• The effect of walking on risk factors for cardiovascular disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials.

      Murtagh, Elaine M; Nichols, Linda; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Holder, Roger; Nevill, Alan M.; Murphy, Marie H (Elsevier, 2015-03)
      Objective To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised control trials that examined the effect of walking on risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Methods Four electronic databases and reference lists were searched (Jan 1971–June 2012). Two authors identified randomised control trials of interventions ≥ 4 weeks in duration that included at least one group with walking as the only treatment and a no-exercise comparator group. Participants were inactive at baseline. Pooled results were reported as weighted mean treatment effects and 95% confidence intervals using a random effects model. Results 32 articles reported the effects of walking interventions on cardiovascular disease risk factors. Walking increased aerobic capacity (3.04 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.48 to 3.60) and reduced systolic (− 3.58 mm Hg, 95% CI − 5.19 to − 1.97) and diastolic (− 1.54 mm Hg, 95% CI − 2.83 to − 0.26) blood pressure, waist circumference (− 1.51 cm, 95% CI − 2.34 to − 0.68), weight (− 1.37 kg, 95% CI − 1.75 to − 1.00), percentage body fat (− 1.22%, 95% CI − 1.70 to − 0.73) and body mass index (− 0.53 kg/m2, 95% CI − 0.72 to − 0.35) but failed to alter blood lipids. Conclusions Walking interventions improve many risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This underscores the central role of walking in physical activity for health promotion.
    • Faster, higher, stronger, older: Relative age effects are most influential during the youngest age grade of track and field athletics in the United Kingdom.

      Kearney, Philip E; Hayes, Philip R; Nevill, Alan M. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-07)
      The relative age effect (RAE) is a common phenomenon in youth sport, whereby children born early in the selection year are more likely to experience success and to sustain participation. There is a lack of research investigating variables which influence RAEs within track and field athletics. Such information is vital to guide policies in relation to competition structure, youth development squads and coach education. A database of competition results was analysed to determine the extent to which RAEs were present in track and field athletics in the United Kingdom. Subsequent analyses examined whether age, sex, event and skill level influenced the RAE. Examination of 77,571 records revealed that RAEs were widespread, but most pronounced during Under 13 (U13) competitions; that is, during athletes' first exposure to formal track and field competition. Sex, event and skill level further influenced the existence and magnitude of RAEs at different age grades. Relative age is a key influencing factor within track and field athletics, especially at the youngest age category. Consequently, national governing bodies need to consider what administrative and stakeholder initiatives are necessary to minimise the effects of RAEs on young athletes' early experiences of competition.
    • How Does a Photocatalytic Antimicrobial Coating Affect Environmental Bioburden in Hospitals?

      Reid, Matthew; Whatley, Vanessa; Spooner, Emma; Nevill, Alan M.; Cooper, Michael; Ramsden, Jeremy J; Dancer, Stephanie J (Cambridge University Press, 2018-04)
      BACKGROUND The healthcare environment is recognized as a source for healthcare-acquired infection. Because cleaning practices are often erratic and always intermittent, we hypothesize that continuously antimicrobial surfaces offer superior control of surface bioburden. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of a photocatalytic antimicrobial coating at near-patient, high-touch sites in a hospital ward. SETTING The study took place in 2 acute-care wards in a large acute-care hospital. METHODS A titanium dioxide-based photocatalytic coating was sprayed onto 6 surfaces in a 4-bed bay in a ward and compared under normal illumination against the same surfaces in an untreated ward: right and left bed rails, bed control, bedside locker, overbed table, and bed footboard. Using standardized methods, the overall microbial burden and presence of an indicator pathogen (Staphylococcus aureus) were assessed biweekly for 12 weeks. RESULTS Treated surfaces demonstrated significantly lower microbial burden than control sites, and the difference increased between treated and untreated surfaces during the study. Hygiene failures (>2.5 colony-forming units [CFU]/cm2) increased 2.6% per day for control surfaces (odds ratio [OR], 1.026; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.009-1.043; P=.003) but declined 2.5% per day for treated surfaces (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.925-0.977; P<.001). We detected no significant difference between coated and control surfaces regarding S. aureus contamination. CONCLUSION Photocatalytic coatings reduced the bioburden of high-risk surfaces in the healthcare environment. Treated surfaces became steadily cleaner, while untreated surfaces accumulated bioburden. This evaluation encourages a larger-scale investigation to ascertain whether the observed environmental amelioration has an effect on healthcare-acquired infection. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:398-404.
    • 100-m Breaststroke Swimming Performance in Youth Swimmers: The Predictive Value of Anthropometrics.

      Sammoud, Senda; Nevill, Alan M.; Negra, Yassine; Bouguezzi, Raja; Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younés (Human Kinetics, 2018-03-16)
      This study aimed to estimate the optimal body size, limb segment length, and girth or breadth ratios of 100-m breaststroke performance in youth swimmers. In total, 59 swimmers [male: n = 39, age = 11.5 (1.3) y; female: n = 20, age = 12.0 (1.0) y] participated in this study. To identify size/shape characteristics associated with 100-m breaststroke swimming performance, we computed a multiplicative allometric log-linear regression model, which was refined using backward elimination. Results showed that the 100-m breaststroke performance revealed a significant negative association with fat mass and a significant positive association with the segment length ratio (arm ratio = hand length/forearm length) and limb girth ratio (girth ratio = forearm girth/wrist girth). In addition, leg length, biacromial breadth, and biiliocristal breadth revealed significant positive associations with the 100-m breaststroke performance. However, height and body mass did not contribute to the model, suggesting that the advantage of longer levers was limb-specific rather than a general whole-body advantage. In fact, it is only by adopting multiplicative allometric models that the previously mentioned ratios could have been derived. These results highlighted the importance of considering anthropometric characteristics of youth breaststroke swimmers for talent identification and/or athlete monitoring purposes. In addition, these findings may assist orienting swimmers to the appropriate stroke based on their anthropometric characteristics.
    • Dimensions: A Competitor to Scopus and the Web of Science?

      Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2018-08)
      Dimensions is a partly free scholarly database launched by Digital Science in January 2018. Dimensions includes journal articles and citation counts, making it a potential new source of impact data. This article explores the value of Dimensions from an impact assessment perspective with an examination of Food Science research 2008-2018 and a random sample of 10,000 Scopus articles from 2012. The results include high correlations between citation counts from Scopus and Dimensions (0.96 by narrow field in 2012) as well as similar average counts. Almost all Scopus articles with DOIs were found in Dimensions (97% in 2012). Thus, the scholarly database component of Dimensions seems to be a plausible alternative to Scopus and the Web of Science for general citation analyses and for citation data in support of some types of research evaluations.
    • Early Mendeley readers correlate with later citation counts

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2018-03)
      Counts of the number of readers registered in the social reference manager Mendeley have been proposed as an early impact indicator for journal articles. Although previous research has shown that Mendeley reader counts for articles tend to have a strong positive correlation with synchronous citation counts after a few years, no previous studies have compared early Mendeley reader counts with later citation counts. In response, this first diachronic analysis compares reader counts within a month of publication with citation counts after 20 months for ten fields. There were moderate or strong correlations in eight out of ten fields, with the two exceptions being the smallest categories (n=18, 36) with wide confidence intervals. The correlations are higher than the correlations between later citations and early citations, showing that Mendeley reader counts are more useful early impact indicators than citation counts.
    • Cell-Penetrating Peptides

      Howl, John; Jones, Sarah (2015)
      The multi-domain architecture of many human proteins provides a structural basis for the physical maintenance of interactomes, or networks of protein-protein interactions (PPIs), that are so obviously crucial to cellular functions. Moreover, the structural and electrostatic complementarity provided by PPI interfaces, predominantly located on protein surfaces, is a fundamental component of signal transduction events that are known to be compromised in human diseases including many cancers.The pharmacokinetic advantages provided by cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are entirely compatible with the development of intrinsically permeable agents capable of modulating intracellular PPIs. Thus, the term bioportide is a useful descriptor of numerous bioactive CPPs that are distinct from the more usual inert CPP vectors. Herein we illustrate a generic strategy, predominantly centered upon the identification of cationic peptides derived from helical protein domains, which offers a reliable platform to identify bioportides capable of modulating intracellular signal transduction events. In addition, we describe robust methodologies to determine the precise intracellular distribution of fluorescent bioportides and present assays routinely employed to screen for the detrimental pharmacodynamic properties often exhibited by both CPPs and bioportides; namely adverse cytotoxicity and the receptor-independent stimulation of mast cell secretion.
    • Can Microsoft Academic be used for citation analysis of preprint archives? The case of the Social Science Research Network

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2018-03)
      Preprint archives play an important scholarly communication role within some fields. The impact of archives and individual preprints are difficult to analyse because online repositories are not indexed by the Web of Science or Scopus. In response, this article assesses whether the new Microsoft Academic can be used for citation analysis of preprint archives, focusing on the Social Science Research Network (SSRN). Although Microsoft Academic seems to index SSRN comprehensively, it groups a small fraction of SSRN papers into an easily retrievable set that has variations in character over time, making any field normalisation or citation comparisons untrustworthy. A brief parallel analysis of arXiv suggests that similar results would occur for other online repositories. Systematic analyses of preprint archives are nevertheless possible with Microsoft Academic when complete lists of archive publications are available from other sources because of its promising coverage and citation results.
    • A comparison of title words for journal articles and Wikipedia pages: Coverage and stylistic differences?

      Thelwall, Mike; Sud, Pardeep (La Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FECYT), 2018-02-12)
      This article assesses whether there are gaps in Wikipedia’s coverage of academic information and whether there are non-obvious stylistic differences from academic journal articles that Wikipedia users and editors should be aware of. For this, it analyses terms in the titles of journal articles that are absent from all English Wikipedia page titles for each of 27 Scopus subject categories. The results show that English Wikipedia has lower coverage of issues of interest to non-English nations and there are gaps probably caused by a lack of willing subject specialist editors in some areas. There were also stylistic disciplinary differences in the results, with some fields using synonyms of “analysing” that were ignored in Wikipedia, and others using the present tense in titles to emphasise research outcomes. Since Wikipedia is broadly effective at covering academic research topics from all disciplines, it might be relied upon by non-specialists. Specialists should therefore check for coverage gaps within their areas for useful topics and librarians should caution users that important topics may be missing.
    • Differences between journals and years in the proportions of students, researchers and faculty registering Mendeley articles

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2018-07)
      This article contains two investigations into Mendeley reader counts with the same dataset. Mendeley reader counts provide evidence of early scholarly impact for journal articles, but reflect the reading of a relatively young subset of all researchers. To investigate whether this age bias is constant or varies by narrow field and publication year, this article compares the proportions of student, researcher and faculty readers for articles published 1996-2016 in 36 large monodisciplinary journals. In these journals, undergraduates recorded the newest research and faculty the oldest, with large differences between journals. The existence of substantial differences in the composition of readers between related fields points to the need for caution when using Mendeley readers as substitutes for citations for broad fields. The second investigation shows, with the same data, that there are substantial differences between narrow fields in the time taken for Scopus citations to be as numerous as Mendeley readers. Thus, even narrow field differences can impact on the relative value of Mendeley compared to citation counts.
    • Long-term quality of life postacute kidney injury in cardiac surgery patients.

      Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Luckraz, Heyman; Nandi, Jayanta; Nevill, Alan M.; Giri, Ramesh; Panayiotou, Andrew; Nicholas, Johann (Wolters Kluwer, 2018)
      Acute renal failure after cardiac surgery is known to be associated with significant short-term morbidity and mortality. There have as yet been no major reports on long-term quality of life (QOL). This study assessed the impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) and renal replacement therapy (RRT) on long-term survival and QOL after cardiac surgery. The need for long-term RRT is also assessed.
    • Could scientists use Altmetric.com scores to predict longer term citation counts?

      Thelwall, Mike; Nevill, Tamara (Elsevier, 2018-02)
      Altmetrics from Altmetric.com are widely used by publishers and researchers to give earlier evidence of attention than citation counts. This article assesses whether Altmetric.com scores are reliable early indicators of likely future impact and whether they may also reflect non-scholarly impacts. A preliminary factor analysis suggests that the main altmetric indicator of scholarly impact is Mendeley reader counts, with weaker news, informational and social network discussion/promotion dimensions in some fields. Based on a regression analysis of Altmetric.com data from November 2015 and Scopus citation counts from October 2017 for articles in 30 narrow fields, only Mendeley reader counts are consistent predictors of future citation impact. Most other Altmetric.com scores can help predict future impact in some fields. Overall, the results confirm that early Altmetric.com scores can predict later citation counts, although less well than journal impact factors, and the optimal strategy is to consider both Altmetric.com scores and journal impact factors. Altmetric.com scores can also reflect dimensions of non-scholarly impact in some fields.
    • Modeling children's development in gross motor coordination reveals key modifiable determinants. An Allometric approach.

      Dos Santos, Marcos André M; Nevill, Alan M.; Buranarugsa, Rojapon; Pereira, Sara; Ferreira Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q; Reyes, Ana; Barnett, Lisa M; Maia, José António R (Wiley, 2018-01-24)
      Children change their body size, shape and gross motor coordination (GMC) as they grow. Further, GMC is expected to link to changes in children's body size, physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF). The objective was to model GMC changes in children followed longitudinally and to investigate associations between these changes and PA and PF levels. A total of 245 children (122 girls) were observed at 6 years of age and followed annually until 9 years. A sequence of allometric models were fitted, i.e.: 1. body mass, stature and PA; 2. addition of four PF tests; 3. addition of four more PF tests. In Model 1, changes in GMC are non-linear, and body mass (-0.60±0.07, p<0.001) and stature (2.91±0.35, p<0.001) parameter estimates were significant suggesting children with a more linear body size/shape showed higher GMC performances. Girls tend to outperform boys across time, and PA was not associated with GMC changes. Model 2 fitted the data better, and the PF tests (handgrip, standing long jump, 50-yard dash and shuttle-run) were significantly linked to GMC change. In Model 3, adding the remaining PF tests did not change the order of any factors importance. The greatest GMC changes were achieved by children whose body size/shape has an ectomorphic dominance across the years. Considering that leaner and physically fitter children tended to be more coordinated, physical education should also focus on PF development in components related to muscular strength, speed, agility and aerobic capacity, along with nutritional education to reduce fat mass.
    • Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event and patients' quality of life after endoscopic vein harvesting as compared with open vein harvest (MAQEH): a pilot study.

      Luckraz, Heyman; Cartwright, Carly; Nagarajan, Kumaresan; Kaur, Prabhjeet; Nevill, Alan M. (BMJ, 2018)
      This is a prospective, comparative, pilot and follow-up (2-year postoperatively) study in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery where the long saphenous vein was harvested either by the endoscopic vein harvest (EVH) technique or open vein harvest (OVH) technique. Quality of life (QOL) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) were assessed.
    • Effects of a peer-led Walking In ScHools intervention (the WISH study) on physical activity levels of adolescent girls: a cluster randomised pilot study.

      Carlin, Angela; Murphy, Marie H; Nevill, Alan M.; Gallagher, Alison M (BMC, 2018-01-11)
      School-based interventions may be effective at increasing levels of physical activity (PA) among adolescents; however, there is a paucity of evidence on whether walking can be successfully promoted to increase PA in this age group. This pilot study aimed to assess the effects of a 12-week school-based peer-led brisk walking programme on levels of school-time PA post intervention.
    • Can Microsoft Academic assess the early citation impact of in-press articles? A multi-discipline exploratory analysis

      Kousha, Kayvan; Abdoli, Mahshid; Thelwall, Mike (Elsevier, 2018-02)
      Many journals post accepted articles online before they are formally published in an issue. Early citation impact evidence for these articles could be helpful for timely research evaluation and to identify potentially important articles that quickly attract many citations. This article investigates whether Microsoft Academic can help with this task. For over 65,000 Scopus in-press articles from 2016 and 2017 across 26 fields, Microsoft Academic found 2-5 times as many citations as Scopus, depending on year and field. From manual checks of 1,122 Microsoft Academic citations not found in Scopus, Microsoft Academic’s citation indexing was faster but not much wider than Scopus for journals. It achieved this by associating citations to preprints with their subsequent in-press versions and by extracting citations from in-press articles. In some fields its coverage of scholarly digital libraries, such as arXiv.org, was also an advantage. Thus, Microsoft Academic seems to be a more comprehensive automatic source of citation counts for in-press articles than Scopus.
    • A decade of Garfield readers

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2017-11-30)
      This brief note discusses Garfield’s continuing influence from the perspective of the Mendeley readers of his articles. This reflects the direct impact of his work since the launch of Mendeley in August 2008. In the last decade, his work is still extensively read by younger scientists, especially in computer and information sciences and the social sciences, and with a broad international spread. His work on citation indexes, impact factors and science history tracking seems to have the most contemporary relevance.
    • YouTube Science Channel Video Presenters and Comments: Female Friendly or Vestiges of Sexism?

      Mas-Bleda, Amalia; Thelwall, Mike (Emerald, 2017-03)
      Purpose: This paper analyses popular YouTube science video channels for evidence of attractiveness to a female audience. Design/methodology/approach: The influence of presenter gender and commenter sentiment towards males and females is investigated for 50 YouTube science channels with a combined view-count approaching ten billion. This is cross-referenced with commenter gender as a proxy for audience gender. Findings: The ratio of male to female commenters varies between 1 and 39 to 1, but the low proportions of females seem to be due to the topic or presentation style rather than the gender of the presenter or the attitudes of the commenters. Although male commenters were more hostile to other males than to females, a few posted inappropriate sexual references that may alienate females. Research limitations: Comments reflect a tiny and biased sample of YouTube science channel viewers and so their analysis provides weak evidence. Practical implications: Sexist behaviour in YouTube commenting needs to be combatted but the data suggests that gender balance in online science presenters should not be the primary concern of channel owners. Originality/value: This is the largest scale analysis of gender in YouTube science communication.