Recent Submissions

  • Emerging trends in construction law at the confluence of academia and industry

    Chinyio, Ezekiel; Charlson, Jennifer (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
    Engineering UK’s 2018 report on the state of engineering records that in 2016, engineering enterprises generated 23.2% of the UK’s total turnover of £5.3 trillion (£1.23 trillion) and construction had a turnover of £171.91 billion, representing 14.0% of the total turnover produced within the engineering sectorial footprint. The congruence and distinction between the law underpinning construction and engineering in academia and industry is uncertain. The research aim therefore is construction and engineering law compared and contrasted from academia to industry. The author adopted a constructionist or subjective epistemology and relativist ontological stance. Constructivist and pragmatic philosophical paradigms and qualitative methodologies were selected including document analysis, interviews, case studies and focus groups. The construction and engineering law required by professional institutions to be taught in academia to undergraduates were analysed. Some similarity between the legal topics mandated by engineering and construction professional institutions was identified; for example, the legal framework, contract, environmental and health and safety law. The differences are that engineering bodies also require intellectual property awareness and construction institutions incorporate dispute resolution and land law. It was also argued that the importance of European Law should be recognised. Guidance for construction expert witnesses, who are engaged in dispute resolution, arising from three relevant significant documents that were published in 2014 by the Civil Justice Council, the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors and the Society of Construction Law was researched. The following were suggested as barriers affecting experts: regulations, budgetary controls, availability of evidence and deadlines. Construction-specific legal risks relevant to SMEs in Europe with a view to manage them were identified. The study confirms that the relevant legal risks for construction SMEs in Italy are: procurement, building regulations, construction contract and dispute resolution. The civil engineering SME case study touched on contract terms, regulations and dispute resolution and the additional issue of intellectual property protection was recognised. Environmental law issues surrounding the regeneration of brownfield land including contaminated land, waste management, water pollution, regulators, environmental impact assessment issues were investigated. Contractors’ standard of design responsibility in current standard forms of contract was analysed and recent relevant case law was reviewed. In conclusion, the overlap in academia, between construction and engineering law of legal topics including legal framework, contract, environmental and health and safety law has been identified. They differ in that engineering bodies additionally require intellectual property awareness and construction institutions include dispute resolution and land law. These findings in academia are reflected in industry. Although framed in a construction law context, the research on expert witnesses also applies to engineering expert witnesses. However, as identified by the accrediting professional bodies, there is a greater requirement for dispute resolution in the construction industry. Environmental law is relevant to both engineering and construction industries. Similarly, current standard forms of contract and recent case law are pertinent to both industries. The congruence and distinction between the law underpinning construction and engineering in academia and industry has been clarified. Subsequent research developed a design, manufacture and construct procurement model for volumetric offsite manufacturing in the UK housing sector and examined the introduction of Brownfield Land Registers in England. Topical and timely research examined the impact of BREXIT and the COVID-19 pandemic on construction law
  • Teaching itself: a mythology of learning in theory and practice

    Jopling, Michael; Bennett, Pete (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
    What I attempt in this dissertation is to make coherent sense of a body of work produced with others over a period of ten years. This was a decade in which the progressive principles that inform my work were being progressively pushed back by an increasingly nihilistic neoliberalism across the Western world and a peculiarly retrogressive manifestation (The Govist turn) in the UK. In the most extreme case a book that was conceived as creatively and playfully reimaging Media Studies ‘after the subject’ turned out almost to be the subject’s epitaph as its survival at A level turned out to be a close run thing. I hope in passing to consider the impact of this context but also to argue that the context of writing this commentary, at the time of a global pandemic, has probably added more significantly to its value, which I measure only pragmatically, of ideas being produced in a way that is useful to other people. As the pandemic has exposed our flawed models of education far more powerfully than I could myself, indeed have myself, so it has also provided an imperative for affirmative critical action. I hope this work can make a small contribution to that process in suggesting ways in which we might fundamentally perform the educational ‘act’ differently. For that reason there is a more heavily weighted focus on the ways in which my more recent publications constitute a hardly intended deconstruction of the dominant educational paradigm and tentative presentation of an alternative in four steps. As this has been an interpretation of the work inspired by this process alone, I have tried also to make the creation of the commentary an active element of the final version. In this I am partly acknowledging the influence of Barthes’ famous book lengthy critical study of his own work, ‘RB by RB’. I would like to think that the structures, fluidity and playfulness of the commentary also convey something of the whole project.
  • Once a man, twice a child: a phenomenological study of women of Jamaican heritage caring for a relative living with dementia

    Murandu, Moses; Bailey, Janet (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-12)
    Little research has been done into the lived experience of caregivers of Jamaican heritage providing care for family members with dementia. Socio-cultural traditions in Jamaican families assign nurturing and caring roles to women, so that when a family member develops dementia it is females who take up the role. The aim of the present study was to explore the lived experience of caregivers of Jamaican heritage living in both England and Jamaica. This study offers a unique and original contribution to our knowledge base as currently there is no published qualitative study that focuses on dementia caregiving in Jamaican families. Using a phenomenological methodology, data were collected in England and Jamaica over a period of twelve months by semi-structured interviews with ten women of Jamaican heritage caring for a family member living with dementia. Participants were interviewed in Birmingham, England and Kingston, Jamaica. Findings revealed six themes relating to how women of Jamaican heritage experience and understand dementia caregiving. (1) strength and resilience; (2) a labour of love; (3) picking sense out of nonsense; (4) I’m not a carer - I’m family; (5) the role of the Church and (6) Jamaicans don’t do that. The insight gained from these findings provided rich information about the participants’ experiences of caregiving. This study revealed that cultural values and upbringing within Jamaican families are important factors that support caregivers in dealing positively with the demands of caregiving. The main implications for practice from this study suggests is that the willingness and commitment of women of Jamaican heritage to provide long-term care within family units in order to maintain the dignity of their elders, as opposed to admitting them to care facilities, needs affirming and supporting. Also, there is a need for commissioners of services and support in England and Jamaica to recognise the importance of voluntary community groups and Black majority churches, when collating and disseminating information.
  • The development and validation of a new instrument to assess the role of social media in college adjustment for undergraduate students

    Attrill-Smith, Alison; Stenson, Audrey (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-09)
    Undergraduate university and college students are increasingly using social media to overcome college adjustment challenges such as creating social networks, maintaining old friendships and confronting academic pressures. Areas that remain unexplored in the college adjustment literature comprise of contemporary views of how college adjustment challenges have changed since the pre-social media era, and consequently the influence of personality on these challenges. Moreover, most college adjustment research has not taken diverse social media sites into consideration, such as WhatsApp, Snapchat and Instagram. The current research addresses these issues as well as the dearth of appropriate measures to gauge the role of social media in contemporary college adjustment. Using existing offline adjustment scales such as the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (Baker & Siryk, 1989) and the College Adjustment Test (Pennebaker et al., 1990), the current work follows recommendations for the development of the Student Adjustment Scale to assess the role of social media as a facet of college adjustment for undergraduate students (Feldt et al., 2011a; Taylor & Pastor, 2005). The first study employs a thematic analysis of student group interviews and identifies five overarching themes associated with contemporary college adjustment issues. The second study involves devising a set of items, based on the five overarching themes, for the Student Adjustment Scale by using a principal components analysis (PCA). This results in a reliable scale with six distinct components. The third study involves a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) but returns to an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to further reduce the dimensions of the scale to five factors. The final study explores personality and student adjustment. Data analysis reveals that facets of the Student Adjustment Scale are predicted by personality variables where those who have a baseline of emotional stability will more likely adjust to college. Differences in data patterns across studies suggest that college adjustment may be considered both state and trait based. The overall findings illustrate that college adjustment is best considered a multi-faceted construct. Social media use is a facet of the Student Adjustment Scale but can be a distraction from time management and academic endeavours. The current work illustrates the complexity and multi-facets of college adjustment for undergraduate students in a social media era, which was previously unexplored in the context of scale development and personality. To conclude, some practical recommendations are suggested for faculty and student experience teams
  • Virtual voices and contrapuntal melodies: exploring the liminal experiences of part-time, adult learners as they embark on undergraduate, online study

    Traxler, John; Hayes, Sarah; Lawton, Megan; Johnson, Kara (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-09)
    Using liminal spaces as a heuristic tool, this study explores the experiences of fifteen adult learners as they complete the first academic module of their part-time, online degree. Online undergraduate programmes enable adult learners to make decisions of how their aspirations are best met. The convenience and flexibility of hybrid spaces, enables them to take control of their learning. However, these benefits are reliant upon negotiating new ideas, technologies, constructs of learning and emergent identities which may sit at the counterpoint of existing roles, responsibilities and experiences. For some, this period of transition can consequently be characterised by disorientation and liminality. The findings provide new insights into the context of the decision to study online, highlighting the extent of the emotion and entanglement between an individual’s choice to participate in learning and their personal lifeworld. It shows how online learning provides a degree of agency for some students where participation in other settings could be difficult. This research conceptualises the decision to return to study, in order to identify the interplay of the personal, institutional and circumstantial domains which shape these early encounters. It uses a narrative approach to explore participant experiences in forging their emergent identities, the opportunities and challenges presented by hybrid online spaces, the importance of networks and a sense of belonging and what tools and strategies are deployed in negotiating boundary encounters. Although the data for this study was collected and analysed before the Covid-19 pandemic, the study examines what we, as educator-researchers, can learn from their narratives and how this might inform our professional practice in the Covid-19 context. It makes a methodological contribution to the literature in the growing field of online research methods through its innovative use of online reflective journals and Skype interviews alongside examining the implications of the findings for both policy and practice.
  • Judicial politics in the Privy Council: a legal analysis of its impact on the constitutionality of the death penalty in the Commonwealth Caribbean

    Haynes, Andrew; Edwards, Vincel Anthony (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-08)
    An institution such as the Privy Council is the supreme judicial body for some Commonwealth countries. The main objective of this research is to understand the extent to which the Privy Council decision making on the constitutionality of the death penalty in the Commonwealth Caribbean influenced by judicial politics. This issue is extant to the Commonwealth Caribbean society and therefore a legal analysis of it is necessary to generate new insights into the judicial politics of the Privy Council. Therefore, the decision making on the constitutionality of the death penalty is the vehicle used in this research to present explanations in response to this issue. This is demonstrated through the theories of judicial behaviour in the perspectives of the legal model, the institutional model and the attitudinal model of such behaviour. It worth noting that in some Commonwealth Caribbean States the death penalty is the punishment prescribed by law for persons guilty of the crime of murder. However, there are serious concerns with the application of this punishment. A case law analysis of the death penalty in the Commonwealth Caribbean from a policy perspective will be pursued. Also, of major concerns in this regard is that it is hypothesized that the constitutionality of the death penalty in the Commonwealth Caribbean is influenced by judicial politics. This research will focus on exploring, evaluating and explaining the hypothesis on the death penalty in the area of judicial politics. It involves examining the structure, nature and the relationship between the concept of judicial politics and that of the constitutionality of the death penalty. Wider issues such as an analysis of judicial reasoning by the Privy Council involving the death penalty and also human rights issues have been pursued. Thus this research also necessitates assessing the jurisdiction and jurisprudence of the Privy Council and the Caribbean Court of Justice in evaluating the judicial attitude towards the issue of cruelty of the death penalty in the Commonwealth Caribbean.
  • Reflections beyond words: using auto-driven photo-elicitation to explore the pain management programme journey

    Cureton, Debra; Lawton, Megan; Ward, Gavin; Roberts, Suzanne (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
    In the UK, around one-third to one-half of the population are estimated to be affected by persistent pain, a long-term complex condition which can have serious implications for an individual’s everyday functioning and quality of life. A biopsychosocial approach to care and pain management programmes can be adopted as a treatment option. A growing body of research supports the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy based pain management programmes. This research, however, is based on analyses of pre-post changes in pre-defined outcome measures. Limited qualitative research has focused on programme evaluation and the notion of acceptance. This study aimed to explore the individuals’ everyday experience of change as they progressed through a pain management programme to enhance understanding of the change process from the individuals’ perspective. This study also aimed to establish how auto-driven photo-elicitation can support participants to articulate their pain management journey. Nine participants who were part of a six-week online pain management programme were asked to generate weekly images representing a meaningful change in their pain management. These images were discussed in photo-elicitation interviews at week two, four and six of the programme. Transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings represented the way participants created meaning associated with changes in their pain management across the three timepoints of data collection. The significance of these time points in relation to pain management were constructed as: (1) Insight and Awareness, (2) Integration and (3) Reframing. All participants described a shift in their perspective towards pain, which appeared to be facilitated by factors of ‘acceptance’ and ‘empowerment’. Auto-driven photo-elicitation was found to ‘invite reflection’ and held ‘therapeutic value’ which facilitated the change process. Photography was found to be an engaging and valuable method for helping individuals articulate their pain management journey. This provides support for the adaptability of pain management programmes and the use of photography to create therapeutic opportunities.
  • Establishing an ex vivo model of acanthamoeba keratitis and investigating the phenotypic similarities between the protozoan acanthamoeba and human macrophages

    Heaselgrave, Wayne; Al-Antary, Noor Tawfiq Mohamad (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-04)
    Acanthamoeba is a small free-living amoeba found in tap water and soil with two life stages: the trophozoite and cyst. Acanthamoeba species are opportunistic pathogens of humans that cause two main diseases including a potentially blinding infection of the cornea called Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in immunocompetent individuals, and a fatal granulomatous encephalitis in the immunocompromised. In this study, an ex vivo model of AK was developed to better understand the pathophysiological processes that occur in this disease. The model has several applications such as studying the interaction of Acanthamoeba with cells of innate immunity, investigating the efficacy of different pharmaceutical products in stopping the progression of the disease beside using the model to correlate between in vivo and ex vivo confocal microscopy findings of various morphologies of Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites. Furthermore, the study evaluated the phenotypic similarities between Acanthamoeba and cells of the innate immune system mainly macrophages using flow cytometry analysis to enhance the understanding of how immune cells interact with Acanthamoeba Porcine corneas were used to establish a reproducible ex vivo model which was maintained for four weeks and optimised by the supplement of CO2 and the use of air – liquid interface rocking system that mimics natural eye blinking. Once the model was established, Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts were added to the corneal model to evaluate the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, and the study successfully demonstrated the development of the infection in the model. This study was also able to demonstrate that the addition of macrophages and neutrophils to the AK model did not limit the process of the infection as these cells were phagocytosed by Acanthamoeba. The model was also used to investigate the efficacy of doxycycline and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) in stopping the disease progression and the results demonstrated the ability of PHMB to inactivate Acanthamoeba trophozoites with minimal toxicity to the corneal epithelium. Doxycycline was not found to have any major antimicrobial effect on the viability of Acanthamoeba. The model was also utilized to study the ex vivo confocal microscopy (EVCM) features of various forms of Acanthamoeba and correlate these findings to in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images from culture positive AK cases. The study demonstrated similarity in the morphological features of Acanthamoeba in both ex vivo and in vivo confocal microscopy images, which makes EVCM images a reliable reference to validate IVCM findings. Finally, this study evaluated the phenotypic similarities between Acanthamoeba and macrophages using flow cytometry analysis which identified various degrees of positive reactivity of amoebic cell surface to a limited number of anti-human monoclonal antibodies. This suggests some structural and functional similarities in protein surfaces between amoeba and macrophages which can potentially offer a future tool for screening.
  • Intentional forgetting of emotional memories in the item-method directed forgetting task

    Mercer, Tom; Hinton, Danny; Darby, Richard; Ahmed, Sumera (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
    Forgetting is often viewed as a nuisance, but research has indicated that forgetting is an adaptive process that works to remove irrelevant information (Bjork,1989). Such 'intentional’ forgetting concerns the active removal of information from memory, with evidence coming from the Think/No-Think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2004) and most importantly the Directed Forgetting paradigm (Bjork, 1970). The Directed Forgetting paradigm assesses intentional forgetting through the use of two cues (Remember and Forget) and a majority of studies suggest a successful inhibition of the 'Forget' items in comparison to the 'Remember' items. However, there is a long-term dispute within research in regard to valence and intentional forgetting. Specifically, it is unclear whether directed forgetting is reduced for emotional stimuli, in comparison to neutral stimuli. In the current thesis, Directed Forgetting was tested in six experiments and consistently reported when retrieval was assessed through free recall. The Directed Forgetting effect also applied to emotional material. However, valence differences for the 'Remember' cue (positive vs negative) were greater than the differences found for the 'Forget' cue. This suggests that both positive and negative words can be successfully forgotten. Additionally, factors such as time (Chapters 2, 3 and 5), individual differences (Chapters 4 [sex differences] and 5 [mood and emotional reactivity]) and stimuli characteristics (Chapters 5 [concreteness] and 7 [word type]) had a minimal impact on Directed Forgetting. The experiments within this thesis have been successful in highlighting DF within free recall. Yet when a cued recall procedure was used, the DF effect was abolished, and there actually seemed to be a form of inverted DF for negative words. Lastly, limitations, theoretical implications and future directions are considered in Chapter 8 (the general discussion).
  • An investigation of client loyalty in the construction professional services sector

    Hampton, Paul; Williams, Nicholas Michael (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-02)
    Construction professional services (CPS) suppliers perform several vital roles in the construction industry. Arguably, their success (and, in hard times, their survival) is determined by the loyalty of their clients. Loyal clients provide a reliable stream of revenue and help generate new business for CPS suppliers by providing recommendations and referrals. However, prior to this research, there were no known empirical studies which investigated CPS client loyalty. Using evidence obtained from a literature review, a conceptual model was developed that identified the key-candidate service-related antecedents of client loyalty. A phase of qualitative research was carried out using purposeful and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were arranged with 20 respondents, with these being a mix of CPS clients and suppliers. The resulting data were subject to thematic analysis, and the conceptual model of CPS-client loyalty was refined based on the findings. A phase of quantitative research was carried out to test the degree to which the qualitative research findings could be generalised to the wider CPS-client population. This involved a survey, and analysis of the data using factor analysis and hypothesis testing using multiple regression. This was itself followed up using a phase of member checking with a group of experts to validate and help explain some discrepant findings. This research has made several contributions to knowledge. It provides empirical support for the existence of a multidimensional form of commitment in a CPS supplier-client context. It is the first known research to identify what CPS suppliers should focus on to be able to build and benefit from client loyalty. The results showed that service quality was the antecedent most strongly associated with loyalty. Affective commitment was found to be next in importance. A weak-but-significant relationship with locked-in commitment was also identified. It should be noted that sampling during both qualitative and quantitative phase of research was restricted to respondents from the UK Midlands. Therefore, there are limits to which the findings can be generalised beyond this geographical region. In summary, CPS suppliers are advised to focus first and foremost on fulfilling their clients’ rational desire for a high level of service quality. However, to achieve optimum levels of client loyalty, they should be mindful of the power of personal relationships between their employees and their clients. In this respect, they are advised to avoid rotating their account representatives where healthy relations and rapport are evident.
  • Nurses’ views on compassionate care: a study using Q methodology

    Gutteridge, Robin; Bond, Carol; Philp, Ann (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
    Compassion and compassionate care are identified as essential elements in nursing. They enhance quality care, wellbeing, and the overall quality of patients’ lives. However, incidents of substandard care have highlighted inherent tensions between competing professional and organisational demands in a rapidly changing workplace. This research investigated nurses’ views of the promoters and inhibitors of provision and maintenance of compassionate care. Participants were third year student nurses and qualified nurses in a large inner-city Trust hospital. An integrative literature review revealed three overarching themes that impact on nurses’ ability to provide and maintain compassionate care. Sumner’s (2008a) Moral Construct of Caring in Nursing as Communicative Action Theory (MCCNCAT) was applied as the theoretical framework. Q methodology supported the investigation of subjectivity within an interpretive design. 54 statements were developed from the literature review and focus group participation, representing the breadth of debate on compassion and compassionate care. Participants (n=30) rank-ordered these statements onto a quasi-normal distribution grid (the Q sort). They provided post Q sort data via Report Sheets and semi-structured interviews; thematic analysis was used to explore interview data. Completed Q sorts were analysed using correlation and by-person factor analysis, resulting in two distinct factors. Some participants shared commonalities across factors and did not contribute to the construction of the factor estimates. Remaining participants (n=18) included student nurses (n=10) and qualified nurses (n=8). Compassionate care was found to be complex, interconnected, and multifaceted. There was consensus from student nurses and qualified nurses in the three overarching themes: • Personal/relational – Improved patient outcomes impact positively on patients and motivate nurses to provide compassionate care. Satisfaction gained from providing compassionate care creates a virtuous circle, enhancing wellbeing, personal motivation, professional commitment, and job performance. It supports collegial relationships and positive patient outcomes. • Organisational – Organisations must promote compassionate care, supporting nurses and providing necessary resources. Managers, leaders, mentors, and colleagues should demonstrate compassion towards patients and staff. Developing and supporting a culture of compassion can counter factors that inhibit compassionate care. Nurses should be encouraged to develop self-compassion, which promotes their own wellbeing. • Educational – Nurses’ clinical experiences should be connected to teaching and learning. This means replacing inappropriate didactic, classroom-based education with approaches that are experiential and creative, using strengthened links with practice, so that learning is relevant to the reality of clinical practice. These findings were incorporated in an explanatory diagram, underpinned by MCCNCAT (Sumner 2008a) which makes visible the dynamics involved and strategies that build and sustain compassionate care.
  • Producing the translators of tomorrow: designing a student-centred and competence-based translation curriculum for Saudi universities

    Almugharbil, Sara Mohammed (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
    The main aim of this research project is to investigate the extent to which translation courses in Saudi Arabia adequately prepare students to take up careers as professional translators according to current market needs. Saudi Vision 2030 acknowledges that graduates must be able to operate at a professional level of competence in order to be competitive in terms of employability. Accordingly, there is a need to improve the translation skills and competences of graduates of translation courses in Saudi Arabia and, more broadly, in the Arabic-speaking world. Using a Saudi case study, this research explores how competency-based course content can be combined with analysis of multiple stakeholders’ perspectives and a review of research, policies, and best practice to identify potential gaps between undergraduate translator training approaches and the needs of the translation industry. Primary data has been collected by surveying four samples: a sample of staff teaching translation modules at Saudi Universities, a sample of students and graduates of EFL and translation at Saudi universities as well as a sample of some of the top employers in Saudi Arabia. The data gathered is intended to help the course designers and educational practitioners in developing translation skills curricula through evidence-based recommendations. By implementing them, universities can more closely align the translation components of undergraduate degree programmes with the needs of the market, thereby enhancing graduates’ employability. The results shed light on the changes that have to be made in the current provision and existing teaching practices, curricula, and student skill sets in Saudi universities. These changes could improve the course design and teaching of translation so that these universities can produce graduates with the necessary vocationally oriented profile to work in the translation sector. This research can also help to inform education policy in the HE sector in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region overall.
  • Parameterized monads in linguistics

    Le, An Ha; Viet, Ha Bui (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
    This dissertation follows the formal semantics approach to linguistics. It applies recent developments in computing theories to study theoretical linguistics in the area of the interaction between semantics and pragmatics and analyzes several natural language phenomena by parsing them in these theories. Specifically, this dissertation uses parameterized monads, a particular theoretical framework in category theory, as a dynamic semantic framework to reinterpret the compositional Discourse Representation Theory(cDRT), and to provide an analysis of donkey anaphora. Parameterized monads are also used in this dissertation to interpret information states as lists of presuppositions, and as dot types. Alternative interpretations for demonstratives and imperatives are produced, and the conventional implicature phenomenon in linguistics substantiated, using the framework. Interpreting donkey anaphora shows that parameterized monads is able to handle the sentential dependency. Therefore, this framework shows an expressive power equal to that of related frameworks such as the typed logical grammar and the dynamic predicate logic. Interpreting imperatives via parameterized monads also provides a compositional dynamic semantic analysis which is one of the main approaches to analysing imperatives.
  • An exploration of English and Swedish pre-school teachers’ perspectives on their roles and values

    Bartram, Brendan; Stanley, Faye (University of Wolverhampton, 2020-07)
    This comparative investigation aims to explore the values of an English and a Swedish pre-school teacher, focusing on their roles and the experiences they provide for three and four-year-old children. Values are beliefs held by individuals to which they attach special worth or priority (Hill, 1991); and this research recognises that values are personalised and shaped by the social, cultural and political contexts in which the teachers are situated and as a prism through which practice is realised. This thesis examines growing international research evidence in the field of early childhood education (ECE) that has shown that high quality early childhood education is linked to teacher qualification and pedagogic approach, which has a significant impact on children’s learning outcomes (Sylva et al., 2010). The literature examined affirms that early years practitioners’ underlying beliefs and the transmission of values must be scrutinised through critical reflection and made ‘explicit’ and brought to the surface to transform early years practitioners’ practice (Brookfield, 2017). Two ‘day in the life of’ videos were filmed (in a Swedish and an English pre-school) using polyvocal ethnography (Tobin and Hayashi, 2012) to capture two teachers’ multiple ‘voices’ in an attempt to ascertain their values through ongoing dialogue, telling and retelling of their ‘stories’ provoked by their reflections on the video footage. The videos provided data which were used to elicit thick, rich reflections. The findings revealed many similarities in the teachers’ values, especially regarding relationships, a play-based pedagogy, valuing parents as partners, the layout of the environment and types of resources utilised, valuing the voice and rights of the child alongside the role of the adult in terms of nurturing children’s independence, knowing the children, and modelling. There were more pronounced differences, however, with regard to the teachers’ views on how children learn and the role of the adult. It is concluded that these differences are shaped by the underpinning educational policy and the curricula in the teachers’ respective countries. This investigation has generated a framework entitled ‘situated pedagogy’, based on the thinking of Habermas (1987) and Rogoff (2003), which offers early years practitioners the opportunity to make their values more visible through the lens of their daily pedagogical practices, taking into consideration the societal, political and cultural contexts in which they are based.
  • Point of failure: British Army brigadiers in the British Expeditionary Force and North Western Expeditionary Force, 1940 - A study of advancement and promotion

    Buckley, John; McCarty, Philip John (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-01)
    By the summer of 1940 the British Army had suffered two simultaneous strategic defeats in Norway and France. Both had led to hurried and ignominious evacuations. A popular misconception contends that this led to a wholesale clearing out of the British Army’s command structure in order to start again, and that many officers suffered the loss of their careers in the necessity to rebuild an army both to withstand invasion and enable victory over Nazi Germany. This thesis contends that this belief is misplaced, and that rather than automatically ending the careers of all involved, some officers would progress and even thrive after 1940 in varying degrees. Its basis is a group of officers, brigadiers, on the cusp of either progression to general’s rank, stagnation or demotion. The careers of these officers are examined to establish whether or not factors including education, regiment, staff qualifications and so on influenced their professional survival. The work also considers whether the presence or absence of influence was responsible for an officer’s progression through the war after 1940. This thesis also examines those brigadiers serving in fighting commands in the initial stages of the Battle of Normandy in 1944. This is to compare a group on the cusp of winning a war with one close to its loss. The conclusion will be that the degree of change between the types of officer serving was not as radical as might have previously been supposed.
  • Added value through design for healthcare facilities/buildings in Saudi Arabia within the legislative regulations of Saudi Arabia

    Arif, Mohammed; Fadel, Bedour A. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-03)
    High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. A healthcare facility with an environment that is user centered, welcoming, and accessible, while also supporting staff and patient privacy and security has been found to enhance medical outcomes, and patient and staff comfort and well-being, which in turn have a positive effect on medical outcomes. The use of Evidence Based Designhas been shown to be of benefit to add value through design to a building . A comprehensive review of relevant literature was used to develop an understanding of the factors perceived to add value to a healthcare facility. Data were derived from two instruments an expert survey and a group AHP pairwise comparison survey. The findings of the first instrument resulted in validation of the factors, both directly and indirectly related to design, proposed in the literature and added insight into some culturally specific perceptions of factors which add value to a healthcare facility. The second instrument was a pairwise comparison of the six main design criteria and 25 related sub-factors to gain a multi-user perspective of their priority in adding value. The results from the first expert survey of the factors found in the literature and the AHP pairwise comparison survey were synthesized to develop a proposed framework to add value to healthcare facilities through building design . The framework was developed with consideration of factors indirectly impacted by design in addition to the design factors themselves. The proposed framework has six main criteria of Risk and Safety, Accessibility and Way-finding, Functionality, Cultural factors , Aesthetics, Comfort and Well-being and Cost with 25 sub-factors directly related to design of varied priority ranking found to add value to a healthcare facility within the Saudi Cultural context and presented in order of priority weighting . These were then related to their impact on the factors which add value to a healthcare facility which have been shown to be indirectly related to the healthcare facility design. Findings suggest that while perceptions of factors that add value are mostly in agreement with those found in other studies, that there are some culturally specific factors that need to be considered in order to design facilities that provide the greatest value, including patient rooms of a size and design that allow for a caretaker to be present and to accommodate for a large number of visitors, In addition, there is a need to consider the direction for the prayer and the need for signage to indicate it in the room layout. They also suggest that added value through design can have a positive effect on medical outcomes and the satisfaction and well-being of staff and patients.
  • The long and winding road to reflexology: A post-structural narrative inquiry

    Edwards Price, Sally (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
    Background: Reflexology has suffered a troubled and tumultuous journey travelling a long and winding road, experiencing times of interest and intrigue alongside suspicion and doubt. This study explores the topic through a post-structural lens to discover new possibilities for the discipline. Methodology: The research design used a narrative inquiry and emerged a Derridean theoretical approach encompassing some of the key concepts of Jacques Derrida’s writings (Derrida, 2016, 1993, 1982, 1978). It concerns poetical notions of text, context and intertextuality as a backdrop to re-explore traditional stories told by five prominent reflexologists accompanied by an autobiographical story. Using narrative inquiry, it explored how narratives allow reflexologists to perform and make heard the whispered voices in order to let reflexology stories (the reflexstories) breathe (Frank, 2012). Findings: This study firstly, at a textual level, uncovered the literature surrounding reflexology (the reflexliterature) proffering an evolution of the therapy and secondly, for context, embraced the methodology of narrative inquiry, eliciting synchronic narratives. Beatles song titles have been used as headings, bringing into focus my own intertextuality to capture the spirit of Derridean thought which emerged during the era reflexology was presenting as a popular practice. The study contributes to furthering the body of knowledge of reflexology by providing personal narratives and poems for pedagogic application and explores emerging cultural and dialogical accounts of the modality in order to find possibilities for practice rather than affording truth claims on its efficacy and effectiveness. Moreover, it offers a theoretical model for the application of a schema of critical questioning so as to expose the metaphysical assumptions of the subject in question which revealed reflexology as a spectre in healthcare. Recommendations: A standardised data collection tool could be developed to replace the use of many varied questionnaires within the research on reflexology and the numerous reflexology associations could try again, to converge and adopt one collective organisation. Reflexology could be utilised in other areas of healthcare identified in the literature rather than only the current provision. Finally, the theoretical model could be exploited for other subjects in order to interrogate the hierarchies, dichotomies and binary oppositions which are present within the topic of inquiry.
  • Suggestion support system for healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia: an assessment framework

    Arif, Mohammed; Khusheim, Lina H. (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
    Saudi Arabia has developed an ambitious vision, Vision 2030, where the healthcare industry is one of the significant focus areas, making the healthcare industry more efficient and effective is crucial to attracting the private sector and making this vision a reality. Therefore, improving healthcare organisations' performance and competitiveness is necessary to achieve this sector's vision. In such a continuous improvement journey, suggestion systems can be considered an essential continuous improvement tool that identifies the industry's shortfalls and allows for potential future opportunities. It was found that the classical suggestion systems’ development process is subject to human behaviour that might discourage overall participation. Thus, interactive and straightforward systems will encourage productive participation. Furthermore, a study showed that employee creativity and positive engagement remain crucial in successful suggestion system implementation. Therefore, simplicity is considered the critical success factor in any suggestion system development and implementation process. The goal of this study is to develop an assessment framework for Saudi healthcare suggestion systems. A thorough review of the literature highlighted eighteen variables that act as drivers for the suggestion system's success. To account for a technology evaluation parameter, we adopted Nielson's definition of usability. He defines usability as a phenomenon that consists of five major factors: learnability, efficiency, memorability, error recovery, and satisfaction. A further understanding of the relationships between the suggestion system drivers and the adopted technical evaluation parameter's definition are investigated. A questionnaire on the eighteen variables was conducted, and 138 responses were collected. Based on a series of scientific analyses, the researcher identified three significant latent factors affecting the usability of a healthcare suggestion system: the Personal factor, System and Institutional factor, and Social Support factor. A maturity model with three levels of maturity was developed. The first level was defined as Low level, the second level was defined as a Medium level, and the third level was the High one. An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was performed to prioritise variables within each construct and among the three latent factors. AHP showed that the most critical factor is the Personal factor, followed by the System and Institutional factor, and then the Social Support factor. The first latent factor, the Personal one, includes the following suggestion system success variables: Reward, Ease of Use, Clear Scope, Autonomy, Trust, anonymity, Problem Solving, and Feedback. Under the second latent factor, System and Institutional, the success variables are Resources, Supervisor Support, Training, Publicity, Colleague Support, Compliance, and Equality. While the Social Support factor listed variables are Social Media and Social Networking. In order to test the developed model, two Saudi healthcare facilities were investigated. Furthermore, the developed model was found useful not only in assessing the current state of their suggestion systems but also in identifying the potential improvement opportunities. Having a prioritised list ensures that organisations can focus on improving factors that have a higher impact on the overall usability of the system.
  • Attitudes and behaviours of user groups on Cannock Chase area of outstanding natural beauty

    Dale, Crispin; Jackaman, Clare (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-07)
    Increasing amounts of leisure time and more availability of income following postrecessional financial issues have contributed towards growing public usage of free parkland areas, such as Cannock Chase Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, putting such areas under pressure from environmental issues. The behaviours of users of parklands have been extensively researched, with scarce attention to the investigation of underpinning attitudes. Of available theory, Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour (1985) model and Dunlap et al.’s (2000) New Ecological Paradigm scale are arguably the most effective in identifying and measuring the link between attitude and behaviour. The aim of the present programme of study was to explore user and non-user attitudes to environmental issues and then develop and test an intervention to increase awareness and pro-environmental attitudes. Baseline data involved data collection from 701 users and 210 non-users. Participants completed both attitudinal questionnaires and users took part in semi-structured interviews. Baseline data analysis indicated user group participants reported low proenvironmental attitude scores, suggesting room for improvement. In terms of improving pro-environmental attitudes, studies show educational interventions are highly effective, with simultaneous use of multiple emotional appeals used in an online format. Content analysis of existing AONB intervention posters and leaflets were used to develop an image based poster intervention. Intervention was emailed to participants with an initial questionnaire (n=234). Over a six month longitudinal study, participants repeated questionnaire completion at months two (n=196) and six (n=210). Results indicated pro-environmental attitudes all improved initially from baseline, then all decreased at month two, and largely increased from month two to month six. Females, higher qualified, middle income, car users, photographers, nature activities and runners were among the most pro-environmental postintervention. Mood data identified all emotions built into poster were experienced, therefore improvements were influenced by the intervention. Viewed collectively, results indicate that the study has identified poster interventions are an inexpensive, easy and effective method of improving pro-environmental attitudes. Research has shown poster method can be used by subject specialists and non-specialists; such an intervention is scalable and potentially effective. Future research is needed to investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of scalable interventions to improve proenvironmental attitudes
  • Designing play equipment to develop the social competence of children with cerebral palsy

    Harrison, Dew; Niedderer, Kristina; Rozsahegyi, Tunde; Borzenkova, Ganna (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-06)
    This study investigated the design of play equipment for encouraging peer-to-peer social interactions amongst children with cerebral palsy aged from 4 to 6 years, as a means of developing their social competence. The focus was on developing a new conceptual model and criteria for designing this specialist play equipment and, thus, creating a level playing field for children with different manifestations of cerebral palsy. According to the statistics of the National Health Service, it is estimated that approximately 1 in 400 children is born with cerebral palsy in the UK (NHS, 2017). It is recognised that these children often have reduced social engagement, yet socialisation plays a fundamental role in development. In spite of this, there are few toys specifically developed for children with cerebral palsy and even fewer which support peer socialisation. Therefore, there is a need to develop relational play equipment for them. The research presented here is interdisciplinary and informed by a social perspective on disability. It combined theoretical investigation with design practice within an action-research approach. User-centred design was used for the design development and intervention. Observations of children with cerebral palsy and interviews with their parents and conductors were employed for collecting data about the children’s social interactions before and during the design intervention in order to determine the effectiveness of the proposed concept. Data collection was carried out at the National Institute of Conductive Education in Birmingham, England. A conceptual design model of play equipment for enhancing the social competence in children with cerebral palsy was developed. The model focused on designing semiotic content that could trigger cognitive, emotional, social and physical processes to encourage children to participate in relational play and facilitate peer-to-peer social interactions. Based on this model, design criteria were developed, integrating two interrelated sets of indicators. The first set pertained to the design position and comprised child-friendly design criteria. The second pertained to the social purpose, comprising indicators of social competence, such as social skills and self-confidence. Based on these criteria, a number of design ideas were developed, using ideation, intuitive hand sketching and brainstorming. A final idea of the thematic play environment, “Undersea Friends”, which corresponded best to the conceptual model of play equipment and met most of the design criteria and recommendations from parents and conductors, was chosen for the design intervention. “Undersea Friends” consists of the toys intended for practising particular social skills, where each toy in the play space is a creature-friend and a facilitator of children’s interactions. These toys are Octopush Olly for practising turn taking, Hexapush Hetty for practising cooperation and Larry Long Legs for sharing. Two prototype toys for this environment were developed and evaluated with children with cerebral palsy for the purposes of this study. This completed study highlights the difficulties which children with cerebral palsy may experience with peer interactions while playing. It provides a new understanding of the development of social competence through engaging children in relational play, facilitated by specialist play equipment, as well as the prototype toys of the play environment, “Undersea Friends”. This research contributes to understanding of how designers can approach the creation of such play equipment by providing design criteria, design recommendations and suggestions for further investigation.

View more