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dc.contributor.authorLahive, Elma
dc.contributor.authorMatzke, Marianne
dc.contributor.authorSvendsen, Claus
dc.contributor.authorSpurgeon, David
dc.contributor.authorM Pouran, Hamid
dc.contributor.authorZhang, Hao
dc.contributor.authorLawlor, Alan
dc.contributor.authorPereira, M. Gloria
dc.contributor.authorLofts, Stephen
dc.date.accessioned2023-01-20T12:22:04Z
dc.date.available2023-01-20T12:22:04Z
dc.date.issued2023-01-05
dc.identifier.citationLahive, E., Matzke, M., Svendsen, C., Spurgeon, D.J., Pouran, H., Zhang, H., Lawlor, A., Pereira, M.G. and Lofts, S. (2023) Soil properties influence the toxicity and availability of Zn from ZnO nanoparticles to earthworms. Environmental Pollution, 319, 120907.en
dc.identifier.issn0269-7491en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120907en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/625090
dc.description© 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120907en
dc.description.abstractTo develop models that support site-specific risk assessment for nanoparticles (NPs), a better understanding of how NP transformation processes, bioavailability and toxicity are influenced by soil properties is needed. In this study, the influence of differing soil properties on the bioavailability and toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs and ionic Zn to the earthworm Eisenia fetida was investigated. Earthworms were exposed to ZnO_NPs and ionic Zn, between 100 and 4400 mg Zn/kg, in four different natural soils (organic matter content: 1.8–16.7%, soil pH: 5.4–8.3, representing sandy loam to calcareous soils). Survival and reproduction were assessed after 28 and 56 days, respectively. Zn concentrations in soil pore waters were measured while labile concentrations of Zn were measured using an in-situ dynamic speciation technique (diffusive gradient in thin films, DGT). Earthworm Zn tissue concentrations were also measured. Soil properties influenced earthworm reproduction between soil controls, with highest reproductive output in soils with pH values of 6–7. Toxicity was also influenced by soil properties, with EC50s based on total Zn in soil ranging from 694 to >2200 mg Zn/kg for ZnO_NP and 277–734 mg Zn/kg for ionic Zn. Soil pore water and DGT measurements showed good agreement in the relative amount of Zn extracted across the four soils. Earthworms exposed to ZnO_NPs survived higher Zn concentrations in the soils and had higher tissue concentrations compared with ionic Zn exposures, particularly in the high organic content calcareous soil. These higher tissue concentrations in ZnO_NP exposed earthworm could have consequences for the persistence and trophic mobility of Zn in terrestrial systems and need to be further investigated to elucidate if there any longer-term risks associated with sustained input of ZnO_NP to soil.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council 500 Transatlantic Initiative for Nanotechnology and the Environment (TINE) grant NE/H013679/1, and EU Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreements No.646002 and No. 731032. M.M. was supported by the Marie-Curie FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IEF, 504 Micronanotox (PIEF-GA-2011-303140).en
dc.formatapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherElsevieren
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749122021224en
dc.subjectnanomaterialsen
dc.subjectEisenia fetidaen
dc.subjectbioaccumulationen
dc.subjectbioavailabilityen
dc.subjectpore wateren
dc.subjectDGTen
dc.subjectdiffusive gradient in thin filmsen
dc.titleSoil properties influence the toxicity and availability of Zn from ZnO nanoparticles to earthwormsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.journalEnvironmental Pollutionen
dc.date.accepted2022-12-17
rioxxterms.funderNatural Environment Research Council, EU Horizon 2020,en
rioxxterms.identifier.projectNE/H013679/1, 646002, 731032, FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IEF, 504 Micronanotox (PIEF-GA-2011-303140)en
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2023-01-20en
refterms.dateFCD2023-01-20T12:21:32Z
refterms.versionFCDVoR
refterms.dateFOA2023-01-20T12:22:05Z


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