• 100-m Breaststroke Swimming Performance in Youth Swimmers: The Predictive Value of Anthropometrics.

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younés (Human Kinetics, 2018-03-16)
      This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth). In addition, leg length, biacromial breadth, and biiliocristal breadth revealed significant positive associations with the 100-m breaststroke performance. However, height and body mass did not contribute to the model, suggesting that the advantage of longer levers was limb-specific rather than a general whole-body advantage. In fact, it is only by adopting multiplicative allometric models that the previously mentioned ratios could have been derived. These results highlighted the importance of considering anthropometric characteristics of youth breaststroke swimmers for talent identification and/or athlete monitoring purposes. In addition, these findings may assist orienting swimmers to the appropriate stroke based on their anthropometric characteristics.
    • An 8-week randomized controlled trial on the effects of brisk walking, and brisk walking with abdominal electrical muscle stimulation on anthropometric, body composition, and self-perception measures in sedentary adult women

      Anderson, Ailsa; Murphy, Marie H.; Murtagh, Elaine M.; Nevill, Alan M. (Elsevier, 2006)
      Objectives: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of an 8-week program of regular brisk walking, regular brisk walking with abdominal electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), and no exercise on hierarchical self-perceptions, and consider the mediating role of changes in anthropometric measures and body composition. Methods: Thirty-seven sedentary healthy women (mean age ¼ 38.1; SD ¼ 9.3) provided written informed consent and participated in baseline testing on a range of anthropometric, body composition, and hierarchical self-perception measures. Subsequently participants were randomly assigned to an 8-week program of walking (n ¼ 13), walking+EMS (n ¼ 14), or a control (n ¼ 10) condition. At 8 weeks anthropometric, body composition and self-perception measures were re-assessed. Results: In comparison with the control group, both walking groups had significant reductions in a number of anthropometric measures and improvements in self-perception measures. The improvements on both anthropometric measures and self-perceptions were greater for the walking+EMS condition, which indicated that changes in self-perception might be mediated by body changes. However, an assessment of the mediation effect between changes in anthropometric measures and self-perception changes did not support this finding.
    • Abnormal gene expression can be linked to chromosomal gains and losses in paediatric astrocytoma

      Potter, N.; Poh, R.; Ward, Samantha; Phipps, Kim; Hayward, Richard; Harkness, William; Thompson, Dominic; Thomas, David G.; Rees, J.; Darling, John L.; Warr, Tracy (Society for Neuro-Oncology and Duke University Press, 2006)
      Brain tumors are the most frequently found solid tumor in children, 40% of which are astrocytomas. These are graded according to the WHO classification into the more common low-grade (I and II) and high-grade (III and IV) tumors. Little is known about the genetic basis underlying the development of pediatric astrocytomas. In this study, we have studied the correlation between abnormal gene expression in pediatric astrocytoma with genomic copy number changes. We used the Affymetrix HGU133A array to identify differentially expressed genes in a group of pediatric astrocytoma short-term cell cultures comprising 9 grade I, 11 grade II and 12 grade IV tumors. Data analysis was carried out using Genespring version 6.0 software. In addition, we used the Spectral Chip 2600 to generate array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) profiles of each short-term cell culture. Chromosome regions of gain and loss were then compared with differential gene expression using Formatter software. Hierarchical clustering of the short-term cultures according to expression profile similarity showed that the tumors clustered into 3 clear groups that were independent of grade. Two groups were predominantly low-grade tumors, comprised of a mixture of grade I and II tumors with 3 grade IV tumors, and the third group contained predominantly high-grade tumors with 2 low-grade tumors. Genes involved in the phosphatidylinositol signaling system, the cell cycle pathway, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, were significantly differentially expressed between the 3 groups. Differential disruption of these cell pathways may be associated with subtypes of pediatric astrocytoma. Most tumors in the third group (including the low-grade tumors) showed copy number changes that can be correlated with changes in gene expression. In specific tumors, the downregulation of TSB1 (thrombospondin-1) correlated with loss at 15q15. This gene has previously been found to be downregulated in astrocytoma and is involved in cell adhesion. This finding suggests that gene expression in a subset of pediatric astrocytomas is influenced by gene dosage.
    • Accumulating brisk walking for fitness, cardiovascular risk, and psychological health.

      Murphy, Marie H.; Nevill, Alan M.; Neville, Charlotte; Biddle, Stuart; Hardman, Adrianne E. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002)
      PURPOSE: To compare the effects of different patterns of regular brisk walking on fitness, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and psychological well-being in previously sedentary adults. METHODS: Twenty-one subjects (14 women), aged 44.5 +/- 6.1 yr (mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to two different, 6-wk programs of brisk walking in a cross-over design, with an interval of 2 wk. One program comprised one 30-min walk per day, 5 d.wk(-1) (long bout) and the other three 10-min walks per day, also 5 d.wk(-1) (short bouts). All walking was at 70-80% of predicted maximal heart rate. Maximal oxygen uptake ((.)VO(2max)), body composition, resting arterial blood pressure, fasting plasma lipoprotein variables, and psychological parameters were assessed before and after each program. RESULTS: Overall, subjects completed 88.2 +/- 1.1% and 91.3 +/- 4.1% of prescribed total walking time in the short- and long-bout programs, respectively. Both programs increased plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and decreased concentrations of triacylglycerol and total cholesterol (all < 0.05). There were no changes in body mass, but the sum of four skinfolds, waist circumference, and hip circumference were decreased after both walking programs (all P<0.05). Predicted (.)VO(2max) increased with both programs ( P<0.05), but this increase was greater with the program based on short bouts (P<0.05). Both walking patterns resulted in similar decreases in tension/anxiety (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that three short bouts (10 min) of brisk walking accumulated throughout the day are at least as effective as one continuous bout of equal total duration in reducing cardiovascular risk and improving aspects of mood in previously sedentary individuals.
    • The Accuracy of Confidence Intervals for Field Normalised Indicators

      Thelwall, Mike; Fairclough, Ruth (Elsevier, 2017-05)
      When comparing the average citation impact of research groups, universities and countries, field normalisation reduces the influence of discipline and time. Confidence intervals for these indicators can help with attempts to infer whether differences between sets of publications are due to chance factors. Although both bootstrapping and formulae have been proposed for these, their accuracy is unknown. In response, this article uses simulated data to systematically compare the accuracy of confidence limits in the simplest possible case, a single field and year. The results suggest that the MNLCS (Mean Normalised Log-transformed Citation Score) confidence interval formula is conservative for large groups but almost always safe, whereas bootstrap MNLCS confidence intervals tend to be accurate but can be unsafe for smaller world or group sample sizes. In contrast, bootstrap MNCS (Mean Normalised Citation Score) confidence intervals can be very unsafe, although their accuracy increases with sample sizes.
    • Accuracy of percentile judgments used in the utility analysis of personnel selection procedures

      Myors, Brett; Carstairs, Jane R.; Todorov, Natasha (Taylor & Francis, 2002)
      Schmidt, Hunter, McKenzie and Muldrow's (1979) global estimation procedure for determining the standard deviation of job performance in monetary terms (SDy) is based on the assumption that people are able to estimate the percentiles of a normal distribution. The aim of the research reported here was to test the veracity of this assumption. We used participants who were primed to work with percentiles on a task that provided all the information necessary to solve the problem. Participants' percentile estimates were found to be grossly in error, suggesting that utilities estimated by the Schmidt et al. procedure are inaccurate. This finding was replicated in a second study which also examined the effect of group decision-making on the estimation process. Group estimates were found to be no better than individual estimates
    • Acid phosphatases.

      Bull, H.; Murray, Paul G.; Thomas, David G.; Fraser, A. M.; Nelson, Paul N. (BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2002)
      Acid phosphatases (APs) are a family of enzymes that are widespread in nature, and can be found in many animal and plant species. Mystery surrounds the precise functional role of these molecular facilitators, despite much research. Yet, paradoxically, human APs have had considerable impact as tools of clinical investigation and intervention. One particular example is tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, which is detected in the serum in raised amounts accompanying pathological bone resorption. This article seeks to explore the identity and diversity of APs, and to demonstrate the relation between APs, human disease, and clinical diagnosis.
    • Activities of garlic oil, garlic powder, and their diallyl constituents against Helicobacter pylori.

      O'Gara, Elizabeth A.; Hill, David J.; Maslin, David J. (American Society for Microbiology, 2000)
      Chronic Helicobacter pylori disease is reduced with Allium vegetable intake. This study was designed to assess the in vivo anti-H. pylori potential of a variety of garlic substances. The garlic materials all showed substantial but widely differing anti-H. pylori effects against all strains and isolates tested. The MICs (range, 8 to 32 microg/ml) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) (range, 16 to 32 microg/ml) of undiluted garlic oil (GO) were smaller than those of garlic powder (GP) (MIC range, 250 to 500 microg/ml; MBC range, 250 to 500 microg/ml) but greater than the MIC of allicin (4. 0 microg/ml) (Table 2) present in GP. Allicin (MIC, 6 microg/ml; MBC, 6 microg/ml) was more potent than diallyl disulfide (MIC range, 100 to 200 microg/ml; MBC range, 100 to 200 microg/ml), its corresponding sulfide, but of a strength similar to that of diallyl tetrasulfide (MIC range, 3 to 6 microg/ml; MBC range, 3 to 6 microg/ml). Antimicrobial activity of the diallyl sulfides increased with the number of sulfur atoms. Time course viability studies and microscopy showed dose-dependent anti-H. pylori effects with undiluted GO, GP, allicin, and diallyl trisulfide after a lag phase of ca. 1 to 2 h. Substantial in vitro anti-H. pylori effects of pure GO and GP and their diallyl sulfur components exist, suggesting their potential for in vivo clinical use against H. pylori infections.
    • Adenovirus vector-mediated delivery of the prodrug-converting enzyme carboxypeptidase G2 in a secreted or GPI-anchored form: High-level expression of this active conditional cytotoxic enzyme at the plasma membrane.

      Cowen, Rachel L.; Williams, Judith C.; Emery, Steve; Blakey, David; Darling, John L.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G. (nature.com, 2002)
      Carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) is a powerful prodrug-converting enzyme. Without a requirement for endogenous enzymes or cofactors, it can directly activate mustard alkylating prodrugs to cytotoxic species, killing both quiescent and dividing cells. This paper provides the first report of its use in the context of a clinically relevant delivery vehicle using adenovirus vectors. To strengthen the efficacy of the prodrug-activating system, the enzyme has been engineered to be secreted or glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored to the extracellular membrane of tumor cells, resulting in an enhanced bystander effect by facilitating diffusion of the active drug through extracellular, rather than intracellular, activation. Using the vectors, we have achieved expression of functional secreted or GPI-anchored CPG2 in a panel of tumor cell lines demonstrating no loss in efficacy as a result of GPI anchor retention. Despite variable transduction efficiencies inherent to these vectors, greater than 50% cell kill was achievable in all of the cell lines tested following only a single exposure to the prodrug ZD2767P. Even in cell lines refractive to infection with the vectors, substantial cell death was recorded, indicative of the enhanced bystander effect generated following extracellular prodrug activation. A direct evaluation of the efficacy of our system has been made against adenoviral delivery of herpes simples virus thymidine kinase plus ganciclovir (GCV), a suicide gene therapy approach already in the clinic. In a short-term human glioma culture (IN1760) resistant to the clinical chemotherapeutic drug CCNU (1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea), thymidine kinase/GCV effected no cell killing compared to 70% cell killing with our system.
    • Adenovirus-mediated expression of HSV1-TK or Fas ligand induces cell death in primary human glioma-derived cell cultures that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent CCNU.

      Maleniak, Tricia C.; Darling, John L.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G. (Nature Publishing Group, 2001)
      Due to minimal treatment success with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the aim of this study was to test the therapeutic potential of gene therapy for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We have quantitatively analyzed two gene therapy approaches using short-term human glioma cell cultures derived from surgical biopsies (designated IN859, IN1612, IN2045, IN1760, and IN1265) and compared the results of gene therapy with the chemosensitivity of the same cells. All of the glioma cell cultures tested were susceptible to recombinant adenovirus (RAd)-mediated infection. Expression of herpes simplex virus type 1-thymidine kinase (RAd128), followed by ganciclovir treatment, induced apoptosis in all of the glioma cell cultures studied, including three that are resistant to the chemotherapeutic drug 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (CCNU). Expression of murine Fas ligand (RAdhCMV-mFasL) also induced cell death in four of the five cell cultures studied. One cell culture that was resistant to CCNU was also resistant to apoptosis induced by mFasL expression. These results suggest that sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents does not necessarily correlate with the sensitivity to gene therapy treatments. RAds expressing therapeutic gene products in human glioma cell cultures are able to induce apoptosis even in some cells that are resistant to a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Therefore, RAd-mediated gene transfer could be a good candidate to further develop gene therapy for the treatment of GBM.
    • Adjusting bone mass for differences in projected bone area and other confounding variables: an allometric perspective.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Holder, Roger L.; Maffulli, Nicola; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Leung, Sophie S. S. F.; Lee, Warren T. K.; Lau, Joseph T. F. (American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 2002)
      The traditional method of assessing bone mineral density (BMD; given by bone mineral content [BMC] divided by projected bone area [Ap], BMD = BMC/Ap) has come under strong criticism by various authors. Their criticism being that the projected bone "area" (Ap) will systematically underestimate the skeletal bone "volume" of taller subjects. To reduce the confounding effects of bone size, an alternative ratio has been proposed called bone mineral apparent density [BMAD = BMC/(Ap)3/2]. However, bone size is not the only confounding variable associated with BMC. Others include age, sex, body size, and maturation. To assess the dimensional relationship between BMC and projected bone area, independent of other confounding variables, we proposed and fitted a proportional allometric model to the BMC data of the L2-L4 vertebrae from a previously published study. The projected bone area exponents were greater than unity for both boys (1.43) and girls (1.02), but only the boy's fitted exponent was not different from that predicted by geometric similarity (1.5). Based on these exponents, it is not clear whether bone mass acquisition increases in proportion to the projected bone area (Ap) or an estimate of projected bone volume (Ap)3/2. However, by adopting the proposed methods, the analysis will automatically adjust BMC for differences in projected bone size and other confounding variables for the particular population being studied. Hence, the necessity to speculate as to the theoretical value of the exponent of Ap, although interesting, becomes redundant.
    • Allometric associations between body size, shape, and 100-m butterfly speed performance.

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younés (Edizioni Minerva Medica, 2017-05-09)
      This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb--segment length, and girth or breadth ratios associated with 100--m butterfly speed performance in swimmers.
    • Allometric associations between body size, shape, and physical performance of Greek children.

      Nevill, Alan M.; Tsiotra, Georgia D.; Tsimeas, P. D.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; School of Sport, Performing Arts and Leisure, University of Wolverhampton, Walsall WS1 3BD, UK. (Human Kinetics, Inc., 2009)
      We adopted allometric models to identify the most appropriate body size/shape characteristics associated with physical performance activities of Greek school children. Children underwent assessments for aerobic and anaerobic fitness, flexibility and hand-grip strength. Results suggest that the inverse Ponderal index and not BMI is the most appropriate body-shape indicator associated with running and jumping activities. Height was negatively associated with flexibility, but both height and weight were positively associated with hand-grip strength. In conclusion, allometric models provide a valuable insight into the most appropriate body size and shape characteristics associated with children's physical performances and at the same time ensure valid inference when investigating group/population differences (e.g., between gender and maturation status).
    • Allometric scaling of uphill cycling performance

      Jobson, Simon A.; Woodside, J.; Passfield, L.; Nevill, Alan M. (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2008)
      Previous laboratory-based investigations have identified optimal body mass scaling exponents in the range 0.79 - 0.91 for uphill cycling. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether or not these exponents are also valid in a field setting. A proportional allometric model was used to predict the optimal power-to-mass ratios associated with road-based uphill time-trial cycling performance. The optimal power function models predicting mean cycle speed during a 5.3 km, 5.4 % road hill-climb time-trial were (V O (2max) . m (-1.24)) (0.55) and (RMP (max) . m (-1.04)) (0.54), explained variance being 84.6 % and 70.5 %, respectively. Slightly higher mass exponents were observed when the mass predictor was replaced with the combined mass of cyclist and equipment (m (C)). Uphill cycling speed was proportional to (V O (2max) . m (C)(-1.33)) (0.57) and (RMP (max) . m (C)(-1.10)) (0.59). The curvilinear exponents, 0.54 - 0.59, identified a relatively strong curvilinear relationship between cycling speed and energy cost, suggesting that air resistance remains influential when cycling up a gradient of 5.4 %. These results provide some support for previously reported uphill cycling mass exponents derived in laboratories. However, the exponents reported here were a little higher than those reported previously, a finding possibly explained by a lack of geometric similarity in this sample.
    • Amoebae promote persistence of epidemic strains of MRSA.

      Huws, Sharon A.; Smith, Anthony W.; Enright, Mark C.; Wood, Pauline J.; Brown, Michael R. W. (Wiley InterScience, 2006)
      The control of healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is of concern worldwide. Given the evidence that several pathogenic species replicate within amoebae and emerge more virulent and more resistant and the abundance of amoebae in healthcare settings, we investigated interactions of Acanthamoeba polyphaga with epidemic MRSA isolates. MRSA proliferated in the presence of amoebae, attributable partly to intracellular replication. Following 24 h of co-culture, confocal microscopy revealed that c. 50% amoebae had viable MRSA within phago-lysosomes and 2% of amoebae were heavily infected with viable cocci throughout the cytoplasm. Infection control strategies should recognize the contribution of protozoa.
    • Anaphora Resolution

      Mitkov, Ruslan (Longman, 2002)
    • Anaphora Resolution: To What Extent Does It Help NLP Applications?

      Mitkov, Ruslan; Evans, Richard; Orasan, Constantin (Springer, 2007)
    • Anemia in cardiac surgery: next target for mortality and morbidity improvement?

      Padmanabhan, Hari; Aktuerk, Dincer; Brookes, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan M.; Ng, Alex; Cotton, James; Luckraz, Heyman (Sage, 2016-01)
      To assess the effects of preoperative anemia on outcomes of cardiac surgery and to explore the trend in mortality over an 8-year period.
    • Ankle and foot contributions to extreme plantar- and dorsiflexion in female ballet dancers.

      Russell, Jeffrey A.; Shave, Ruth M; Kruse, David W.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Wyon, Matthew A. (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society, Inc., 2011)
      Background: Female ballet dancers require extreme ankle motion. The objective of this study was to quantify the relative contributions of the ankle and various foot joints to extreme plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) in female ballet dancers using an X-ray superimposition technique and digital graphics software. Materials and Methods: One asymptomatic ankle was studied in each of seven experienced female ballet dancers. Three lateral weightbearing X-rays were taken of each ballet dancer's ankle: en pointe (maximum PF), in neutral position, and in demi-plié (maximum DF). Using graphics software, a subject's three X-ray images were superimposed and the tali were aligned. On each image the tibia, navicular, intermediate cuneiform, and first metatarsal were marked. Positional differences of a bone's line among the three images demonstrated angular movement of the bone in degrees. The neutral position was the reference from which both PF and DF of the bones were calculated. Results: The talocrural joint contributed the most motion of any pair of bones evaluated for both PF and DF, with mean movements of 57.6 ± 5.2 degrees en pointe and 24.6 ± 9.6 degrees in demi-plié. Approximately 70% of total PF and DF were attributable to the talocrural joint, with the remaining 30% coming from motion between adjacent pairs of the studied foot bones. Conclusion: Superimposed X-rays for assessing ankle and foot contributions to the extreme positions required of female ballet dancers offer insight into how these positions are attained that is not available via goniometry. Clinical Relevance: Functional information gained from this study may assist clinicians in assessessing ankle and foot pain in these individuals.
    • Anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics of active and inactive saudi and british adolescents.

      Duncan, Michael J; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Abahussain, Nada A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan M. (2014-06-17)
      To compare the anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics of active and inactive adolescents in Saudi Arabia and Britain.