• Accent Conversion via Formant-based Spectral Mapping and Pitch Contour Modification

      Dyke,D.W., Berryman, F., Morgan, C.; Zheng, Dang Cong (University of Wolverhampton, 2011)
      Accent conversion intends to change the accent of a speaker to a desired accent and preserve the speaker’s voice identity. This technology can offer a number of useful applications. For example, integrating accent conversion to a text-to-speech system (TTS) can produce a voice with a desired accent instantly and inexpensively. Applying the technology to the film industry can change an actor’s or actress’s accent to a desired accent without hard training for the actor or actress to learn a new accent; this can be achieved by modifying the accent of the film recordings. As a foreign language learning tool, it could allow the learners to listen to their own voice with the native speaker’s accent and to mimic that accent. Hence, enhance learning experience and improve learning progress. In this dissertation, a new approach in both accent analysis and conversion has been proposed. In contrast to previous approaches in accent-related research, such as in regional or foreign accent classification and identification, where the databases are formed from large groups of single-accent speakers, this study uses data from an individual who can speak in two accents. This removes the effects of inter-speaker variability and facilitates efficient identification and analysis of acoustic features of different accents. Two British regional accents which display distinct differences to the human listener were used in this study as two typical British regional accents. Vowel based acoustic analysis was carried out to investigate the acoustic characteristics of the two accents and identify the prominent features that are most influential on the variability of accents. Acoustic characteristics such as formant frequencies, fundamental frequency and its variation slope, intensity of speech, and duration of phone were used for accent acoustic analysis. In this dissertation, accent conversion via formants modification and pitch contour manipulation was investigated. Three different formant-based spectral mappingalgorithms, mean-variance linear conversion, Nth order non-linear conversion and piece-wise linear transformation based on Gaussian mixture model conversion were investigated. Furthermore, the project has implemented accent conversion on a general speech analysis and synthesis system; the output speech synthesized by the three mapping algorithms was assessed by objective and subjective evaluation. The effects of spectral conversion and pitch contour conversion on accent conversion were also evaluated. The results of the study showed that accent conversion can be achieved to some degree via formants modification and pitch contour manipulation.
    • Additive Manufacturing of Aluminium-Metal Matrix Composite developed through Mechanical Alloying

      Famodimu, Omotoyosi Helen (2016-09)
      Laser melting of aluminium alloy - AlSi10Mg has increasingly been used to create specialised products in aerospace and automotive applications. However, research on utilising laser melting of Aluminium matrix composites in replacing specialised parts have been slow on the uptake. This has been attributed to the complexity of the laser melting process, metal/ceramic feedstock for the process and the reaction of the feedstock material to the laser. Thus an understanding of the process, material microstructure and mechanical properties is important for its adoption as a manufacturing route of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites. The effect of the processing parameters (time and speed) on embedding the Silicon Carbide onto the surface of the AlSi10Mg alloy was initially investigated in Phase 1 and 2 of the research. The particle shape and maximum particle size for each milling time and speed was analysed in determining a suitable starting powder for the Laser Melting phase. An ideal shape and size for the composite powder was obtained at 500 rev/min when milled for 20 mins. The effects of several parameters of the Laser Melting process on the mechanical blended composite were investigated. Single track formations of the matrix alloy, 5% Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites and 10% Aluminium Metal Matrix Composites were studied for their reaction to the laser melting in Phase 3. Subsequently in Phase 4, density blocks were studied at different scan speeds and step-over for surface roughness, relative density and porosity. These were utilised in determining a process window to fabricate near fully dense components. Phase 5 of the research focused on microstructural and mechanical properties of the laser melted matrix alloy using the normal parameters for the matrix alloy and the modified LM parameters for the composite powders. Test coupons were built in one orientation and some coupons were heat-treated to initiate precipitation-hardening intermetallics in the matrix and composite. This study investigates the suitability of the mechanical alloying as a novel method of producing feedstock material for the LM process. This research further explores the interaction of the composite powders with the laser until suitable process parameters were obtained. Furthermore, the fractography, mechanical and microstructural evolution of the Al/SiC composite, with different percentage volume reinforcement manufactured by the LM and subsequently heat treated, was explored for the first time.
    • Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Exploring the perspectives of clinicians and adolescents

      Somal, Justina (2015-08)
      Aims and Rationale: Romantic relationships are recognised for playing a pivotal role for the emerging adolescent. These relationships are frequently reported to be detrimental to adolescent emotional and psychological well-being, though research focusing on adolescents’ romantic relationships in a clinical capacity is significantly restricted. This study endeavours to understand factors that affect youth in romantic relationships according to practitioners, and how these factors correspond to adolescents with no experience of therapy. These findings aim to broaden an understanding of the subject area, develop therapeutic practices and explore whether adolescents would benefit from counselling regarding their romantic relationships. Method: A mixed-method approach was used to carry out semi-structured interviews with 7 therapeutic practitioners to explore factors that affect adolescent romantic relationships. Themes extracted from a thematic analysis were used to develop an online q-sort survey with a non-clinical adolescent sample. Subjective viewpoints of 33 adolescents were quantitatively examined and triangulated with practitioners’ views. Results: The triangulated findings developed an understanding of factors that may affect adolescent adjustments to romantic relationships. Perspectives held by practitioners and those from adolescents, suggested key differences in developmental benefits, emotional and social adjustments and the role of adults. Similarities regarding the difficulties experienced by adolescent males were identified. Conclusion: Contributions of the findings go beyond whether counselling is appropriate or needed for adolescents in a romantic relationship. They add to an understanding of the discrepancies in the way romantic relationships are perceived by practitioners in affecting adolescents’ adjustments and development, as opposed to how young people actually experience these relationships.
    • The adoption of laser melting technology for the manufacture of functionally graded cobalt chrome alloy femoral stems

      Stanford, Mark; Hazlehurst, Kevin Brian (University of Wolverhampton, 2014-07)
      Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) is an orthopaedic procedure that is performed to reduce pain and restore the functionality of hip joints that are affected by degenerative diseases. The outcomes of THA are generally good. However, the stress shielding of the periprosthetic femur is a factor that can contribute towards the premature loosening of the femoral stem. In order to improve the stress shielding characteristics of metallic femoral stems, stiffness configurations that offer more flexibility should be considered. This research has investigated the potential of more flexible and lightweight cobalt chromium molybdenum (CoCrMo) femoral stems that can be manufactured using Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Square pore cellular structures with compressive properties that are similar to human bone have been presented and incorporated into femoral stems by utilising fully porous and functionally graded designs. A three dimensional finite element model has been developed to investigate and compare the load transfer to the periprosthetic femur when implanted with femoral stems offering different stiffness configurations. It was shown that the load transfer was improved when the properties of the square pore cellular structures were incorporated into the femoral stem designs. Factors affecting the manufacturability and production of laser melted femoral stems have been investigated. A femoral stem design has been proposed for cemented or cementless fixation. Physical testing has shown that a functionally graded stem can be repeatedly manufactured using SLM, which was 48% lighter and 60% more flexible than a traditional CoCrMo prosthesis. The research presented in this thesis has provided an early indication of utilising SLM to manufacture lightweight CoCrMo femoral stems with levels of flexibility that have the potential to reduce stress shielding in the periprosthetic femur.
    • Adults’ experiences of posttraumatic growth during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy, and the role of the therapeutic relationship in facilitating growth.

      Pennington, David (2016-08)
      Introduction: Recent developments in the study of trauma responses have shown how some people may experience positive and life altering changes following traumatic life events which have been described as posttraumatic growth. Research is beginning to examine the role of trauma treatments in the facilitation of posttraumatic growth. Aim: This study sets out to explore participants’ experiences of posttraumatic growth during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy, and the role of the therapeutic relationship in facilitating posttraumatic growth. Method: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with participants to examine their phenomenological experiences. Methodology: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis was employed to consider emergent meanings and themes within a hermeneutic circle of interpretation. Participants: Seven participants were interviewed who had received Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy within National Health Service primary care psychological therapy services for posttraumatic stress disorder. Findings: Four superordinate themes emerged from the analysis of the participant accounts including: (i) Safe and secure; (ii) Taking back control; (iii) Reconstructing the self; and (iv) Journeying beyond trauma to the future. Conclusions: Person-centred conditions and client-therapist attachment were important elements of the therapeutic relationship which provided participants with the safety, trust, and relational depth necessary for the facilitation of experiences of posttraumatic growth during Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy. Implications: The findings emphasise the importance of a clinical focus on the quality of the therapeutic relationship as a facilitative therapeutic environment allowing affective-cognitive processing and the emergence of posttraumatic growth.
    • After the honeymoon period; an interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experiences of bariatric surgery patients 12 months to three years post operatively

      Parkes, Claire (2015-03)
      The role of a psychologist within bariatric services is predominately focussed on the completion of preoperative psychological assessments (NICE, 2006; Ratcliffe et al, 2014). This role requires the psychologist to determine the suitability of the patient for surgery (Bauchowitz et al., 2005; Fabricatore et al., 2006; Sogg & Mori, 2004; UK Faculty of clinical health psychology; Psychologists in weight management network meeting, 2013), however no research to date has been able to reliably determine which variables could be associated with sub optimal weight loss (Sarwer, Wadden, & Fabricatore, 2005; Van Hout, Verschure, and van Heck, 2005; Wadden, Sarwer, Fabricatore, 2007). The first part of this study examines the empirical evidence for a range of variables considered by professionals to be clear contraindications to surgery. The variables were collated from surveys conducted in America (Bauchowitz et al., 2005; Fabricatore et al., 2006). Due to conflicting evidence and various problems with the studies it is difficult for a clinician to draw any firm conclusions from the review. Therefore, an ideographic approach is suggested, which leads onto the second part of the researcher dossier. The empirical chapter presents an interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) of interviews with 14 bariatric participants who were 12 months to three years post-operative to explore their experience of - 21 surgery. This time frame was chosen to capture the participants after the ‘honeymoon phase’ when the participants have hit their weight plateau (Yale & Weiler, 1991; Brolin, 1992). The themes from the study were ‘pre op’ ‘phases’ weight maintenance’ ‘impact of the operation’ and an overall psychological theme of ‘locus of control’. Support was a key area for the participants, they described the lack of support they felt from professionals and means of seeking support elsewhere. The themes also highlighted the psychological struggle the participants go through post operatively with eating, however, this is balanced with the positive changes in identity and their ability to engage with life, no longer impeded by their weight. Recommendations from the study suggest the importance of psychologists being available to bariatric patients, in accordance with NICE guidance, and that all bariatric patients start their journey to surgery in a level three service (which is a weight management service with consists of a multi-disciplinary team) before being referred to the tier four surgical team. Finally weight loss prior to surgery is recommended, with an alternative method of achieving this than that presented in the recent British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society (2014) publication.
    • Agricultural trades unionism in Shropshire 1900-1930

      Mansfield, Nicholas (University of Wolverhampton, 1997)
    • Alcohol Dependence and Avoidant Attachment – Implications for Therapy

      Cornwall, Jane (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-10)
      The literature review revealed co-morbidity between adverse childhood experiences, adult psychopathology and alcohol dependence, although causality was questionable due to multiple variables. The current study used 54 clients at the acute end of the spectrum of severe alcohol dependence from a specialist tertiary substance misuse service (clients) and a control group of 54 non-problematic drinkers from an NHS working population (controls) to examine possible differences in security of attachment and maladaptive schemas and investigated how early relational experiences influenced core beliefs regarding self, others and intimate relationships and therapeutic implications for severely alcohol dependent clients’ engagement in specialist services. The study was divided into two sections: (1) quantitative analysis using Feeney, Noller and Hanrahan’s (1994) Attachment Style Questionnaire to measure attachment style and Young’s Schema Questionnaire (Young & Brown, 2001) to measure maladaptive schemas in the domain of disconnection and rejection and (2) qualitative analysis, using Interpretational Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to explore eight severely alcohol dependent clients’ subjective experiences of intimate relationships. Clients scored significantly lower in secure attachment style and significantly higher in both avoidant and ambivalent attachment style than controls and suggested overlapping between the two dimensions, known as ‘fearful avoidant’ attachment. Clients scored significantly higher than controls in all five sub-categories of maladaptive schemas in the domain of disconnection and rejection, namely mistrust/abuse, emotional deprivation, abandonment, social isolation/alienation and defectiveness/shame. IPA revealed common themes of negative parent-child interaction: physical and psychological abuse, neglect and explicit maternal rejection and emotional deprivation and hostile and abusive parent-parent interaction. These aetiological factors influenced fearful avoidant attachment and maladaptive core beliefs. Negation of children’s needs implicated an immaturely developed diffuseness of identity and defective self that inhibited formation of intimate adult relationships. A bio-psychosocial explanation suggested alcohol ameliorated hyper-vigilant anxiety and depression from adverse childhood experiences within a threatening family environment that implicated insecure attachment, maladaptive core beliefs and negative self-identity, inhibiting emotional intimacy. It advocated screening procedures and an integrated CBT and schema-based therapeutic approach for those at the more severe end of the spectrum of alcohol dependence deemed at risk of not engaging or disengaging prematurely from services.
    • THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR AND THE BRITISH IMPERIAL DILEMMA

      Cox, Trevor (2015-01)
      The following study argues that existing historical interpretations of how and why the unification of British North America came about in 1867are flawed. It contends that rather than a movement propelled mainly by colonial politicians in response to domestic pressures - as generally portrayed in Canadian-centric histories of Confederation - the imperial government in Britain actually played a more active and dynamic role due to the strategic and political pressures arising from the American Civil War. Rather than this being a basic ‘withdrawal’, or ‘abandonment’ in the face of US power as is argued on the rare occasions diplomatic or strategic studies touch upon the British North American Act: this thesis argues that the imperial motivations were more far-reaching and complex. The British policy on union was bound up with the wish to make the provinces more responsible for defence, a need greatly intensified by the Civil War; however this imperative was meant to help preserve the North American colonies in the empire and even more vitally outside of the orbit of the United States. From the metropolitan government’s point of view Confederation had its genesis in the antebellum period and was a long-term aim - not only to secure the British North America - but even fact to counter United States hegemony in on the continent. Therefore rather than being conceived as a ‘retreat’, it was an overarching plan to challenge Federal preponderance in North America. Due to the security dilemmas arising from the Civil War the long-term nature of this scheme became unworkable and was therefore accelerated to become a short-term response to a strategic dilemma.
    • Analysis of barriers and success factors affecting the adoption of sustainable management of municipal solid waste in Abuja, Nigeria

      Roberts, Clive L.; Ezeah, Chukwunonye (University of Wolverhampton, 2010)
      The state of solid waste management in cities of most developing countries is fast assuming the scale of a major social and environmental challenge. In Sub-Saharan Africa in particular, the combined influence of poverty, population growth and rapid urbanization has tended to worsen the situation. The gravity of this problem is perhaps best reflected in the level of attention given to it in the United Nations (UN) Millennium Declaration. Three of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) outlined in the declaration have waste or resource efficiency implications. In response to the waste challenge many developed countries have embarked upon ambitious environmental reforms, recording remarkable advances in best practises and sustainable management of their Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). However, many developing countries such as Nigeria have fared less well in this regard as a result of several barriers militating against sustainable management of MSW. The principal aim of this research is therefore to carry out a critical analysis of the various barriers as well as success factors that affect the sustainable management of MSW using Abuja, Nigeria, as a case study. The study adopts a largely quantitative methodological approach, employing waste composition analysis of samples from the case study area, questionnaire survey and focus group interviews of stakeholders in MSW management as key methods for generation of data. Results from analysis of data, using the Statistical Programme for the Social Sciences (SPSS), indicate that between 65-70% of MSW samples from Abuja is biodegradable, mostly comprising of high wet weight and high moisture content kitchen wastes. On the other hand between 11%-30% of MSW samples from the City comprises mostly of non-degradable but recyclable materials such as glass, metals and cans, non-ferrous metals and waste electrical and electronic equipment. The implication of the high levels of moisture content in the biodegradable components is that samples are not suitable for incineration but are ideal for composting and other mechanical and biological management options. Data analysis also reveals that the main barriers to sustainable MSW management in the City include low public awareness/education on MSW management, obsolete and insufficient equipment and funding limitations. On the other hand, the most important success factor affecting sustainable MSW management in Abuja was found to be the bourgeoning City population which has a huge potential for uptake of recycled products. In summary, this research concludes that the factors affecting MSW management in Abuja are typical of many tropical urban environments. Fundamental shifts in current practises towards waste prevention; driven by a structured public education programme in MSW management is recommended, so as to bring about a more sustainable management regime. As a result of resource and time limitations, it was not possible to complete several potential lines of investigation related to this study. To fully understand the character of the Abuja waste stream however, further chemical characterization including proximate and ultimate analysis is required. Future research in this genre must endeavour to collect data from a larger sample to increase the precision of the analysis and to enable firmer conclusions to be drawn.
    • An analysis of the law and practice of securitisation

      Reis-Roy, Calvin (University of Wolverhampton, 2007-10)
      The introduction, and evolution of securitisation over the years, has made a phenomenal contribution to the area of corporate finance. Securitisation is specialised area which has evolved to deliver considerable advantages to banks and their corporate and government clients, a sub-subjected explored in this thesis. Securitisation is using the cashflow, creditworthiness and collateral of receivables to raise finance from the capital markets. To date, research on the subject of securitisation has produced a few textbooks and numerous articles written by academics and practitioners. The ambit of these writings addresses three questions, namely, what is securitisation; how does it work in practice; and how can securitisation be developed so that it can continue delivering advantages in the evolving world of corporate finance. Securitisation is very much a practical subject, and given that the author had very little, if any, practical exposure to the subject prior to developing this thesis, the author, admittedly, felt challenged to ascertain significant issues that could be developed to the extent that such development represents an original contribution to knowledge. Case law in the US had already explored the most significant issue regarding securitisation, namely, true sale. Armed with a solid theoretical base of knowledge that author looked for inspiration, and discovered it during the initial days when the Enron scandal hit the headlines. In short, the Enron scandal involved using the concept of securitisation to facilitate financial crime. The masterminds (if its appropriate to use such description) of the scandal, as this thesis will unfold later, cleverly used thousands of securitisation and hedging transactions to raise funds in order to give financial creditability to a giant corporation which on the surface appeared prosperous but, in reality, was breathing to a large extent on borrowed funds. This scandal, in which securitisation was used, inspired the author to develop the originality of the thesis by focusing on the issue of securitisation and financial crime. Given that financial crime is a huge area to explore, the author narrowed the focus to look at money laundering, and address the question: can the practice of securitisation facilitate money laundering? To approach this question and answer it at doctorate level required a solid understanding of what securitisation is and how it works in practice. Using textbooks, articles and conversations with practitioners, the thesis documents under Part 1, what securitisation is and how it works in practice before moving on to Part 2 to look at if and how securitisation can facilitate money laundering.
    • Analysis of the lived experiences of young adults with specific language impairment and/or pragmatic language impairment to inform counselling psychology practice

      Chen-Wilson, J. and Hulbert-Williams, N.; Harrington, Val (University of Wolverhampton, 2011-02)
      Some seven percent of children in the general population are affected by Specific Language Impairment and/or Pragmatic Language Impairment with numerous cases undiagnosed. It is known that difficulty in communication affects psychosocial functioning and is likely to be a source of mental distress but the data on people’s access to and benefit from psychological intervention are limited. There is also limited understanding of psychologists’ capacity to meet these clients’ needs although their problems continue into adulthood. This research questions the population of counselling and clinical psychologists about their knowledge and experience of these disorders using an electronic questionnaire. Qualitative methods were then adopted with three participants with SLI/PLI and four psychologist practitioners familiar with such clients; this involved semi-structured interviews analysed using IPA and TA respectively. The purpose was to interpret and develop the clients' lived experiences into themes which were then used to look for possible connecting themes in the psychologists’ transcripts. This process was termed "interconnection" and was intended to reveal the coincidence and convergence of the two sides of the client/psychologist dyad. Results showed that whereas findings demonstrated the young men possessed a spectrum of coping and defence strategies as constituent parts of resilience, including self-esteem, self-identity and self-efficacy, the psychologists did not see the client as a congruent whole, addressing either their impairment or their mental health problem. Client resiliencies were not used in therapy and psychosocial difficulties were not recognised as a focus of distress although they did endeavour to modify their therapeutic approaches. Finally, consideration is given to whether the research aim is met, the implications for counselling psychology and possible future research. It is proposed that this methodology of interconnection has the potential to provide a novel approach to inform any future research and service development for this and other client groups in the way it takes patients/clients into account and connects them with professional working.
    • An Analysis of the Role of Extension Methodology on Poverty Reduction: A Comparative Study of Aquaculture Extension Programmes in the Northwest Fisheries Extension Project (NFEP) Command Area, Bangladesh

      Kowalski, Robert; Bartlett, Steve; Islam, Mohammed Mehrul (University of WolverhamptonCentre for International development and Training, University of Wolverhampton, 2002)
      The current deficiencies of extension interventions in aquaculture in Bangladesh, in particular, in the North-west have been examined. The importance of the inclusion of a social dimension in development interventions has been reviewed. Aquaculture, extension, social development and poverty are defined in the context of the study and a model of their interactions is proposed and used to elucidate the role of aquaculture in poverty reduction. Research questions were generated to examine the contention that ‘Aquaculture Extension Approaches that fail to substantially address social development will lead to no more than a superficial reduction of poverty’. The study approach chosen was comparative case study (the first use of its' kind in this context). Within the study, communities representing four different aquaculture extension approaches and a, null-case, control were selected and then engaged in the research process. The findings that emerged from the study were matched and linked to the proposed model to establish patterns and linkages between aquaculture and poverty; extension and aquaculture; aquaculture and social development; social development and poverty; extension and poverty. The study suggests that all these aspects go hand in hand within communities, and that it is the degree of marginalisation that defines the success of any intervention as much as the intervention approach itself. The study indicates that aquaculture could be an entry point for a poverty alleviation strategy but the inclusion of a social dimension, together with the chosen technical intervention, is essential in achieving higher impacts on a sustainable basis. A number of recommendations for greater poverty impact through aquaculture intervention as an entry point are put forward, including the targeting of women as well as men, emphasise a learning approach, and the building of networks through forming community producers groups, fish clubs, Fry Traders and fingerling producers groups.
    • Analysis of the sltA (stzA) gene and its orthologues in Aspergillus nidulansand other filamentous fungi

      Whitehead, Michael P.; Hooley, Paul.; Fincham, Daron.; Chilton, Ian James (University of Wolverhampton, 2013-06)
      Generation and phenotypic analyses of stzA gene deletion strains of Aspergillus nidulans implies that stzA is allelic to sltA, with the encoded transcription factor regulating tolerance to cations, DNA-damaging agents and high arginine concentrations. The similar severe sensitivity of a sltA1 mutant (GO281) and stzA deletion mutants to these stresses indicated that the premature termination codon in sltA1 represents a total loss-of-function mutation. It was also verified that StzA has no regulatory role in the utilisation of carbon sources. Findings were supported by phenotypic analyses of recombinant progeny resulting from sexual crosses between sltA1 and sltA+ strains. Bioinformatic analysis of genes involved in the osmotic stress response revealed that their promoters were significantly enriched for StzA binding site motifs compared to those of the control group, indicating that StzA may regulate many of these genes that comprise the High Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway. Although this pathway is activated by fludioxonil, stzA deletants and stzA+ strains showed similar sensitivities to this fungicide. Phenotypic analyses indicate that StzA does not regulate tolerance to sources of oxidative stress, non-ionic osmotic stress or components of the Cell Wall Integrity (CWI) pathway. A. nidulans StzA appears to have no role in cellulase or xylanase expression as revealed by the results of a dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) assay. Trichoderma reesei ace1 deletant and wild-type strains showed similar sensitivities to cations, DNA-damaging agents, arginine, neomycin, acidic and alkaline pH. These results confirm that A. nidulans StzA and T. reesei Ace1 regulate the distinct phenotypes of abiotic stress tolerance and cellulase and xylanase expression, respectively, despite these two proteins sharing 58% overall amino acid similarity. All twenty-nine StzA orthologues identified are restricted to filamentous ascomycetes of the Pezizomycotina subphylum and may therefore represent specific and novel antifungal drug targets. The C-termini of StzA proteins are highly variable in both length and sequence, with no apparent conservations in amino acids or predicted secondary structure. This region is considered most likely to influence the divergent functions of StzA proteins. Conservations of individual residues in the N-termini correspond to conserved secondary structure (alpha helices) among StzA proteins, implying shared functions for StzA proteins in this region. Regulators of two major nitrogen metabolic pathways (CpcA and AreA) may regulate stzA expression. Statistically significant putative CpcA binding sites were positionally conserved in 26 out of 29 stzA orthologue promoters, indicating an interaction between stzA and CpcA, a transcription factor that mediates the cross pathway control of amino acid biosynthesis. REALALE sequences, likely to be of retrotransposon origin, containing putative overlapping binding sites for StzA and AreA, were found in eleven stzA promoters of the Eurotiomycetes class, indicating an interaction between stzA and the global nitrogen metabolite repressor AreA. Intriguingly, REALALE-containing promoters identified across the genome of A. nidulans were significantly enriched for StzA binding site motifs when compared to a control group of genes. Hence, REALALE may have regulatory significance that extends to other A. nidulans genes.
    • ANALYTICAL EXPLORATIONS OF CREATIVE INTERACTION AND COLLABORATIVE PROCESS THROUGH COMPOSITION, REHEARSAL AND PERFORMANCE: A COMPOSER-COMPOSER CASE STUDY OF ACOUSTIC MUSIC WITH LIVE ELECTRONICS

      Bayley, Amanda; Lidbury, Clare; Williams, James Benjamin (2017-02)
      This thesis explores both the creative process and the creative product behind a unique and complex collaboration between two composers, called Endings (2012): firstly Jeremy Peyton Jones and secondly Kaffe Matthews. It interrogates the behavioural aspects and negotiations between the two composers in the compositional and rehearsal processes, in the run-up to three performances. Using ethnomusicological methodologies towards data collection (rehearsal recordings, interviews, studio work) and analysis (discourse in compositional discussion, rehearsal), the thesis offers new understandings on collaboration, specifically the fluidity and complexity of the interaction between composers who work in two very different ways: Peyton Jones, who composes with scored, conventional notation, rehearsing with his ensemble Regular Music II; and Matthews, who works improvisationally with live electronics and electroacoustics, both with her surrounding sonic material and pre-existing samples. The thesis finds two core important conclusions, which contribute to our current knowledge and understanding of music and collaboration. Firstly, pre-existing models of collaboration segregate behaviours into ‘types’. Endings offers an example where such types cannot always be applied so exclusively. And secondly, collaboration in the rehearsal of Endings contradicts conventional rehearsal models which state talking should be kept to a minimum. The majority of the collaborative process between Peyton Jones and Matthews rests heavily on conversation.
    • Anglo-Irish relations and the Northern Ireland problem 1980-1993

      O'Kane, Eamonn (University of Wolverhampton, 2002)