• 100-m Breaststroke Swimming Performance in Youth Swimmers: The Predictive Value of Anthropometrics.

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younés (Human Kinetics, 2018-03-16)
      This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth). In addition, leg length, biacromial breadth, and biiliocristal breadth revealed significant positive associations with the 100-m breaststroke performance. However, height and body mass did not contribute to the model, suggesting that the advantage of longer levers was limb-specific rather than a general whole-body advantage. In fact, it is only by adopting multiplicative allometric models that the previously mentioned ratios could have been derived. These results highlighted the importance of considering anthropometric characteristics of youth breaststroke swimmers for talent identification and/or athlete monitoring purposes. In addition, these findings may assist orienting swimmers to the appropriate stroke based on their anthropometric characteristics.
    • 10 Marked differences in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of ticagrelor in patients undergoing treatment for ST elevation and non ST elevation myocardial infarction (stemi and nstemi)

      Khan, Nazish; Amoah, Vincent; Cornes, Mike; Martins, Joe; Wrigley, Ben; Khogali, Saib; Nevill, Alan M.; Cotton, James (BMJ Publishing Group, 2018-06-01)
      Introduction Ticagrelor, an orally administered, direct acting, reversible P2Y12 receptor inhibitor, provides faster onset and greater levels of platelet inhibition when compared to clopidogrel. Current data indicates a reduced antiplatelet effect in STEMI. We sought to determine the early pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) effect of ticagrelor loading doses administered to patients undergoing PCI for STEMI and NSTEMI. Methods This is a single centre non-randomised study. P2Y12 naive patients presenting with STEMI or NSTEMI were considered for inclusion. All patients gave informed consent. Enrolled patients were administered a loading dose of aspirin 300 mg and ticagrelor 180 mg prior to PCI. Blood was sampled at 20 min, coronary balloon time, 1 hour and 4 hours after loading. PD results are expressed as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) and were assessed using VerifyNow. A PRU>208 indicates a sub-optimal antiplatelet response. PK properties were assessed by measuring plasma concentration of ticagrelor parent compound (T-PC) and active metabolite (T-AM) using liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The lower limits of quantification of T-PC and its active metabolite, AR-C124910XX (T-AM) are 1 ng/ml and 2.5 ng/ml respectively. PRU and plasma concentrations over time were tested between the two groups using 2-way ANOVA. p<0.05 was considered significant. Results 30 patients (15 STEMI/15 NSTEMI) were recruited. Baseline characteristics are described in Table 1.
    • A brief exposure to moderate passive smoke increases metabolism and thyroid hormone secretion.

      Metsios, Giorgos S.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Carrillo, A.E.; Kouretas, Dimitris; Germenis, A.E.; Gourgoulianis, K.; Kiropoulos, T.; Tzatzarakis, M.N.; Tsatsakis, A.M.; Koutedakis, Yiannis (The Endocrine Society/HighWire Press, 2007)
      CONTEXT: Active smoking influences normal metabolic status and thyroid function. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess experimentally the effects of 1 h of moderate passive smoking in a controlled simulated bar/restaurant environment on the metabolism and thyroid hormone levels in healthy nonsmokers. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen (nine females, nine males) healthy individuals (mean +/- sd: age, 25.3 +/- 3.1 yr; height, 174.0 +/- 10.1 cm; weight, 65.2 +/- 13.7 kg) participated in the study. DESIGN: In repeated-measures randomized blocks, participants visited the laboratory on 2 consecutive days. In the experimental condition, they were exposed to 1 h of moderate passive smoking at a carbon monoxide concentration of 23 +/- 1 ppm in an environmental chamber, whereas in the control condition participants remained in the same chamber for 1 h breathing normal atmospheric air. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In both conditions, cotinine serum and urine levels, resting energy expenditure (REE), as well as concentration of T3, free T4, and TSH were assessed before participants entered the chamber and immediately after their exit. Heart rate and blood pressure were tested in 10-min intervals during all REE assessments. RESULTS: The mean +/- sd difference of serum and urine cotinine levels (-0.27 +/- 3.94 vs. 14.01 +/- 6.54 and 0.05 +/- 2.07 vs. 7.23 +/- 3.75, respectively), REE (6.73 +/- 98.06 vs. 80.58 +/- 120.91) as well as T3 and free T4 (0.05 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.13 +/- 0.12 and 0.02 +/- 0.15 vs. 0.22 +/- 0.20) were increased in the experimental compared with the control condition at baseline and follow-up (P < 0.05). No statistically significant variation was observed in the mean difference of the remaining parameters (P > 0.05). Serum and urine cotinine values were linearly associated with REE (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: One hour of passive smoking at bar/restaurant levels is accompanied by significant increases in metabolism and thyroid hormone levels.
    • A comparison of developmental coordination disorder prevalence rates in Canadian and Greek children.

      Tsiotra, Georgia D.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Faught, Brent E.; Nevill, Alan M.; Lane, Andrew M.; Skenteris, Nicolaos (Elsevier BV, 2006)
      We examined whether lifestyle differences between Canadian and Greek children may be reflected in Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) prevalence rates. Data revealed that the relatively inactive Greek children demonstrated higher DCD prevalence rates compared to the Canadian sample and exhibited a greater risk for clinical obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness.
    • A comparison of sources of links for academic Web impact factor calculations

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2002)
      There has been much recent interest in extracting information from collections of Web links. One tool that has been used is Ingwersen¿s Web impact factor. It has been demonstrated that several versions of this metric can produce results that correlate with research ratings of British universities showing that, despite being a measure of a purely Internet phenomenon, the results are susceptible to a wider interpretation. This paper addresses the question of which is the best possible domain to count backlinks from, if research is the focus of interest. WIFs for British universities calculated from several different source domains are compared, primarily the .edu, .ac.uk and .uk domains, and the entire Web. The results show that all four areas produce WIFs that correlate strongly with research ratings, but that none produce incontestably superior figures. It was also found that the WIF was less able to differentiate in more homogeneous subsets of universities, although positive results are still possible.
    • A comparison of strength and stretch interventions on active and passive ranges of movement in dancers: a randomized controlled trial.

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Smith, Anna; Koutedakis, Yiannis (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2013-11)
      The majority of stretching interventional research has focused on the development of a muscle's passive range of movement (PROM). Active range of movement (AROM) refers to the functional range of movement (ROM) available to the participant and provides a better insight into the relationship between muscular antagonistic pairings. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 3 strengthening or stretching interventions on hip and lower limb active (AROM) and passive (PROM) ranges of movement. Thirty-nine female dance students (17 ± 0.52 years; 61.7 ± 8.48 kg; 164.4 ± 5.49 cm) volunteered. They were randomly divided into 3 groups, strength training (n = 11); low-intensity stretching (n = 13); moderate-intensity or high-intensity stretching (n = 11). Four dancers withdrew during the study. All groups carried out a 6-week intervention. The strength training group focused on end of range hip flexor strength; the low-intensity and moderate-intensity stretch group carried out a series of stretches at 3/10 and 8/10 perceived exertion, respectively. Active range of movement and PROM were measured preintervention and postintervention using 2-d video analysis. Repeated measures analysis indicated that although all 3 groups improved their PROM during the experimental period (range increase: 9-200 p < 0.01), no significant differences were found between the groups. For AROM, both the strength training and the low-intensity stretch groups revealed significant improvements in ROM (range increase: 20-300) compared with the moderate-intensity or high-intensity stretch group (p < 0.01). The present data show that interventions based on strengthening agonist muscles or decreasing the resistance of antagonist muscles through low-intensity stretching are beneficial in the development of both active and passive ranges of movement and provide functional training techniques that are often over looked in favor of the more conservative moderate-intensity stretching programs.
    • A comparison of title words for journal articles and Wikipedia pages: Coverage and stylistic differences?

      Thelwall, Mike; Sud, Pardeep (La Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FECYT), 2018-02-12)
      This article assesses whether there are gaps in Wikipedia’s coverage of academic information and whether there are non-obvious stylistic differences from academic journal articles that Wikipedia users and editors should be aware of. For this, it analyses terms in the titles of journal articles that are absent from all English Wikipedia page titles for each of 27 Scopus subject categories. The results show that English Wikipedia has lower coverage of issues of interest to non-English nations and there are gaps probably caused by a lack of willing subject specialist editors in some areas. There were also stylistic disciplinary differences in the results, with some fields using synonyms of “analysing” that were ignored in Wikipedia, and others using the present tense in titles to emphasise research outcomes. Since Wikipedia is broadly effective at covering academic research topics from all disciplines, it might be relied upon by non-specialists. Specialists should therefore check for coverage gaps within their areas for useful topics and librarians should caution users that important topics may be missing.
    • A comparison of two stretching modalities on lower-limb range of motion measurements in recreational dancers.

      Wyon, Matthew A.; Felton, Lee; Galloway, Shaun (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2009-10)
      Most stretching techniques are designed to place a "stress" on the musculoskeletal unit that will increase its resting length and range of motion (ROM). Twenty-four adolescent dancers participated in a 6-week intervention program that compared low-intensity stretching (Microstretching) with moderate-intensity static stretching on active and passive ranges of motion. Microstretching is a new modality that reduces the possibility of the parasympathetic system being activated. Repeated measures analysis indicated changes in ROM over the intervention period (p < 0.05), with the Microstretching group demonstrating greater increases in passive and active ROM than the static stretch group (p < 0.01); there was no noted bilateral differences in ROM. The results from this study agree with past studies that have found that stretching increases the compliance of any given muscle and therefore increases the range of motion. One main finding of the present study was that throughout a 6-week training program very-low-intensity stretching had a greater positive effect on lower-limb ROM than moderate-intensity static stretching. The most interesting aspect of the study was the greater increase in active ROM compared to passive ROM by the Microstretching group. This suggests that adaptation has occurred within the muscle itself to a greater extent than in structures of the hip joint. Practical application for this technique suggests it is beneficial as a postexercise modality that potentially has a restorative component.
    • A computer-aided environment for construction of multiple-choice tests

      Mitkov, Ruslan; Ha, Le An; Bernardes, Jon (University of Wolverhampton, 2005)
      Multiple choice tests have proved to be an efficient tool for measuring students' achievement and are used on a daily basis both for assessment and diagnostics worldwide. The objective of this project was to provide and alternative to the lengthy and demanding activity of developing multiple-choice tests and propose a new Natural Language Processing (NLP) based approach to generate tests from instructional texts (textbooks, encyclopaedias). Work on the pilot project has shown that the semi-automatic procedure is up to 3.8 times quicker than a completely manual one.
    • A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Health Behaviors between Saudi and British Adolescents Living in Urban Areas: Gender by Country Analyses.

      Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Duncan, Michael J; Al-Sobayel, Hana I; Abahussain, Nada A; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Lyons, Mark; Collins, Peter; Nevill, Alan M. (MDPI, 2013-12)
      This study investigated the cross-cultural differences and similarity in health behaviors between Saudi and British adolescents. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted at four cities in Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Khobar; N = 1,648) and Britain (Birmingham and Coventry; N = 1,158). The participants (14-18 year-olds) were randomly selected using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. Measurements included anthropometric, screen time, validated physical activity (PA) questionnaire and dietary habits. The overweight/obesity prevalence among Saudi adolescents (38.3%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that found among British adolescents (24.1%). The British adolescents demonstrated higher total PA energy expenditure than Saudi adolescents (means ± SE = 3,804.8 ± 81.5 vs. 2,219.9 ± 65.5 METs-min/week). Inactivity prevalence was significantly (p < 0.001) higher among Saudi adolescents (64%) compared with that of British adolescents (25.5%). The proportions of adolescents exceeding 2 h of daily screen time were high (88.0% and 90.8% among Saudis and British, respectively). The majority of Saudi and British adolescents did not have daily intakes of breakfast, fruit, vegetables and milk. MANCOVA showed significant (p < 0.05) gender by country interactions in several lifestyle factors. There was a significant (p < 0.001) gender differences in the ratio of physical activity to sedentary behaviors. In conclusion, Saudi and British adolescents demonstrated some similarities and differences in their PA levels, sedentary behaviors and dietary habits. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors among adolescents appear to be a cross-cultural phenomenon.
    • A decade of Garfield readers

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2017-11-30)
      This brief note discusses Garfield’s continuing influence from the perspective of the Mendeley readers of his articles. This reflects the direct impact of his work since the launch of Mendeley in August 2008. In the last decade, his work is still extensively read by younger scientists, especially in computer and information sciences and the social sciences, and with a broad international spread. His work on citation indexes, impact factors and science history tracking seems to have the most contemporary relevance.
    • A field-test battery for elite, young soccer players.

      Hulse, M A; Morris, J G; Hawkins, R D; Hodson, A; Nevill, Alan M.; Nevill, M E (2013-04)
      The validity and reliability of a battery of field-based performance tests was examined. The opinions of coaches, fitness professionals and players (n=170, 172 and 101 respectively) on the importance of performance testing were established using a questionnaire. On 2 occasions, separated by 7 days, 80 elite, young soccer players (mean±SD [and range]: age 13.2±2.6 [8.9-19.1] years; stature 1.59±0.18 m [1.32-1.91]; body mass 50.6±17.1 [26.5-88.7] kg) completed a battery of field-based tests comprised of heart rate response to a submaximal Multi-stage fitness test, 3 types of vertical jump, sprints over 10 and 20 m, and an agility test. Physical performance testing was considered important by coaches (97%), fitness professionals (94%) and players (83%). The systematic bias ratio and the random error components of the 95% ratio limits of agreement for the first and second tests, for the U9-U11 vs. U12-U14 vs. U15-U18 age groups, were [Systematic bias (*/÷ ratio limits)]: Heart rate (Level 5): 0.983 (*/÷ 1.044) vs. 0.969 (*/÷ 1.056) vs. 0.983 (*/÷ 1.055); Rocket jump: 0998 (*/÷ 1.112) vs. 0.999 (*/÷ 1.106) vs. 0.996 (*/÷ 1.093); 10 m sprint: 0.997 (*/÷ 1.038) vs. 0.994 (*/÷ 1.033) vs. 0.994 (*/÷ 1.038); Agility test: 1.010 (*/÷1.050) vs. 1.014 (*/÷1.050) vs. 1.002 (*/÷1.053). All tests, except heart rate recovery from the Multi-stage fitness test, were able to distinguish between different ability and age groups of players (p<0.05). Thus, the field-test battery demonstrated logical and construct validity, and was shown to be a reliable and objective tool for assessing elite, young soccer players.
    • A flexible framework for collocation retrieval and translation from parallel and comparable corpora

      Rivera, Oscar Mendoza; Mitkov, Ruslan; Corpas Pastor, Gloria (John Benjamins, 2018)
      This paper outlines a methodology and a system for collocation retrieval and translation from parallel and comparable corpora. The methodology was developed with translators and language learners in mind. It is based on a phraseology framework, applies statistical techniques, and employs source tools and online resources. The collocation retrieval and translation has proved successful for English and Spanish and can be easily adapted to other languages. The evaluation results are promising and future goals are proposed. Furthermore, conclusions are drawn on the nature of comparable corpora and how they can be better exploited to suit particular needs of target users.
    • A framework for named entity recognition in the open domain

      Evans, Richard (John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2004)
    • A Free Database of University Web Links: Data Collection Issues

      Thelwall, Mike (2003)
      This paper describes and gives access to a database of the link structures of 109 UK university and higher education college websites, as created by a specialist information science web crawler in June and July of 2001. With the increasing interest in web links by information and computer scientists this is an attempt to make available raw data for research that is not reliant upon the opaque techniques of commercial search engines. Basic tools for querying are also provided. The key issues concerning running an accurate web crawler are also discussed. Access is also given to the normally hidden crawler stop list with the aim of making the crawl process more transparent. The necessity of having such a list is discussed, with the conclusion that fully automatic crawling is not socially or empirically desirable because of the existence of database-generated areas of the web and the proliferation of the phenomenon of mirroring.This paper describes a free set of databases of the link structures of the university web sites from a selection of countries, as created by a specialist information science web crawler. With the increasing interest in web links by information and computer scientists this is an attempt to make available raw data for research that is not reliant upon the opaque techniques of commercial search engines. Basic tools for querying are also provided. The key issues concerning running an accurate web crawler are also discussed. Access is also given to the normally hidden crawler stop list with the aim of making the crawl process more transparent. The necessity of having such a list is discussed, with the conclusion that fully automatic crawling is not socially or empirically desirable because of the existence of database-generated areas of the web and the proliferation of the phenomenon of mirroring.
    • A High Precision Information Retrieval Method for WiQA

      Orasan, Constantin; Puşcaşu, Georgiana (Springer, 2007)
      This paper presents Wolverhampton University’s participation in the WiQA competition. The method chosen for this task combines a high precision, but low recall information retrieval approach with a greedy sentence ranking algorithm. The high precision retrieval is ensured by querying the search engine with the exact topic, in this way obtaining only sentences which contain the topic. In one of the runs, the set of retrieved sentences is expanded using coreferential relations between sentences. The greedy algorithm used for ranking selects one sentence at a time, always the one which adds most information to the set of sentences without repeating the existing information too much. The evaluation revealed that it achieves a performance similar to other systems participating in the competition and that the run which uses coreference obtains the highest MRR score among all the participants.
    • A layered approach for investigating the topological structure of communities in the Web.

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2003)
      A layered approach for identifying communities in the Web is presented and explored by applying the flake exact community identification algorithm to the UK academic Web. Although community or topic identification is a common task in information retrieval, a new perspective is developed by: the application of alternative document models, shifting the focus from individual pages to aggregated collections based upon Web directories, domains and entire sites; the removal of internal site links; and the adaptation of a new fast algorithm to allow fully-automated community identification using all possible single starting points. The overall topology of the graphs in the three least-aggregated layers was first investigated and found to include a large number of isolated points but, surprisingly, with most of the remainder being in one huge connected component, exact proportions varying by layer. The community identification process then found that the number of communities far exceeded the number of topological components, indicating that community identification is a potentially useful technique, even with random starting points. Both the number and size of communities identified was dependent on the parameter of the algorithm, with very different results being obtained in each case. In conclusion, the UK academic Web is embedded with layers of non-trivial communities and, if it is not unique in this, then there is the promise of improved results for information retrieval algorithms that can exploit this additional structure, and the application of the technique directly to partially automate Web metrics tasks such as that of finding all pages related to a given subject hosted by a single country's universities.
    • A longitudinal study of United Kingdom pharmacists' misdemeanours--trials, tribulations and trends.

      Tullett, Julie; Rutter, Paul M.; Brown, David (Springer Verlag, 2003)
      BACKGROUND: Standards of UK pharmacy practice are maintained by the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, which has the power to take a range of sanctions, including removal of the right to practice, against those found guilty of malpractice. This function is currently under review. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a longitudinal study in order to define trends and identify areas where remedial or preventative support could be focused. METHOD: Case analysis of reports of individuals' misdemeanours published in the British Pharmaceutical Journal over a 12-year period (September 1988-October 2000). Professional and personal misdemeanours were considered. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Nature of misdemeanour, conviction or disciplinary proceedings against individual, practising pharmacists in the study period. Reasons offered for committing the misdemeanour and penalties applied. RESULTS: 344 cases, involving a wide range of personal (162) and professional (590) misdemeanours were found. On an annual basis, the maximum incidence of pharmacists found guilty of any misdemeanour was extremely low (< 0.1 of 1% on the pharmaceutical register). The most common professional misdemeanour was failure to keep adequate written records. The most common personal misdemeanour was fraud. The most common reason cited for committing any misdemeanour was financial gain. Numbers in individual offence categories were persistent but low and there were few obvious trends with time. The odds of involvement ratio for male versus female pharmacists was 7.36 (CI: 5.23-10.35) and for ethnic minority versus Caucasian pharmacists was 3.8 (CI: 3.06-4.72). The most stringent penalties (either imprisonment or removal of the right to practice and frequently both) were applied to cases involving personal use or trafficking of drugs subject to abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The current self-regulation of pharmacy practice in the UK involves a wide range of misdemeanours of varying severity; but the incidence of reports of pharmacists found guilty of malpractice was extremely low. The nature of misdemeanours appeared to change little over the period of the study; this study therefore indicates the spectrum of misdemeanours likely to be encountered by a regulating board in the immediate to medium-term future. If regulatory changes such as competence-based practice rights are introduced, the spectrum may change.
    • A methodological evaluation and predictive in silico investigation into the multi-functionality of arginine in directly compressed tablets

      ElShaer, Amr; Kaialy, Waseem; Akhtar, Noreen; Iyire, Affiong; Hussain, Tariq; Alany, Raid; Mohammed, Afzal R. (Elsevier, 2015-10)
      The acceleration of solid dosage form product development can be facilitated by the inclusion of excipients that exhibit poly-/multi-functionality with reduction of the time invested in multiple excipient optimisations. Because active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and tablet excipients present diverse densification behaviours upon compaction, the involvement of these different powders during compaction makes the compaction process very complicated. The aim of this study was to assess the macrometric characteristics and distribution of surface charges of two powders: indomethacin (IND) and arginine (ARG); and evaluate their impact on the densification properties of the two powders. Response surface modelling (RSM) was employed to predict the effect of two independent variables; Compression pressure (F) and ARG percentage (R) in binary mixtures on the properties of resultant tablets. The study looked at three responses namely; porosity (P), tensile strength (S) and disintegration time (T). Micrometric studies showed that IND had a higher charge density (net charge to mass ratio) when compared to ARG; nonetheless, ARG demonstrated good compaction properties with high plasticity (Y = 28.01 MPa). Therefore, ARG as filler to IND tablets was associated with better mechanical properties of the tablets (tablet tensile strength (r) increased from 0.2 ± 0.05 N/mm2 to 2.85 ± 0.36 N/mm2 upon adding ARG at molar ratio of 8:1 to IND). Moreover, tablets’ disintegration time was shortened to reach few seconds in some of the formulations. RSM revealed tablet porosity to be affected by both compression pressure and ARG ratio for IND/ARG physical mixtures (PMs). Conversely, the tensile strength (r) and disintegration time (T) for the PMs were influenced by the compression pressure, ARG ratio and their interactive term (FR); and a strong correlation was observed between the experimental results and the predicted data for tablet porosity. This work provides clear evidence of the multi-functionality of ARG as filler, binder and disintegrant for directly compressed tablets.
    • A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer

      Reilly, Thomas; Williams, A. Mark; Nevill, Alan M.; Franks, A. (Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2000-09)
      The requirements for soccer play are multifactorial and distinguishing characteristics of elite players can be investigated using multivariate analysis. The aim of the present study was to apply a comprehensive test battery to young players with a view to distinguishing between elite and sub-elite groups on the basis of performance on test items. Thirty-one (16 elite, 15 sub-elite) young players matched for chronological age (15± 16 years) and body size were studied. Test items included anthropometric (n = 15), physiological (n = 8), psychological (n = 3) and soccer-specific skills (n = 2) tests. Variables were split into separate groups according to somatotype, body composition, body size, speed, endurance, performance measures, technical skill, anticipation, anxiety and task and ego orientation for purposes of univariate and multivariate analysis of variance and stepwise discriminant function analysis. The most discriminating of the measures were agility, sprint time, ego orientation and anticipation skill. The elite players were also significantly leaner, possessed more aerobic power (9.0 ± 1.7 vs 55.5 ± 3.8 ml´kg- 1 ´min- 1) and were more tolerant of fatigue (P < 0.05). They were also better at dribbling the ball, but not shooting. We conclude that the test battery used may be useful in establishing baseline reference data for young players being selected onto specialized development programmes.