• Different constellation and shining stars: lesbian parents’ experiences of accessing healthcare for their adopted children in England

      Morgan, Fiona; Cureton, Debra; Kelsall-Knight, Lucille (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
      Introduction: The past few decades have seen significant changes in family demographics. It is now more common for parents to be lesbians, which is due to increased social acceptance and the dissolution of legal barriers to parental responsibility. Adoption transforms the lives of some of the most vulnerable children. In 2019, 1 in 7 children in England were adopted by same-sex parents. Adopted children have an increased incidence of additional health care needs and therefore dental and medical appointments in comparison to children who remain with their biological parents. Aim: This study sought to explore the experiences of lesbian mothers accessing healthcare for their adopted children in England and the rhetoric, language and treatment they encountered. Method: A small scale qualitative study, utilising a Narrative Inquiry approach was the chosen method. The study population gained by purposive sampling was of six lesbian adoptive parents. A combined data analysis tool was utilised which used critical incident recall (Webster and Mertova, 2007) and broadening, burrowing, storying and re-storying (Clandinin and Connelly, 1990). A composite character couple was created to ‘re-story’ the participants’ experiences in healthcare and to maintain anonymity. Results and discussion: The needs and challenges of lesbian adoptive families may be different to those of heterosexual and biological families when accessing healthcare. There was an undercurrent of discriminatory practice, shown by various healthcare professionals, and a lack of understanding of the adoption process, knowledge surrounding the child’s history and legal stance with regards to parental responsibility. Emergent themes were: navigating heteronormativity, navigating healthcare settings and professionals and having an ‘adopted’ status, intersectional identity of lesbian parented adoptive families accessing healthcare, reflective imagery of lesbian parents and adoptive families and professional expectations. Self-imposed strategies instigated by the parents to strengthen and protect their familial identities were also discovered. Implications and recommendations for practice: The findings demonstrated that the healthcare provider must take more proactive steps to ensure that practitioners are adhering to Equality legislation and professional standards and are not discriminating against same-sex parents and adopted children who utilise healthcare services. Practitioners should also receive training to ensure they are aware of the adoption process in England; diversity of the population in which they practice; the importance of appropriate terminology and families seeing positive representation of adoption and same-sex parenting in healthcare settings.
    • Dying from acute stroke: orchestrating an autoethnographic sonata of care

      Walker, Wendy; Paniagua, Hillary; Bagnall, Andrew John (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-02)
      This authoethnographic study draws together the experiences of the researcher and bereaved family members of patients who died in hospital following an acute stroke. It takes the form of a Sonata Framework that mirrors the author’s narrative around the duration and onset of his mother’s stroke, hospital care and ultimate discharge home to die. Although symptoms experienced by individuals with malignant and non-malignant disease are similar, evidence suggests the transition from acute to palliative care remains problematic for patients following an acute stroke, not least when seeking to identify when someone is nearing end of life. A qualitative interview study aimed to explore the personal experiences of family members whose relative had died following admission to an acute stroke ward. In order to do this, six adult relatives of patients who died in hospital following an acute stroke were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule. Data were inductively analysed to produce basic, organising and global themes, and presented in the form of thematic networks: The Family Experience and Dying & Death. Further findings were deductively derived through the lens of the Sonata Framework. Findings suggested shortfalls in the provision of palliative and end of life care following acute stroke, although areas of good practice were identified. Overall, participants were complimentary of the care provided to their family member although the transition from acute to palliative was variable. The quality of communication between patients, relatives and staff was patchy, with no evidence of engagement with the hospital palliative care team, nor any discussions instigated by staff relating to preferred place of death. This study provided evidence of some improvement in local palliative and end of life care provision when compared with previous research, although gaps in such provision still exist. Staff should receive palliative and end of life care training, including communication skills training to identify individuals who may be nearing the end of life and to instigate timely conversations with their family members. Further research relating to the provision of palliative and end of life care for individuals following an acute stroke is recommended.
    • The chronotope of walking in the films of Andrea Arnold

      Colbert, Benjamin; Hanson, Lance (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      This thesis proposes that the act of walking functions as a dominant chronotope in the work of British filmmaker Andrea Arnold. Using Mikhail Bakhtin’s concept (1988), it demonstrates how walking mobilises a reading of the landscape and the female body that articulates their combined resistance to hegemonic narratives of exclusion and deprivation. Furthermore, by examining its chronotopicity, the function of walking as a discrete element is analysed to reveal its narrative, aesthetic, and contextual significance. Whilst previous studies of the cinematic flâneuse are restricted mainly to European and art-house cinema and their middle class protagonists, this thesis focuses attention on less affluent female characters whose walking takes place not in the metropolis but in the edgelands, suburbs, and social housing estates that constitute the contemporary built environment, along with Arnold’s depiction of the harsh rural landscape of nineteenth-century Yorkshire in Wuthering Heights (2011). This is a study of walking as depicted in Arnold’s cinematic output, along with the three short films with which she began her career, all of which focus upon strong female characters living in areas of economic and social deprivation. From a feminist perspective, her films are “power-to” narratives (Sutherland and Feltey, 2017) that show how female agency is predicated on emotional, and practical, resilience, and Arnold demonstrates this agency by foregrounding her protagonists’ physical and geographical mobility, using walking as their dominant mode of movement. The textual analysis draws on Laura U. Mark’s theories of haptic cinema to examine Arnold’s visual style, combined with a reading of Michel de Certeau whose work emphasises walking as a form of tactile, urban remapping. From this, a new way of interpreting women and walking emerges, and the term ‘haptic flâneuse’ is proposed to describe women’s sensory investigations, explorations, and encounters with the new urban landscape. The conclusions drawn show how walking scenes provide opportunities for female agency, and that such journeys function in excess of their narrative significance, creating an interpretative space to examine the structural, aesthetic, and contextual elements of the films. In this way, the walking chronotope acts as a lens through which Arnold’s work can be interpreted. In summary, this thesis contributes to knowledge in three ways: by providing the first detailed study of walking in Arnold’s oeuvre; by proposing the figure of the haptic flâneuse as a way of thinking about the experiences of women who walk in marginalised spaces; and by demonstrating how a chronotopic reading of walking scenes elevates them from a narrative means to an end to significant film elements in themselves.
    • Association of socioeconomic status with incidence and mortality of heart disease and stroke in older people in China

      Chen, Ruoling; Zhou, Weiju (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08)
      Introduction: Over the past four decades, China has experienced increasing gap between the rich and poor, along with rapid economic development, and increased the numbers of heart disease and stroke. The population in Chins is ageing. It is unclear whether socioeconomic inequalities are associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke in older people and their surviving in China. This PhD study aimed to investigate the associations of multiple measurements of socioeconomic status (SES) with incidence of heart disease and stroke in older Chinese people and all-cause mortality in those patients. Methods: Two prospective community-based cohort studies were conducted in Anhui province and in four other provinces in China. The Anhui cohort consisted of a random sample of 3,336 older adults, of whom 1,736 aged ≥65 years recruited from urban areas in 2001 and 1,600 aged ≥60 years from rural areas in 2003. In a standard questionnaire interview, they were recorded for sociodemographic, behaviours/lifestyles, social networks and supports, cardiovascular diseases and other related risk factors. SES was measured by urban-rural living, educational level, occupational class, satisfactory income, and any serious financial problems occurred in the past two years. Heart disease and stroke were documented based on self-reported doctor-diagnosis. The cohort members were followed up until 2011 to monitor vital status and causes of mortality, during which three waves of re-interviews were taken for survivors to further document incident heart disease and stroke. Following the same protocol as that in the last two surveys in the Anhui cohort study, the Four-province cohort study completed a baseline survey in 2008-2009 for 4,314 participants who were aged ≥60 years, who were randomly recruited from Guangdong, Shanghai, Heilongjiang, and Shanxi. The Four-province cohort study was followed up until 2012 to monitor the vital status and with re-interviewing survivors. The data of the Anhui cohort and the Four-province cohort studies were analysed in multivariate Cox regression models to examine the associations of SES with incidence and mortality of heart disease and stroke, respectively. Results: The data from the two cohort studies showed that low SES was generally associated with increased incidence of heart disease and stroke and all-cause mortality in older adults with these diseases, although the association varied with SES indicators. Pooled data demonstrated that while rural versus urban living was associated with reduced incidence of heart disease (multivariate adjusted hazard ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.44-0.71), it increased mortality in participants with heart disease (3.57, 2.01-6.34). Rural living was associated with increased incidence of stroke (1.66, 1.08-2.57) and non-significantly all-cause mortality in participants with stroke (1.98, 0.70-5.59). While high occupational class was associated with increased incidence of stroke (1.56, 1.01-2.38), low level of education was significantly associated with mortality in participants with heart disease (1.59, 1.05-2.39). Low income or having financial problems was associated with increased incidence of heart disease (1.42, 1.00-2.00 in low family income) and all-cause mortality in people with heart disease (2.68, 1.08-6.65 in low personal income). Conclusions: In China older people with low SES had increased risks of heart disease (except for rural living) and stroke (except for occupational class). Impact of low SES on increased mortality in older people with heart disease and stroke appeared stronger. Strategies targeting different SES groups involving comprehensive approaches are needed to reduce incidence of heart disease and stroke and improve surviving in older people with heart disease and stroke.
    • Gender variation in Gulf Pidgin Arabic

      Oakes, Michael; Mitkov, Ruslan; Albaqawi, Najah Salem (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-04)
      In the history of pidgins and creoles, many documented contact languages are European-based ones because they arose as a direct result of European colonial expansion between the sixteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. However, contact languages are developing entirely outside the European context as a result of ongoing international migration and economic integration created by globalisation. One such newly emerging pidgin is known as Gulf Pidgin Arabic (GPA). This unique linguistic phenomenon is a simplified contact variety of the Arabic language used in the Gulf States for communication between native Arabic speakers and foreign workers, as well as among the workers themselves. Pidgin languages have not been studied until relatively recently, since the middle of the last century. Similarly, GPA has received relatively little attention in the literature, apart from a few descriptive works such as Abed (2017), Almoaily (2012), Avram (2014), Næss (2008), Smart (1990), and Wiswal (2002). Importantly, there is an increasing labour market demand for women migrants in the Gulf, and this demand is often more stable than that for men; however, no studies to date have investigated the gender and language variation in Gulf countries conditioned by length of stay or substrate language. To carry out this research, an integrated research design, combining quantitative and qualitative phases of analysis, is employed to examine data drawn from one-to-one semi-structured interviews. Extensive background research on the Saudi social setting, the Pidgin languages, Gulf Arabic (GA) and GPA, and the major substrate languages of GPA is undertaken to investigate the sociolinguistic and linguistic situations that have resulted in the emergence of GPA. I analyse the influence of the first language of female GPA speakers and the number of years spent in the Gulf as potential factors conditioning language and gender variation in GPA. The dataset for the study consists of interviews with 72 informants from six linguistic backgrounds: Malayalam, Punjabi, Bengali, Tagalog, Sinhala, and Sunda. Interviews were conducted in Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. Half of the informants had spent five years or less in the Gulf, while the other half had spent 10 years or more in the area at the time of interview. The analysis is based on 10 morphosyntactic phenomena: free or bound object or possessive pronoun, presence or absence of the Arabic definiteness marker, presence or absence of Arabic conjunction markers, presence or absence of the GPA copula, and presence or absence of agreement in the verb phrase and the noun phrase. Regarding the informants’ choice of the studied morphosyntactic features, the results of this thesis demonstrate that the length of stay in the Gulf produces more accommodation to standard GA in women than men. However, this shift was significant for only one feature: conjunction markers. For the influence of the first language, a significant adaptation to the system of GA (the lexifier language) was found for two features: conjunction markers and nominal agreement. Furthermore, with years of stay in the Gulf, there was a significant shift for only two features: conjunction markers and definiteness. This finding could be taken to support both universalist theories and substrate theory of the emergence of contact languages. The two theories seem to have effects on the emergence of pidgins and creoles; it is worth noting that neither are separate from each other, and they can be complementary. Thus, my data supports Mufwene’s (1993) complementary theory of genesis, which claims that universal as well as substratal factors can contribute to the emergence of contact languages.
    • Balance performance of undergraduate dancers: an evaluation of current and novel approaches in balance testing and training in theatrical dance

      Wyon, Matthew; Clarke, Frances A. (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08)
      Balance skills are considered essential for dancers as they are required to perform complex, virtuoso movements. However, there is a dearth of evidence on the appropriateness of existing balance tests and training protocols for dancers. The aims of this thesis were to: (a) test sequentially the assumptions of associations between different field balance tests and between dancers’ balance ability and their dance performance, followed by an examination of the relevance of sports functional balance tests on dancers and, building on the first aim, (b) develop a reliable, dance-specific balance scoring tool and testing protocol examining the effects of balance training in a randomised controlled trial. Study 1 assessed associations between five field balance tests: Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), the modified Romberg test, the Airplane test, the BioSway Balance System (Biodex, USA) and a dance-specific pirouette test. Results showed strongest relationships between some (SEBT) reach directions (p<0.01), but very weak to moderate relationships between some balance tests including some SEBT directions, Romberg, Airplane, Biosway, and pirouette (p<0.01 and p<0.05). Study 2 assessed associations between balance ability and dance performance comparing the five field tests from Study 1 to the same participants’ technique and repertoire performance scores in ballet, contemporary, and jazz genres. Results showed a low predictive association of balance ability on dance performance (p<0.01 and p<0.05). The first two studies demonstrated low predictive association between field tests and between balance ability and dance performance, suggesting limitations in the sensitivity of the tests for the dance population. Thus, studies 3 and 4 used a more functional tool to assess its sensitivity towards balance ability of the undergraduate population. Study 3 examined the effects of potential bilateral differences on dynamic postural stability during single-leg landing using a time to stabilisation protocol. Asymmetric training has been suggested in the literature but results showed that bilateral differences did not correlate with dancers’ balance ability; no significant differences were found in dynamic postural stability between the right and left leg and poor effect size was noted. Next, Study 4 examined the effects of fatigue using the same time to stabilisation protocol as Study 3. Fatigue has been associated with injury levels in dancers and balance ability in pre-professional dancers. Results showed that a fatigue condition (Dance Aerobic Fitness Test) had no significant effect on dancers’ postural stability or bilateral differences. Similar to the earlier studies, the functional test protocols in these two studies were limited to basic movements for dancers and lacked the sensitivity to measure variable postural control adaptations. Building on the findings of the first four studies, Study 5 developed a novel Accumulation Balance Score designed to gather data on postural stability and control in a variety of dance-specific settings. Results showed excellent interrater (ICC=0.963) and intrarater (0.992) reliability. Study 6 examined the effects of balance training on postural stability in a randomised trial. To capture postural control data, the Accumulation Balance Score was applied to the data. Results showed effects of training on some balance tasks: time (p=0.048), distance (p=0.004), and in various balances: arms (p=.014), legs (p=.016 and p=.001 and p=.042), and spine (p=.041 and p=.018). Post hoc tests revealed mixed findings between groups. Collectively, the results in this thesis revealed that current balance testing and training may not be functionally relevant for dancers with expertise in organising and patterning balance strategies. In contrast, aspects of novel dance-specific balance training may challenge dancers’ entrained responses, and the reliable Accumulation Balance Score can be applied to more novel approaches and protocols in assessing balance, more closely replicating embodied dance experience with ecological validity. For the first time, postural stability and postural control can be measured together in a balance assessment.
    • An examination of the emotional impact of the insertion of documentary footage into trauma cinema

      Badsey, Stephen; Pheasant-Kelly, Frances; Hockenhull, Stella; Yiassemides, Spyros C. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      This thesis proposes that trauma cinema fiction films based on true dramatic events stand to gain much from utilising specific nonfiction material in their staged narratives and, furthermore, enhance emotional affect for the spectator. It deploys David Bordwell’s and Kristin Thompson’s (2017) formalist film theory to textually analyse a range of films, while also considering the dialogue between journalistic approaches and contemporary critical reviews of the films examined. The aim of this study is to show that there are similarities between certain films in the embedding and utilisation of documentary footage within the narratives of these films and that the footage has the ability to invite an emotional response in audiences, depending on certain personal factors and conditions. In general, previous work in Film Studies links actuality in feature films to greater emotional affect but does so epidermically. In other words, it fails to examine how footage which is real and not staged affects the emotional dynamics of the narratives in which it is inserted. The focus of this study is specifically on the 9/11 sub-genre where, arguably, the utilisation of actuality material in these films is a useful technique for encouraging an emotional response. Three films belonging to the 9/11 sub-genre of trauma cinema are examined in this work where there are certain commonalities of theme and style. These are World Trade Center (Stone, 2006), United 93 (Greengrass, 2006) and Zero Dark Thirty (Bigelow, 2012). There is also an emergent pattern in the way that actuality footage is deployed within the three films’ narratives, namely through props such as television sets, which appears to influence how the associated nonfiction content is relayed. Arguably, this delivery of the footage is more easily assimilated by audiences familiar with this initial mode of communication of the events of 9/11. Theoretically, the results produced mean that filmmakers can utilise documentary inserts in the same effective way as other emotion-eliciting cinematic devices, such as close-ups, cut zoom ins, and poignant non-diegetic music, to augment the narrative engagement of the spectator and to enhance the experience. In summary, this thesis contributes to knowledge in that it identifies possible usage of documentary inserts in the narratives of feature films not previously considered and suggests ways in which the emotional potential of these inserts can be exposed therein. It therefore provides a new way to think about calibrating the emotional barometer of these films through heightening the realism of their storylines by making use of documentary inserts
    • The lived experiences of counselling psychologists working with black, asian and minority ethnic survivors of domestic violence and abuse: An interpretative phenomenological analysis study

      Taiwo, Abigail; Morgan, Angela; Kandola, Sharanjit (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-01)
      Rationale: Research has shown that therapists face difficulties when providing therapy to BAME survivors of DVA. Due to the complexities of this client group, it appears that specialist skills are required for therapists to utilise in therapy. Previous research has highlighted these challenges concerned with the therapists’ personal and professional issues. However, there has been relatively minimal research on exploring Counselling Psychologists’ experiences of working with BAME survivors of DVA. It is apparent that it would be useful to explore how Counselling Psychologists feel and the impact it may have on their personal and professional lives. Method: A qualitative approach was adopted to explore the Counselling Psychologists’ lived experiences of working with BAME survivors of DVA. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with five Counselling Psychologists who had worked with BAME survivors of DVA. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was utilised to analyse the data. Findings: There were five major themes that emerged from the interviews. These were: (i) understanding the needs of a Counselling Psychologist, (ii) the complexity of working with BAME survivors of DVA, (iii) the psychological impact on a Counselling Psychologist, (iv) the need for containment as a Counselling Psychologist and (v) the identity of a Counselling Psychologist. Conclusion: These themes highlighted the personal and professional impact this has on Counselling Psychologists and the multifaceted challenges that occur when working with BAME survivors of DVA. The different aspects of culture, core beliefs, pressures of family and wider community and identity can intertwine and impact the Counselling Psychologist and ultimately the therapeutic alliance. The psychological impact on the participants appeared to be prominent through experiencing vicarious trauma, fear for clients’ safety and frustration. Participants reported how difficult it was for them to manage and understand the clients’ perspectives, therefore suggestions were made for further specialist cultural training, clinical and peer supervision, alongside self-care.
    • ‘This is about an ordinary average life with all its ups and downs’: Continuity and change in the life and family experiences of fifty English working-class individuals between the years 1900 and 1945

      Ugolini, Laura; Ball, Rebecca Mary (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
      This thesis is a study of the everyday lives of fifty working-class individuals in the first half of the twentieth century. These twenty-six women and twenty-four men were all born between 1899 and 1915 in England and self-identified as working class. These individuals were not politicians, influential historical figures or famous household names – such life histories have been recounted on many occasions – rather these are ‘ordinary average’ people, whose unpublished autobiographies this thesis draws upon to offer an insight into the everyday struggles, sacrifices and triumphs that the working class experienced between the years 1900 and 1945. By taking a microhistorical approach and focusing on this sample of fifty life stories, this thesis sheds light on wartime life, the impact of social change and the continued importance of working-class family values during the first half of the twentieth century. It uses these autobiographies to question the assumption that living through a period that witnessed two world wars would automatically equate to a life that was completely overshadowed by them. It also challenges the often accepted idea that wider social changes such as educational reform, the opening up of new employment opportunities and the fertility decline would have necessarily affected each working-class individual, suggesting instead that whilst change in these areas had certainly occurred by the end of the twentieth century, it was often too late to affect the lives of these autobiographers. Instead, the autobiographies suggest that the working-class lives were shaped by other issues of significance, most notably domesticity and the family life cycle. The thesis’ chapters focus on the five topics that the autobiographers most frequently discussed: death, absence, family relationships, consumption (with a particular focus on leisure, food and housing), and education and employment opportunities. The reminiscences on these topics revealed much that confirmed existing academic insights into working-class life between the years 1900 and 1945, including the importance of domestic ideals to working-class family life and the continued popularity of marriage as an institution Yet, importantly, as this thesis argues, they also revealed a variety of differing, although equally relevant and noteworthy experiences that have thus far been overlooked. These include a distinct lack of war-related deaths or war-related absences of immediate family members despite living through two conflicts, the subtle shift towards a companionate style of marriage and the significance of expectations of the working-class family life cycle in responses to instances of death or absence.
    • Systems modelling and ethical decision algorithms for autonomous vehicle collisions

      Burnham, Keith; Pickering, James Edward (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-08)
      There has been an increasing interest in autonomous vehicles (AVs) in recent years. Through the use of advanced safety systems (ASS), it is expected that driverless AVs will result in a reduced number of road traffic accidents (RTAs) and fatalities on the roads. However, until the technology matures, collisions involving AVs will inevitably take place. Herein lies the hub of the problem: if AVs are to be programmed to deal with a collision scenario, which set of ethically acceptable rules should be applied? The two main philosophical doctrines are the utilitarian and deontological approaches of Bentham and Kant, with the two competing societal actions being altruistic and selfish as defined by Hamilton. It is shown in simulation, that the utilitarian approach is likely to be the most favourable candidate to succeed as a serious contender for developments in the programming and decision making for control of AV technologies in the future. At the heart of the proposed approach is the development of an ethical decision-maker (EDM), with this forming part of a model-to-decision (M2D) approach. Lumped parameter models (LPMs) are developed that capture the key features of AV collisions into an immovable rigid wall (IRW) or another AV, i.e. peak deformation and peak acceleration. The peak acceleration of the AV is then related to the accelerations experienced by the occupant(s) on-board the AV, e.g. peak head acceleration. Such information allows the M2D approach to decide on the collision target depending on the selected algorithm, e.g. utilitarian or altruistic. Alongside the EDM is an active collision system (ACS) which is able to change the AV structural stiffness properties. The ACS is able to compensate for situations when AVs are predicted to experience potentially severe and fatal injury severity levels.
    • Prescriber use of Medicines Information Service advice in their decision-making and patient care: an exploratory qualitative study

      Paniagua, Hilary; Rutter, Jill (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
      Pharmacy-led Medicines Information (MI) Services provide evidence-based advice to clinicians, with high levels of user satisfaction. However, satisfaction does not necessarily reflect improved patient care or patient outcome. This has led to MI research concentrating on the effect MI advice has on patients, despite a lack of agreed definitions of effectiveness and the construction of inappropriate outcome measures. Although the majority of prescribing happens in primary care, most MI research has focused on secondary care. The aim of this qualitative study was to better understand how primary care clinicians used MI advice in shaping their prescribing decision-making and subsequent patient care. Taking an interpretive, idealist perspective and using a generic qualitative, exploratory methodological approach, this study tried to understand how prescribers use MI advice in decision-making and patient care. Prescribers (general practitioners and dentists) across England who contacted MI Services with a medicine-related question, were interviewed by telephone. To expand on findings from these interviews, additional prescribers in North West England were interviewed face-to-face. All interviews (n=55) were analysed inductively using constant comparison to identify themes. Key findings of this study were clinicians describing using MI advice as a safety net to shape, support, or do their difficult research and make prescribing decisions, especially for complex or high risk cases. New knowledge was incorporated into their ‘mindlines’ and shared with their ‘community of practice’, for future decision-making. They valued advice provided by a trusted, expert ‘help desk’, which empowered them to make prescribing changes for their patients confidently and safely, and was also quicker than, and avoided, patient referrals. To conclude, this is the first study to describe the direct influence MI advice has on clinician decision-making and prescribing. In light of this work there is a need to revisit currently used definitions describing impact and outcome, with MI services working alongside health library services to achieve this goal. The role of medicines advice giving in prescribing models also needs to be recognised.
    • A collaborative and co-ordinated approach to success – how can the rail industry learn from the recent military campaigns (2001–2015) for the development of strategic resilience management leadership?

      Badsey, Stephen; Gracey, Aaron (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-05)
      According to business and military researchers, the world within which today’s organisations operate is more technologically advanced than a decade ago, with globalisation making businesses and supply chains more interdependent. The impacts of disruptive events are increasingly felt across operational, tactical and strategic operating levels and in some cases, they can cause national and international crises. Simultaneously, organisations are being forced to diversify and innovate to maintain their share of global or local markets, thus importing risk into the daily operating model. These organisations maintain the foundation of society by building the economy; they provide employment, wealth generation, material goods, services and a spirit of community. If a large organisation collapses, invariably the community within which it operates will also feel the impact. It is impossible for any organisation to build a framework to protect it from all disruptive events. Such capability is not possible, no matter the size or resources of the organisation and, therefore, it is also impossible to plan for every eventuality. The skill is having the ability to develop the capability to adaptively think, understand the root causes of the disruptive event and dynamically plan accordingly. This allows the utilisation of the resources, finances and time available to minimise the impact and maximise the opportunity as competitors struggle to recover. This is the concept of Organisational Resilience; delivering a holistic approach to enable an organisation to dynamically respond, recover and grow in the face of disruption. Organisations with a higher level of internal resilience are better poised to mobilise resources, allocate personnel and prioritise key functions, with leadership teams unafraid to make difficult decisions based on intelligence and evidence-based analysis. However, organisations also struggle to fully understand, appreciate and demonstrate the need for resilience until faced with the disruptive event. There is still a limited understanding of how a resilience framework can benefit the bottom line. This thesis is a study of the UK military which, by default, must demonstrate a high level of resilience and the ability to adaptively plan in a dynamically changing and hostile environment, in order to develop a framework to develop and manage organisational resilience.. Research identified that effective leadership, evidence-based decision-making and business intelligence collection and dissemination are critical to success, which informed the development of the Organisational Resilience Management Maturity Model (ORM3). Organisational Resilience in this thesis is defined as a people focussed event, with case studies, interviews and observations of military units in preparation for deployment on operations being used to support this research. These lessons are then applied to the railway industry, in a bid to improve current resilience capabilities. Future work is likely to continue to develop the ORM3 framework, supported through the development of a cross industry learning methodology to continue to build capability. This research has already contributed to the development of resilience within the UK, having been consulted in the development of the UK national standard on resilience (BS65000: Organisational Resilience) and the UK Defence Contribution to Resilience Operations doctrine for government and local councils. It has also been used in the development of tools that can be used by organisations to develop their own awareness and resilience capability.
    • Contributions to the Computational Treatment of Non-literal Language

      Mitkov, Ruslan; Ha, Le An; Yaneva, Victoria; Rohanian, Omid (University of Wolverhampton, 2020)
      Non-literal language concerns the deliberate use of language in such a way that meaning cannot be inferred through a mere literal interpretation. In this thesis, three different forms of this phenomenon are studied; namely, irony, non-compositional Multiword Expressions (MWEs), and metaphor. We start by developing models to identify ironic comments in the context of the social micro-blogging website Twitter. In these experiments, we proposed a new way to extract features based on a study of their spatial structure. The proposed model is shown to perform competitively on a standard Twitter dataset. Next, we extensively study MWEs, which are the central point of focus in this work. We start by framing the task of MWE identi fication as sequence labelling and devise experiments to see the effect of eye-tracking data in capturing formulaic MWEs using structured prediction. We also develop a novel neural architecture to speci fically address the issue of discontinuous MWEs using a combination of Graph Convolutional Neural Networks (GCNs) and self-attention. The proposed model is subsequently tested on several languages where it is shown to outperform the state-of-the-art in overall criteria and also in capturing gappy MWEs. In the final part of the thesis, we look at metaphor and its interaction with verbal MWEs. In a series of experiments, we propose a hybrid BERT-based model augmented with a novel variation of GCN where we perform classifi cation on two standard metaphor datasets using information from MWEs. This model which performs at the same level with state-of-the-art is, to the best of our knowledge, the first MWE-aware metaphor identifi cation system paving the way for further experimentation on the interaction of different types of fi gurative language.
    • Modern foreign language learning: exploring the impact of parental orientations on student motivation

      Bartram, Brendan; Lewis, Lydia; Martin, Christopher (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      The decline in modern foreign language (MFL) learning in UK secondary schools is well-researched, particularly from the point of view of language attitudes and motivation (Bartram, 2006b; Coleman, Galaczi & Astruc, 2007; Lanvers, Hultgren & Gayton, 2016; Martin, 2019; Lanvers & Martin, 2020), although the role of parents in the MFL learning process is seldom explored. The rationale for the research comes from an extensive appraisal of the literature on foreign language learning education and parental engagement in learning, coupled with teaching experience. Six motivational constructs were explored: general motivation, sense of achievement, internal attribution of success/failure, external attribution of success/failure, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. A mixed-methods research design, employing questionnaires and semi-structured interviews, was adopted to explore the impact of parental orientations towards MFL on child motivation from different perspectives. Quantitative analysis shows that there is a strong, positive correlation between parent and child data for five of the six motivation constructs. Inferential statistics show that parental independent variables such as level of general education, level of language education and ethnicity have statistically significant impacts on four student motivation constructs. Results from the interviews indicate that parents had mixed experiences of language learning and that curriculum policies which restrict the option choices for some students could be detrimental to engaging them with learning a language that they choose to learn rather than one that is imposed. Students and parents also presented positive views on the importance of languages for career progression and travel. Improving the dialogue between schools and parents on the importance of language learning through sharing important curriculum information, engaging in careers events and supporting parents for whom languages pose a particular challenge could make a small contribution to changing the current MFL learning climate.
    • Risk factors and health effects of overweight and obesity in older adults

      Chen, Ruoling; Danat, Isaac M (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-02)
      Introduction: The older adult population is rapidly increasing, and overweight and obesity prevalence is fast rising in older people globally. It is unclear whether excess body weight in older age reduces or increases the risk of incident dementia and whether it prolongs survival. Evidence of the risk factors for overweight and obesity in older age is scarce. This thesis investigated the risk factors and health effects of overweight and obesity in older age, with a focus on their impacts on incident dementia and all-cause mortality. Methodology: This study employed a mixed method of quantitative and qualitative approaches that are based on a large cohort study dataset from China and two focus group discussions from the United Kingdom. The cohort consisted of 3,336 participants in total: 1,736 aged >= 65 years recruited from urban areas in 2001 and 1,600 aged>=60 years from rural areas in 2003 in Anhui province, China. In the standard methods of interview, they were documented for sociodemographic, lifestyle, social network, disease, and other risk factors at the baseline survey. Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and dementia was diagnosed by the GMS-AGECAT for each of the participants. The cohort members were followed up for 10 years to monitor mortality and examine the cause of death. There were three waves of interview for surviving cohort members during the follow up to document incident dementia apart from the causes of mortality. The data of the Anhui cohort study were analysed in multivariate Logistic and Cox regression models. Two focus groups research were conducted in Wolverhampton UK. It included 12 twelve older adults who were recruited from the community through their place of worship. The focus group data were collected in a digital audiotape. They were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Findings: The data from the cohort wave three surveys showed that the risk factors for overweight and obesity in older people included female gender, low education, low income, residing in urban areas, being married, watching TV/reading newspapers, and hypertension at baseline. Over the 10-year follow-up, 271 participants were diagnosed as having incident dementia. The continuous BMI at baseline increased the risk of incident dementia (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95%CI 1.00-1.11). There was no significant increase in OR in participants who were overweight (1.34, 0.91-1.98) and obese (1.52, 0.86-2.70) when compared to normal weight, but separate data by gender showed that dementia risk was significantly increased in men with overweight (3.09, 1.65-5.77) and obesity (4.19, 1.75-10.03) and not in women (0.74, 0.43-1.27; 0.72, 0.32-1.64). The prediction was similar regardless of different adiposity measures used; the risk of dementia was elevated in non-smokers with obesity measured by BMI (4.28, 1.46-12.53) and in non-smokers with waist circumference classed as action level two (3.19, 1.04-9.77). The Anhui cohort data did not show significantly reduced mortality in older people with overweight (HR 0.78, 95%CI 0.56-1.08) and obese BMI (0.79, 0.47-1.33) when compared to normal BMI. There were no gender differences. But the risk of all-cause mortality was significantly increased in older people with underweight (2.04, 1.25-3.33), and the sex-stratified data analysis showed a stronger effect in men (2.31, 1.21-4.42) and not in women (1.59, 0.73-3.44). The focus group data also supported such findings of deleterious effects of overweight and obesity by major themes including theme-harm, impairment, and mortality. Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in older age increased the risk of incident dementia. They were not significantly associated with reduced risk of mortality although underweight increased the risk. Curtailing overweight and obesity and maintaining normal weight in older age could help reduce the risk of developing dementia and extend survival.
    • Walking the Black Country tightrope: the development of white working-class males’ expectations toward (non) participation in higher education

      Karodia, Nazira; Gravestock, Phil; Dunne, Jackie; Blower, Alex (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-03)
      Over the last 25 years, a noted disparity in the levels of educational attainment between white working-class males and their more affluent counterparts, has been a common feature of discussion within research and educational policy in the UK. In more recent times, this discourse has widened to highlight a similar disparity in the rates of white working-class males accessing Higher Education. This study seeks to increase understanding of how, against such a backdrop, the white working-class males participating in this research accessed, accrued and mobilised available social, cultural and economic resource to form expectations for their future in education and work. In particular, the inquiry focused on how the participants’ expectations were negotiated in relational engagement with their specific social, geographic and historical context. Taking place at a school located in a small Black Country town, the research employed a qualitative approach to facilitate a richness of understanding. It analysed findings from semi-structured interviews with staff at the school, alongside data provided by several core participants and members of their social networks, to address three overarching research questions. Firstly, it investigated how the school’s staff deployed practices to develop the future orientations of students in alignment with certain educational and career trajectories. Secondly, the research examined how the study’s core participants drew upon social, cultural and economic resources when deciding what was ‘possible’ for their future in education and work. Finally, the study engaged with key individuals within the core participants’ social network, exploring how their experiences in education and work influenced the future orientations of those individuals who constituted the primary focus of the research. Mobilising the theoretical tools of Pierre Bourdieu (1977), alongside Hodkinson and Sparkes’ horizons for action (1996), the study contests notions of an ‘aspirational defecit’ amongst white working-class males in education. Instead, the study’s findings illustrate how future educational expectations are shaped in a relational engagement with intergenerational experiences of education and work in a de-industrialised Black Country town.
    • A multiple optical tracking based approach for enhancing hand-based interaction in virtual reality simulations

      Hartley, Thomas; Worrallo, Adam Grant (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
      Research exploring natural virtual reality interaction has seen significant success in optical tracker-based approaches, enabling users to freely interact using their hands. Optical based trackers can provide users with real-time, high-fidelity virtual hand representations for natural interaction and an immersive experience. However, work in this area has identified four issues: occlusion, field-of-view, stability and accuracy. To overcome the four key issues, researchers have investigated approaches such as using multiple sensors. Research has shown multi-sensor-based approaches to be effective in improving recognition accuracy. However, such approaches typically use statically positioned sensors, which introduce body occlusion issues that make tracking hands challenging. Machine learning approaches have also been explored to improve gesture recognition. However, such approaches typically require a pre-set gesture vocabulary limiting user actions with larger vocabularies hindering real-time performance. This thesis presents an optical hand-based interaction system that comprises two Leap Motion sensors mounted onto a VR headset at different orientations. Novel approaches to the aggregation and validation of sensor data are presented. A machine learning sub-system is developed to validate hand data received by the sensors. Occlusion detection, stability detection, inferred hands and a hand interpolation sub-system are also developed to ensure that valid hand representations are always shown to the user. In addition, a mesh conformation sub-system ensures 3D objects are appropriately held in a user’s virtual hand. The presented system addresses the four key issues of optical sessions to provide a smooth and consistent user experience. The MOT system is evaluated against traditional interaction approaches; gloves, motion controllers and a single front-facing sensor configuration. The comparative sensor evaluation analysed the validity and availability of tracking data, along with each sensors effect on the MOT system. The results show the MOT provides a more stable experience than the front-facing configuration and produces significantly more valid tracking data. The results also demonstrated the effectiveness of a 45-degree sensor configuration in comparison to a front-facing. Furthermore, the results demonstrated the effectiveness of the MOT systems solutions at handling the four key issues with optical trackers.
    • Developing novel therapeutic agents for Acanthamoeba infection and investigating the process of encystment

      Heaselgrave, Wayne; Hamad, Anas (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-06)
      Acanthamoeba Keratitis (AK) is a vision-threatening disease which can lead to blinding corneal tissue infection. Many patients who have been infected with Acanthamoeba in their eye do not respond to the current medical treatments involving polyhexamethylene biguanide or chlorhexidine despite the in vitro sensitivity of Acanthamoeba to these drugs. There is an urgent need for new therapeutic agents to eradicate the AK infection. This study focuses on the mechanism by which Acanthamoeba may distinguish between trophozoite, cyst and the newly identified lifecycle known as protocyst. The current study has tested 56 novel and existing therapeutic agents for their activity against Acanthamoeba spp. and their toxicity against a human epithelial cell line. The results of this research have revealed several compounds of interest for further study on their potential use in the treatment of AK. These compounds included, octenidine hydrochloride, alexidine, miltefosine and quaternary ammonium (didecyldimethylammonium chloride). The anti-amoebic effect of benzalkonium chloride, povidone iodine and tetracaine are superior to the current diamidines and slightly lower to the biguanides applied in the treatment for AK. The formulation of novel amidoamine compounds including myristoleyl-amidopropyl-dimethylamine (MOPD) and palmitoleyl-amidopropyl-dimethylamine (POPD) into contact lens solutions showed complete kill at a 4.5-log reduction against trophozoites compared with myristamidopropyl dimethylamine (MAPD) as an existing compound. The combination of biguanide compounds with lipid–based carriers has improved the antimicrobial activity from 1-fold to around 7-fold against cysts of Acanthamoeba spp. compared with the use of biguanides alone. The findings of encystment investigation (the transformation of trophozoites into cysts) showed that the agonists in particular the β ultra-long against indacaterol stimulated the encystment and the antagonists β₁ metoprolol blocked the formation of cysts and protocysts. Two different herbicides including 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) and isoxaben were tested to target the biosynthesis of cellulose in the cyst form and also to evaluate their effects on the formation of protocyst of Acanthamoeba. The results of this study showed that the DCB at a high concentration of 500 μM, reduced encystment to 17.7% and protocyst production of Acanthamoeba at 24.6%, whereas isoxaben inhibited the transformation of trophozoites into cysts to only 45% and the percentage was decreased for protocyst formation by 37.2%. The test results for DCB and isoxaben individually at concentration of 100 uM showed 31.8% and 68.8% respectively for the conversion of trophozoites into cysts. In addition, a similar concentration of both DCB and isoxaben was evaluated for protocyst formation and the inhibition was observed at 36.9% for DCB and a much higher rate of protocysts production was recorded at 63 % for isoxaben. The combination of both isoxaben and DCB at a concentration of 100 μM caused a reduction in encystment to 49.1% and lowered the transformation of trophozoites into protocysts to 45.7%, these findings suggested that an antagonistic effect was occurred relative to the use of DCB alone. Finally, the data from LC/MS analysis for sugars suggested that the protocyst and cyst are different stages of Acanthamoeba, as the analysis of cyst walls indicated the presence of cellulose while the protocyst wall analysis showed the existing of cellulose and methylated sugar possibly corresponded to a methylated analogue of N-acetylglucosamine.
    • Having a bath in Japan: a biographical study of actress and black belt jūdōka Sarah Mayer (1896-1957)

      Williams, Jean; Callan-Spenn, Amanda (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-05)
      In 1933, British actor and playwright, Sarah Mayer, left behind her wealthy husband, and the large country estate they shared in rural Hampshire, for a trip to Japan. As a judo enthusiast travelling as a sports tourist, Sarah became the first western woman in Japan to receive the award of shōdan, or first degree black-belt, for judo, from the Butokukai, an increasingly militaristic, pedagogical institution, aimed at continuing the study of traditional and modern fighting techniques. Sarah’s training at the home of the art, the Kōdōkan in Tokyo, was encouraged by founder, Jigorō Kanō, a known internationalist in outlook. As the trip continued, the Japanese government promoted Mayer’s tour as part of the drive for modernism. Primarily, this thesis analyses the reasons for her unprecedented acceptance as a Western woman by Kanō and the wider judo establishment. Using a biographical framework, and drawing on a large volume of primary source research, this work places Sarah’s achievement into a context of not only time and place, but social mobility and agency, considering, firstly, Sarah’s life before she went to Japan. Central to the thesis, the work then continues with an in-depth study of her time in Japan and the height of her international fame as a sporting personality, concluding with her final years and reflecting on her precarious place within history. Whilst contributing to the literature on gendered sporting performance and role models of the early twentieth century, this work should be seen as a revision of the limited historiography of women in judo, and also, to a lesser extent, the international politicisation of physical culture. The politicisation of sport, particularly the fighting arts, is an important, and sometimes neglected area of sports history, particularly in the Western literature. Providing a gendered perspective on the international history of the growth and diversification of martial arts, this thesis investigates a crucial case study, encompassing overarching themes of class, individual agency and the wider political context of Anglo-Japanese relations.
    • Five go to academia: narratives of becoming

      Devlin, Linda; Harris, Stephen (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09-23)
      This autoethnographic inquiry aims to capture the complexity within the storied life history accounts of five academics, including my own, regarding the experiences they believe shaped the becoming of their workplace self. The individual stories are narrated, and then discussed collectively to encourage dialogue and deepen understanding. This inquiry is set against the context of previous research that focusses on the impact neoliberal policy and practice places upon the academic (Shore & Wright 2000; Morley, 2004; Harris, 2005; Billot, 2010; Floyd & Dimmock, 2011; Fanghanel, 2012). However, as a postmodern study, recognising ‘self’ as a transposable, contested and fluid entity it casts a wider lens to support this inquiry’s aim, and its two subordinate research outcomes. The first outcome is to inform my own academic and management practice by drawing on Bourdieu’s (1992; 1996) notion of capital and habitus. The second outcome is to develop and then test two multi-disciplinary conceptual frameworks that can be used, amended, or indeed discarded by self and identity researchers when meaning-making qualitative findings (Rainbow & Rose, 1994). The first of these frameworks draws mainly on the three broad categories of differing selves identified by Trede (2012), while the second returns to Bourdieu to consider his notion of ‘world hypothesis’, one that rejects dualisms (Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1992, p.11). The methodological strategy I use is informed primarily by both the five key features of analytic autoethnography (Anderson, 2006, pp.379-386) and Frank’s (2010, pp.105-110) six acts of dialogical narrative analysis preparation. I use four research questions to individually examine each storied transcript from different epistemic angles. The four questions, two aligned to each research outcome, seek out the socio-cultural power constructs that influence a participant’s temporal, synchronic and agentic understanding of the becoming of their academic self (Bamberg, 2011). Findings of the influences that shape academic self include, but are not limited to, parental expectations, life-history influences, immigration, race, gender, workplace experience outside of the university, as well as the impact of neoliberalism. These then inform recommendations that centre on the development of my own academic practice, as well as wider scholarly, and institutional ones.