• 100-m Breaststroke Swimming Performance in Youth Swimmers: The Predictive Value of Anthropometrics.

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younés (Human Kinetics, 2018-03-16)
      This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth). In addition, leg length, biacromial breadth, and biiliocristal breadth revealed significant positive associations with the 100-m breaststroke performance. However, height and body mass did not contribute to the model, suggesting that the advantage of longer levers was limb-specific rather than a general whole-body advantage. In fact, it is only by adopting multiplicative allometric models that the previously mentioned ratios could have been derived. These results highlighted the importance of considering anthropometric characteristics of youth breaststroke swimmers for talent identification and/or athlete monitoring purposes. In addition, these findings may assist orienting swimmers to the appropriate stroke based on their anthropometric characteristics.
    • 10 Marked differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of ticagrelor in patients undergoing treatment for ST elevation and non ST elevation myocardial infarction (stemi and nstemi)

      Khan, Nazish; Amoah, Vincent; Cornes, Mike; Martins, Joe; Wrigley, Ben; Khogali, Saib; Nevill, Alan M.; Cotton, James (BMJ Publishing Group, 2018-06-01)
      Introduction Ticagrelor, an orally administered, direct acting, reversible P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, provides faster onset and greater levels of platelet inhibition when compared to clopidogrel. Current data indicates a reduced antiplatelet effect in STEMI. We sought to determine the early pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of ticagrelor loading doses administered to patients undergoing PCI for STEMI and NSTEMI. Methods This is a single centre non-randomised study. P2Y12 naive patients presenting with STEMI or NSTEMI were considered for inclusion. All patients gave informed consent. Enrolled patients were administered a loading dose of aspirin 300 mg and ticagrelor 180 mg prior to PCI. Blood was sampled at 20 min, coronary balloon time, 1 hour and 4 hours after loading. PD results are expressed as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) and were assessed using VerifyNow. A PRU>208 indicates a sub-optimal antiplatelet response. PK properties were assessed by measuring plasma concentration of ticagrelor parent compound (T-PC) and active metabolite (T-AM) using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The lower limits of quantification of T-PC and its active metabolite, AR-C124910XX (T-AM) are 1 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml respectively. PRU and plasma concentrations over time were tested between the two groups using 2-way ANOVA. p<0.05 was considered significant. Results 30 patients (15 STEMI/15 NSTEMI) were recruited. Baseline characteristics are described in Table 1.
    • A brief exposure to moderate passive smoke increases metabolism and thyroid hormone secretion.

      Metsios, Giorgos S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Carrillo, A.E.; Kouretas, Dimitris; Germenis, A.E.; Gourgoulianis, K.; Kiropoulos, T.; Tzatzarakis, M.N.; Tsatsakis, A.M.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (The Endocrine Society/HighWire Press, 2007)
      CONTEXT: Active smoking influences normal metabolic status and thyroid function. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess experimentally the effects of 1 h of moderate passive smoking in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment on the metabolism and thyroid hormone levels in healthy nonsmokers. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen (nine females, nine males) healthy individuals (mean +/- sd: age, 25.3 +/- 3.1 yr; height, 174.0 +/- 10.1 cm; weight, 65.2 +/- 13.7 kg) participated in the study. DESIGN: In repeated-measures randomized blocks, participants visited the laboratory on 2 consecutive days. In the experimental condition, they were exposed to 1 h of moderate passive smoking at a carbon monoxide concentration of 23 +/- 1 ppm in an environmental chamber, whereas in the control condition participants remained in the same chamber for 1 h breathing normal atmospheric air. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In both conditions, cotinine serum and urine levels, resting energy expenditure (REE), as well as concentration of T3, free T4, and TSH were assessed before participants entered the chamber and immediately after their exit. Heart rate and blood pressure were tested in 10-min intervals during all REE assessments. RESULTS: The mean +/- sd difference of serum and urine cotinine levels (-0.27 +/- 3.94 vs. 14.01 +/- 6.54 and 0.05 +/- 2.07 vs. 7.23 +/- 3.75, respectively), REE (6.73 +/- 98.06 vs. 80.58 +/- 120.91) as well as T3 and free T4 (0.05 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.13 +/- 0.12 and 0.02 +/- 0.15 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.20) were increased in the experimental compared with the control condition at baseline and follow-up (P < 0.05). No statistically significant variation was observed in the mean difference of the remaining parameters (P > 0.05). Serum and urine cotinine values were linearly associated with REE (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: One hour of passive smoking at bar/restaurant levels is accompanied by significant increases in metabolism and thyroid hormone levels.
    • A comparison of developmental coordination disorder prevalence rates in Canadian and Greek children.

      Tsiotra, Georgia D.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Faught, Brent E.; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Andrew M.; Skenteris, Nicolaos (Elsevier BV, 2006)
      We examined whether lifestyle differences between Canadian and Greek children may be reflected in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) prevalence rates. Data revealed that the relatively inactive Greek children demonstrated higher DCD prevalence rates compared to the Canadian sample and exhibited a greater risk for clinical obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness.
    • A comparison of strength and stretch interventions on active and passive ranges of movement in dancers: a randomized controlled trial.

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Smith, Anna; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013-11)
      The majority of stretching interventional research has focused on the development of a muscle's passive range of movement (PROM). Active range of movement (AROM) refers to the functional range of movement (ROM) available to the participant and provides a better insight into the relationship between muscular antagonistic pairings. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 3 strengthening or stretching interventions on hip and lower limb active (AROM) and passive (PROM) ranges of movement. Thirty-nine female dance students (17 ± 0.52 years; 61.7 ± 8.48 kg; 164.4 ± 5.49 cm) volunteered. They were randomly divided into 3 groups, strength training (n = 11); low-intensity stretching (n = 13); moderate-intensity or high-intensity stretching (n = 11). Four dancers withdrew during the study. All groups carried out a 6-week intervention. The strength training group focused on end of range hip flexor strength; the low-intensity and moderate-intensity stretch group carried out a series of stretches at 3/10 and 8/10 perceived exertion, respectively. Active range of movement and PROM were measured preintervention and postintervention using 2-d video analysis. Repeated measures analysis indicated that although all 3 groups improved their PROM during the experimental period (range increase: 9-200 p < 0.01), no significant differences were found between the groups. For AROM, both the strength training and the low-intensity stretch groups revealed significant improvements in ROM (range increase: 20-300) compared with the moderate-intensity or high-intensity stretch group (p < 0.01). The present data show that interventions based on strengthening agonist muscles or decreasing the resistance of antagonist muscles through low-intensity stretching are beneficial in the development of both active and passive ranges of movement and provide functional training techniques that are often over looked in favor of the more conservative moderate-intensity stretching programs.
    • A comparison of two stretching modalities on lower-limb range of motion measurements in recreational dancers.

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Felton, Lee; Galloway, Shaun (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2009-10)
      Most stretching techniques are designed to place a "stress" on the musculoskeletal unit that will increase its resting length and range of motion (ROM). Twenty-four adolescent dancers participated in a 6-week intervention program that compared low-intensity stretching (Microstretching) with moderate-intensity static stretching on active and passive ranges of motion. Microstretching is a new modality that reduces the possibility of the parasympathetic system being activated. Repeated measures analysis indicated changes in ROM over the intervention period (p < 0.05), with the Microstretching group demonstrating greater increases in passive and active ROM than the static stretch group (p < 0.01); there was no noted bilateral differences in ROM. The results from this study agree with past studies that have found that stretching increases the compliance of any given muscle and therefore increases the range of motion. One main finding of the present study was that throughout a 6-week training program very-low-intensity stretching had a greater positive effect on lower-limb ROM than moderate-intensity static stretching. The most interesting aspect of the study was the greater increase in active ROM compared to passive ROM by the Microstretching group. This suggests that adaptation has occurred within the muscle itself to a greater extent than in structures of the hip joint. Practical application for this technique suggests it is beneficial as a postexercise modality that potentially has a restorative component.
    • A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses.

      Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Abahussain, Nada A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan M. (MDPI, 2013-12)
      This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14-18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.
    • A field-test battery for elite, young soccer players.

      Hulse, M A; Morris, J G; Hawkins, R D; Hodson, A; Nevill, Alan M.; Nevill, M E (2013-04)
      The validity and reliability of a battery of field-based performance tests was examined. The opinions of coaches, fitness professionals and players (n=170, 172 and 101 respectively) on the importance of performance testing were established using a questionnaire. On 2 occasions, separated by 7 days, 80 elite, young soccer players (mean±SD [and range]: age 13.2±2.6 [8.9-19.1] years; stature 1.59±0.18 m [1.32-1.91]; body mass 50.6±17.1 [26.5-88.7] kg) completed a battery of field-based tests comprised of heart rate response to a submaximal Multi-stage fitness test, 3 types of vertical jump, sprints over 10 and 20 m, and an agility test. Physical performance testing was considered important by coaches (97%), fitness professionals (94%) and players (83%). The systematic bias ratio and the random error components of the 95% ratio limits of agreement for the first and second tests, for the U9-U11 vs. U12-U14 vs. U15-U18 age groups, were [Systematic bias (*/÷ ratio limits)]: Heart rate (Level 5): 0.983 (*/÷ 1.044) vs. 0.969 (*/÷ 1.056) vs. 0.983 (*/÷ 1.055); Rocket jump: 0998 (*/÷ 1.112) vs. 0.999 (*/÷ 1.106) vs. 0.996 (*/÷ 1.093); 10 m sprint: 0.997 (*/÷ 1.038) vs. 0.994 (*/÷ 1.033) vs. 0.994 (*/÷ 1.038); Agility test: 1.010 (*/÷1.050) vs. 1.014 (*/÷1.050) vs. 1.002 (*/÷1.053). All tests, except heart rate recovery from the Multi-stage fitness test, were able to distinguish between different ability and age groups of players (p<0.05). Thus, the field-test battery demonstrated logical and construct validity, and was shown to be a reliable and objective tool for assessing elite, young soccer players.
    • A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer

      Reilly, Thomas; Williams, A. Mark; Nevill, Alan M.; Franks, A. (Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2000-09)
      The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one (16 elite, 15 sub-elite) young players matched for chronological age (15± 16 years) and body size were studied. Test items included anthropometric (n = 15), physiological (n = 8), psychological (n = 3) and soccer-specific skills (n = 2) tests. Variables were split into separate groups according to somatotype, body composition, body size, speed, endurance, performance measures, technical skill, anticipation, anxiety and task and ego orientation for purposes of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance and stepwise discriminant function analysis. The most discriminating of the measures were agility, sprint time, ego orientation and anticipation skill. The elite players were also significantly leaner, possessed more aerobic power (9.0 ± 1.7 vs 55.5 ± 3.8 ml´kg- 1 ´min- 1) and were more tolerant of fatigue (P < 0.05). They were also better at dribbling the ball, but not shooting. We conclude that the test battery used may be useful in establishing baseline reference data for young players being selected onto specialized development programmes.
    • A new waist-to-height ratio predicts abdominal adiposity in adults.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Stewart, Arthur D; Olds, Tim; Duncan, Michael J (Taylor & Francis, 2018-07-25)
      Our aim was to identify the best anthropometric index associated with waist adiposity. The six weight-status indices included body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHTR), and a new waist-by-height
    • A randomised controlled trail in diabetes demonstrating the positive impact of a patient activation strategy on diabetes processes and HbA1c: The WICKED project.

      Gillani, Syed M R; Nevill, Alan M.; Singh, Baldev M (ABCD (Diabetes Care) Ltd, 2017-06-25)
      Background: Patient activation is a demonstration of people participating effectively in their own care as measurable in objective outcomes. Techniques of activating patients are various. Aims: We developed a structured information booklet to promote patient activation and report the 1-year outcomes of a randomised controlled trial assessing its impact on diabetes care processes and on glycaemic control. Design and setting: It is an open label cluster randomised trial involving all people with diabetes aged more than 18 years within Wolverhampton Clinical Commissioning Group. Methods: All people with diabetes were cluster randomised into a group who were multiply mailed (MM) at 0, 3 and 6 months whilst a control group was mailed once at 3 months. Comparison of a Failed Process Score (FPS) between active and control groups was performed at 0, 3 and 12 months and of HbA1c at baseline and 12 months. Results: FPS improved significantly with multiple mailing (p=0.013), with particular impact on those with poor baseline FPS (≥2) (achieved FPS ≤1 at 12 months 49.2% vs. 46.0%, χ2=6.09, p<0.05). Overall HbA1c% across the year (adjusted) was significantly better with MM (p=0.021), with specific impact in those with a baseline HbA1c ≤7.5 (MM HbA1c% 6.7±0.07 (mean±SEM) vs. 7.0±0.09; mean±SEM difference 0.3±0.1, F=11.1, p=0.009). Conclusion: The direct provision of structured information to people with diabetes activates them to engage in their care delivery as reflected in care process and glycaemic control outcomes.
    • A simple explanation for the inverse association between height and waist in men.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Stewart, Arthur D.; Olds, Tim (merican Society for Nutrition, 2010)
    • A three year study of coronary heart disease risk factors in Greek adolescents.

      Bouziotas, Constantin; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Human Kinetics, 2003)
      We examined the prevalence of 14 modifiable CHD risk factors in a sample of 210 provincial Greek children as they progressed from age 12 to 14. It was found that 46.2 % of boys and 49.5 % of girls (p > 0.05) exhibited three or more risk factors at their 12th year, with values of 42 % for boys and 51.1 % (p > 0.05) for girls for their 13th year, and 29.4 % for boys and 55 % (p < 0.001) for girls in their 14th year. Risk factors with the highest prevalence in both sexes included low vigorous physical activity, low aerobic fitness, and elevated body fatness. The fact that boys exhibited progressively fewer risk factors with age was mainly attributed to increased time spent on vigorous physical activity (P < 0.001) and higher predicted oxygen intake (P < 0.001) with a concomitant decrease in body fat (P < 0.001). The opposite pattern demonstrated by girls was primarily due to elevated predicted % body fat (P < 0.05), % saturated fat intake (P < 0.05), total cholesterol (TC; P <0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; P < 0.001), and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)/TC; P < 0.001). In conclusion, a high percentage of young adolescent Greek boys and girls exhibit three or more modifiable CHD risk factors. However, as the children progress from age 12 to 14, gender differences emerge regarding the development of their CHD risk profiles. The present data support the notion that preventive strategies for combating CHD should begin early in life.
    • Accumulating brisk walking for fitness, cardiovascular risk, and psychological health.

      Murphy, Marie H.; Nevill, Alan M.; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne E. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002)
      PURPOSE: To compare the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (14 women), aged 44.5 +/- 6.1 yr (mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to two different, 6-wk programs of brisk walking in a cross-over design, with an interval of 2 wk. One program comprised one 30-min walk per day, 5 d.wk(-1) (long bout) and the other three 10-min walks per day, also 5 d.wk(-1) (short bouts). All walking was at 70-80% of predicted maximal heart rate. Maximal oxygen uptake ((.)VO(2max)), body composition, resting arterial blood pressure, fasting plasma lipoprotein variables, and psychological parameters were assessed before and after each program. RESULTS: Overall, subjects completed 88.2 +/- 1.1% and 91.3 +/- 4.1% of prescribed total walking time in the short- and long-bout programs, respectively. Both programs increased plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decreased concentrations of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol (all < 0.05). There were no changes in body mass, but the sum of four skinfolds, waist circumference, and hip circumference were decreased after both walking programs (all P<0.05). Predicted (.)VO(2max) increased with both programs ( P<0.05), but this increase was greater with the program based on short bouts (P<0.05). Both walking patterns resulted in similar decreases in tension/anxiety (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that three short bouts (10 min) of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day are at least as effective as one continuous bout of equal total duration in reducing cardiovascular risk and improving aspects of mood in previously sedentary individuals.
    • Adjusting bone mass for differences in projected bone area and other confounding variables: an allometric perspective.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Holder, Roger L.; Maffulli, Nicola; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Leung, Sophie S. S. F.; Lee, Warren T. K.; Lau, Joseph T. F. (American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 2002)
      The traditional method of assessing bone mineral density (BMD; given by bone mineral content [BMC] divided by projected bone area [Ap], BMD = BMC/Ap) has come under strong criticism by various authors. Their criticism being that the projected bone "area" (Ap) will systematically underestimate the skeletal bone "volume" of taller subjects. To reduce the confounding effects of bone size, an alternative ratio has been proposed called bone mineral apparent density [BMAD = BMC/(Ap)3/2]. However, bone size is not the only confounding variable associated with BMC. Others include age, sex, body size, and maturation. To assess the dimensional relationship between BMC and projected bone area, independent of other confounding variables, we proposed and fitted a proportional allometric model to the BMC data of the L2-L4 vertebrae from a previously published study. The projected bone area exponents were greater than unity for both boys (1.43) and girls (1.02), but only the boy's fitted exponent was not different from that predicted by geometric similarity (1.5). Based on these exponents, it is not clear whether bone mass acquisition increases in proportion to the projected bone area (Ap) or an estimate of projected bone volume (Ap)3/2. However, by adopting the proposed methods, the analysis will automatically adjust BMC for differences in projected bone size and other confounding variables for the particular population being studied. Hence, the necessity to speculate as to the theoretical value of the exponent of Ap, although interesting, becomes redundant.
    • Allometric associations between body size, shape, and 100-m butterfly speed performance.

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younés (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2017-05-09)
      This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb--segment length, and girth or breadth ratios associated with 100--m butterfly speed performance in swimmers.
    • Allometric associations between body size, shape, and physical performance of Greek children.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Tsiotra, Georgia D.; Tsimeas, P. D.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; School of Sport, Performing Arts and Leisure, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK. (Human Kinetics, Inc., 2009)
      We adopted allometric models to identify the most appropriate body size/shape characteristics associated with physical performance activities of Greek school children. Children underwent assessments for aerobic and anaerobic fitness, flexibility and hand-grip strength. Results suggest that the inverse Ponderal index and not BMI is the most appropriate body-shape indicator associated with running and jumping activities. Height was negatively associated with flexibility, but both height and weight were positively associated with hand-grip strength. In conclusion, allometric models provide a valuable insight into the most appropriate body size and shape characteristics associated with children's physical performances and at the same time ensure valid inference when investigating group/population differences (e.g., between gender and maturation status).
    • Allometric scaling of uphill cycling performance

      Jobson, Simon A.; Woodside, J.; Passfield, L.; Nevill, Alan M. (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2008)
      Previous laboratory-based investigations have identified optimal body mass scaling exponents in the range 0.79 - 0.91 for uphill cycling. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether or not these exponents are also valid in a field setting. A proportional allometric model was used to predict the optimal power-to-mass ratios associated with road-based uphill time-trial cycling performance. The optimal power function models predicting mean cycle speed during a 5.3 km, 5.4 % road hill-climb time-trial were (V O (2max) . m (-1.24)) (0.55) and (RMP (max) . m (-1.04)) (0.54), explained variance being 84.6 % and 70.5 %, respectively. Slightly higher mass exponents were observed when the mass predictor was replaced with the combined mass of cyclist and equipment (m (C)). Uphill cycling speed was proportional to (V O (2max) . m (C)(-1.33)) (0.57) and (RMP (max) . m (C)(-1.10)) (0.59). The curvilinear exponents, 0.54 - 0.59, identified a relatively strong curvilinear relationship between cycling speed and energy cost, suggesting that air resistance remains influential when cycling up a gradient of 5.4 %. These results provide some support for previously reported uphill cycling mass exponents derived in laboratories. However, the exponents reported here were a little higher than those reported previously, a finding possibly explained by a lack of geometric similarity in this sample.
    • An 8-week randomized controlled trial on the effects of brisk walking, and brisk walking with abdominal electrical muscle stimulation on anthropometric, body composition, and self-perception measures in sedentary adult women

      Anderson, Ailsa; Murphy, Marie H.; Murtagh, Elaine M.; Nevill, Alan M. (Elsevier, 2006)
      Objectives: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of an 8-week program of regular brisk walking, regular brisk walking with abdominal electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), and no exercise on hierarchical self-perceptions, and consider the mediating role of changes in anthropometric measures and body composition. Methods: Thirty-seven sedentary healthy women (mean age ¼ 38.1; SD ¼ 9.3) provided written informed consent and participated in baseline testing on a range of anthropometric, body composition, and hierarchical self-perception measures. Subsequently participants were randomly assigned to an 8-week program of walking (n ¼ 13), walking+EMS (n ¼ 14), or a control (n ¼ 10) condition. At 8 weeks anthropometric, body composition and self-perception measures were re-assessed. Results: In comparison with the control group, both walking groups had significant reductions in a number of anthropometric measures and improvements in self-perception measures. The improvements on both anthropometric measures and self-perceptions were greater for the walking+EMS condition, which indicated that changes in self-perception might be mediated by body changes. However, an assessment of the mediation effect between changes in anthropometric measures and self-perception changes did not support this finding.
    • Anemia in cardiac surgery: next target for mortality and morbidity improvement?

      Padmanabhan, Hari; Aktuerk, Dincer; Brookes, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan M.; Ng, Alex; Cotton, James; Luckraz, Heyman (Sage, 2016-01)
      To assess the effects of preoperative anemia on outcomes of cardiac surgery and to explore the trend in mortality over an 8-year period.