Evaluation of the effect of Plectranthus amboinicus L. leaf extracts on the bacterial antioxidant system and cell membrane Integrity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325
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AbstractPlectranthus amboinicus (Indian borage) has been extensively studied for its medicinal properties, which can be exploited to develop new antimicrobial therapeutics. The current study investigated the effect of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extracts on the catalase activity, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, cytoplasmic membrane permeability, and efflux pump activity in S. aureus NCTC8325 and P. aeruginosa PA01. As the enzyme catalase protects bacteria against oxidative stress, disruption of its activity creates an imbalance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, which subsequently oxidizes lipid chains, leading to lipid peroxidation. In addition, bacterial cell membranes are a potential target for new antibacterial agents, as efflux pump systems play a crucial role in antimicrobial resistance. Upon exposure of the microorganisms to Indian borage leaf extracts, the observed catalase activity decreased by 60% and 20% in P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, respectively. The generation of ROS can cause oxidation reactions to occur within the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the lipid membranes and induce lipid peroxidation. To investigate these phenomena, the increase in ROS activity in P. aeruginosa and S. aureus was studied using H2DCFDA, which is oxidized to 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein (DCF) by ROS. Furthermore, the concentration of lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde) was assessed using the Thiobarbituric acid assay and was shown to increase by 42.4% and 42.5% in P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, respectively. The effect of the extracts on the cell membrane permeability was monitored using diSC3-5 dye and it was observed that the cell membrane permeability of P. aeruginosa increased by 58% and of S. aureus by 83%. The effect on efflux pump activity was investigated using Rhodamine-6-uptake assay, which displayed a decrease in efflux activity of 25.5% in P. aeruginosa and 24.2% in S. aureus after treatment with the extracts. This combination of different methods to study various bacterial virulence factors provides a more robust, mechanistic understanding of the effect of P. amboinicus extracts on P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. This study thus represents the first report of the assessment of the effect of Indian borage leaf extracts on bacterial antioxidant systems and bacterial cell membranes, and can facilitate the future development of bacterial resistance modifying agents derived from P. amboinicus.
CitationSawant, S.; Baldwin, T.C.; Metryka, O.; Rahman, A. Evaluation of the Effect of Plectranthus amboinicus L. Leaf Extracts on the Bacterial Antioxidant System and Cell Membrane Integrity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 and Staphylococcus aureus NCTC8325. Pathogens 2023, 12, (6) article number 853. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12060853
Description© 2023 The Authors. Published by MDPI. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens12060853
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