Browsing Theses and Dissertations by Subjects
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Nitrous oxide and methane emissions from agriculture and approaches to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from livestock productionThis thesis links papers reporting field measurements, modelling studies and reviews of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their abatement from agriculture, in particular from livestock production. The aims of the work were to: quantify GHG emissions from litter-based farmyard manures; evaluate means by which GHG emissions from agricultural production may be abated; assess synergies and conflicts between the abatement of other N pollutants on emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O); analyse two records of soil temperature from 1976-2010 from Wolverhampton (UK) and Vienna (Austria). Agricultural emissions of GHGs are not readily abated by ‘end of pipe’ technologies. Large decreases in agricultural GHG emissions may require changes in the production and consumption of food that could have unwelcome impacts on both consumers and producers. However, identifying and prioritizing both modes and locations of production, together with utilizing inputs, such as N fertilizer and livestock feeds, more efficiently can reduce GHG emissions while maintaining outputs. For example, GHG emissions from livestock production may be lessened by increasing the longevity of dairy cows, thereby decreasing the proportion of unproductive replacement animals in the dairy herd. Sourcing a larger proportion of calves from the dairy herd would decrease emissions of GHGs from beef production. The distance between the region of food production to that of consumption has relatively little impact on total GHG emissions per tonne of food product. Due to greater productivity or lesser energy inputs, importing some foods produced in other parts of the world may decrease GHG emissions per tonne compared with UK production, despite the additional emissions arising from long-distance transport. Manure application techniques to abate ammonia (NH3) emissions do not axiomatically increase emissions of N2O and may decrease them. Soil temperature measurements from 1976 to 2010 were consistent with the warming trends reported over the last 40 years.