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AbstractPurpose: Despite the present focus on improving the resilience of homes to flooding in UK flood risk management policy and strategy, a general measurement framework for determining levels of flood resilience in UK homes does not exist. In light of this, the aim of this study was to develop a means to evaluate the levels of resilience in flood-prone homes from the perspective of homeowners'. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative research methodology was employed, with empirical data obtained through a postal survey of homeowners who had experienced flooding. The responses received were then analysed using a combination of statistical techniques including agreement/reliability tests and multiple regression to develop a model of flood resilience. Findings: A predictive model was developed that allows the resilience of a property to be quantified and measured as perceived by homeowners. The findings indicate that the main factors found to influence the level of flood resilience were: property type (PT), presence of cellar/basement (C/B), property wall type (PWT), property ground floor type (PGFT), kitchen unit type (KU), flood experience (FE), flood source (FS) and flood risk level (FRL). Practical implications: The resulting model provides unique insights into resilience levels to the benefit of a range of stakeholders including policy makers (such as Defra/Environment Agency), Local Authority flood teams, property professionals, housing associations and homeowners. As a result, homeowners will be in a better position to determine which interventions should be prioritised to ensure better flood protection. Originality/value: This is the first study of its kind to have rigorously quantified the level of flood resilience for individual homes. This study has quantified the effectiveness of individual resilience measures to derive the first reliable means to measure the overall levels of resilience at the individual property level. This is regarded as a significant contribution to the study of flood risk management through the quantification of resilience within individual UK homes, enabling the prioritisation of interventions and the overall monitoring of resilience.
CitationAdedeji, T., Proverbs, D.G., Xiao, H. and Oladokun, V.O. (2022) Measuring property flood resilience (PFR) in UK homes. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBPA-06-2022-0092
JournalInternational Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation
DescriptionThis is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Emerald on 01/11/2022, available online: https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBPA-06-2022-0092 The accepted version of the publication may differ from the final published version.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
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The impact of flooding on the value of residential property in the UKProverbs, David G.; Hammond, Felix Nikoi; Antwi, Adarkwah; Lamond, Jessica Elizabeth (University of Wolverhampton, 2008)Flooding of residential property is a real and growing phenomenon in the UK causing short and long-term detriment of various kinds to its victims. The issue of potential decrease in value of those properties which are located on the floodplain, though much discussed in the media, has received scant attention in the UK research literature. An extensive literature survey has revealed a need for methodological innovation in the field of temporal impact of flooding and the inadequacy of the current paradigms for inclusion of insurance into flood modelling. A wide-ranging review of data sources, including discussion with industry experts, has identified the requirement to generate primary data on the availability and cost of flood insurance. A novel framework has been developed for this research. This framework is an extension of the recent research in flood modelling and incorporates ideas from the wider house price analysis literature. Data collected via a questionnaire survey of householders has been combined with secondary data on property prices and flood designation in order to attribute any loss in property value to the correct vector of underlying flood status. The output from this study makes a contribution to the understanding of the impact of flooding on house prices, allowing for better valuation advice. Empirical findings are that the understandable concerns of residential property owners at risk of flooding regarding long term loss of property value are largely unfounded. Price discounts are observed for some recently flooded areas but they are temporary Improved appreciation of the impact of claims and flood risk on the cost of insurance has also emerged. The insurance market was not found to be instrumental in reducing the price of property. The output from the study also makes a methodological contribution in extending concepts relating to the relationship between flooding, insurance and house prices. This development is anticipated to facilitate refinement and updating of the empirical findings with reduced effort in the light of future events.
Homeowner satisfaction and service quality in the repair of UK flood-damaged domestic propertyProverbs, David G.; Samwinga, Victor (University of Wolverhampton, 2009)Flooding is a global challenge that has plagued mankind throughout history, affecting over 164 million people worldwide in 2007 alone. As the frequency of flooding increases in England and Wales coupled with an increase in the number of properties at risk of flooding and the attendant huge (insured) economic costs of flooding, the services received by homeowners during flood damage repair works, have not been spared criticism, Both the Welsh Consumer Council report and the Warwickshire Trading Standards report raised serious questions about the level of service in insurance claims for the repair of flood-damaged domestic property. This research project was therefore aimed at investigating the level of service quality and determinants of homeowners’ satisfaction in England and Wales with respect to flood damage repair works during insurance claims. A comprehensive literature review was conducted on customers’ needs, satisfaction and service quality, flooding and related issues, and the repair of flood damaged domestic property, in order to set the framework for the research and shape the development of the research questions/hypotheses. The study employed a two-phased sequential mixed methods approach, commencing with 20 in-depth interviews with homeowners, repairers, insurers and loss adjusters. Findings from the initial exploratory study (and from the literature review) informed the development of a questionnaire instrument, which incorporated elements of SERVQUAL, the generic service quality measurement instrument. Survey data were collected for the quantitative phase of the study from a sample of 126 homeowners, which was then analysed to test the hypotheses put forward in the study. The data did not yield a set of reliable and interpretable factors of service quality from the three service quality scales used to measure homeowners’ perceptions of the performance of insurers, loss adjusters and contractors. However, of the three key service providers, the contractor’s performance was the best predictor of homeowners’ overall satisfaction during flood damage reinstatement claims, accounting for seven times the combined unique contribution of insurance and loss adjusting firms. In addition, satisfaction levels were significantly different for homeowners whose claims for repair works were completed within six months compared to those repairs exceeded twelve months. The thesis concludes with implications of the findings for practice as well as recommendations for further research. It is argued that knowledge of the determinants of homeowners’ satisfaction with services during the repair of flood damaged property, is beneficial not only to insurers, loss adjusters and repairers but to homeowners as well.
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