any organisation to build a framework to protect it from all disruptive events. Such capability is not possible, no matter the size or resources of the organisation and, therefore, it is also impossible to plan for every eventuality. The skill is having the ability to develop the capability to adaptively think, understand the root causes of the disruptive event and dynamically plan accordingly. This allows the utilisation of the resources, finances and time available to minimise the impact and maximise the opportunity as competitors struggle to recover. This is the concept of Organisational Resilience; delivering a holistic approach to enable an organisation to dynamically respond, recover and grow in the face of disruption. Organisations with a higher level of internal resilience are better poised to mobilise resources, allocate personnel and prioritise key functions, with leadership teams unafraid to make difficult decisions based on intelligence and evidence-based analysis. However, organisations also struggle to fully understand, appreciate and demonstrate the need for resilience until faced with the disruptive event. There is still a limited understanding of how a resilience framework can benefit the bottom line. This thesis is a study of the UK military which, by default, must demonstrate a high level of resilience and the ability to adaptively plan in a dynamically changing and hostile environment, in order to develop a framework to develop and manage organisational resilience.. Research identified that effective leadership, evidence-based decision-making and business intelligence collection and dissemination are critical to success, which informed the development of the Organisational Resilience Management Maturity Model (ORM3). Organisational Resilience in this thesis is defined as a people focussed event, with case studies, interviews and observations of military units in preparation for deployment on operations being used to support this research. These lessons are then applied to the railway industry, in a bid to improve current resilience capabilities. Future work is likely to continue to develop the ORM3 framework, supported through the development of a cross industry learning methodology to continue to build capability. This research has already contributed to the development of resilience within the UK, having been consulted in the development of the UK national standard on resilience (BS65000: Organisational Resilience) and the UK Defence Contribution to Resilience Operations doctrine for government and local councils. It has also been used in the development of tools that can be used by organisations to develop their own awareness and resilience capability.
    • Combat stress reaction and morale in RFC/RAF aircrew 1914-1918

      Buckley, John; Gadd, Ronald (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      There are many studies of the air campaigns of the first World War: almost all have concentrated on the strategic and tactical issues, on the technical development of aircraft or the skill and daring of the aircrew concerned. The effects of the dangers of flying and air combat, which tested aircrew to their limits both physical and mental with consequent psychological disorders have been ignored. This study examined and analysed the operations of the RFC/RAF over the Western Front from 1014-1918 with the aim of establishing the incidence of aircrew failure for nervous disorders. The factors affecting the psychological and psychiatric reactions of aircrew to combat have been examined. The significance of morale as a factor affecting the psychological responses of aircrew has been assessed and the effects of leadership, training, fatigue and aircraft performance and reliability are explored in relation to aircrew failure due to psychological disorder. The outcomes of this thesis were compared to similar studies for Second World War Aircrew. Medical and casualty records, official histories and operational reports have been used in conjunction with personal accounts and memoirs to establish the prime causal factors for psychological disorder in aircrew and its incidence in the RFC/RAF on the Western Front. The treatment and disposal of aircrew diagnosed with ‘flying sickness’ have been described and the results evaluated. The incidence of breakdown has been compared with similar studies for Second World War Aircrew. It concludes that the incidence of failure due to psychological disorder for the tears 1914-1917, was low and manageable. However, in the last year of the war, the incidence not only vastly increased but became a significant part of the total wastage rate and seriously affected RAF strength on the Western Front.
    • Combined operations in the American War of Independence and the Naval War of 1812 in the North American theatre: a comparative study of strategy, tactics and effectiveness

      Fuller, Howard; Hardman, Michael David; Faculty of Arts, Business and Social Sciences (University of Wolverhampton, 2022-01)
      This thesis examines the use of combined operations in the American War of Independence and the Naval War of 1812, hereafter referred to as the War of 1812. It compares the use of combined operations in both wars and examines the extent to which the use of combined operations contributed to the very different outcomes of the two wars. However, certain factors such as weather or chance referred to in this thesis as thematic constraints intervened to prevent the success of combined operations. By examining combined operations in both of these conflicts, and also the influence of the thematic constraints on combined operations, various lessons and conclusions can be drawn about combined operations as a distinct art of war by the early nineteenth century. The first war resulted in a clear British defeat and the loss of the thirteen colonies in North America. The second war ended in a political stalemate in which neither side lost any territory. This thesis demonstrates that combined operations and the associated thematic constraints were overwhelmingly influential in determining the different outcomes of the two wars. The thesis examines the lexicographical problems which arise in the definition of the term ‘combined operations’ and arrives at a working definition. It then argues that the objective of combined operations was to deliver a victory, but that the fog and friction of war intervened under certain circumstances in the form of the thematic constraints. Their presence could be sufficient to cause the combined operation to fail. The thematic constraints were not all equally important. Some like political constraints or defects in leadership were more important than others. The relative importance of the thematic constraints to each other and the criterion used to assess their relative importance are discussed in detail below. The thematic constraints could operate in isolation, such as weather, or in conjunction with other thematic constraints. They could intervene at the planning level to prevent the successful formulation of a combined operations plan, or more usually, at the operational level to prevent the combined operation from being successfully implemented. This thesis argues that combined operations and the thematic constraints were overwhelmingly influential in determining the outcomes of the two wars. It acknowledges the thematic constraints as a group of factors which overwhelmingly influenced the outcome of combined operations. It does so in a structured format which allows for a comparison of the thematic constraints in the conduct of combined operations and in doing so it develops and builds upon the existing historiography.