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dc.contributor.authorKirk, Ben
dc.contributor.authorMooney, Kate
dc.contributor.authorVogrin, Sara
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorDuque, Gustavo
dc.contributor.authorKhaiyat, Omid
dc.contributor.authorAmirabdollahian, Farzad
dc.date.accessioned2022-08-18T14:59:50Z
dc.date.available2022-08-18T14:59:50Z
dc.date.issued2021-09-14
dc.identifier.citationKirk, B., Mooney, K., Vogrin, S., Jackson, M., Duque, G., et al. (2021) Leucine-enriched whey protein supplementation, resistance-based exercise, and cardiometabolic health in older adults: a randomized controlled trial, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, 12 (6), pp. 2022– 2033, https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12805en
dc.identifier.issn2190-5991en
dc.identifier.pmid34520104 (pubmed)
dc.identifier.doi10.1002/jcsm.12805en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/624885
dc.description© 2021 The Authors. Published by Wiley. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1002/jcsm.12805en
dc.description.abstractBackground Increasing protein intake (above the Recommended Dietary Amount) alone or with resistance-based exercise is suggested to improve cardiometabolic health; however, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to confirm this. Methods The Liverpool Hope University-Sarcopenia Aging Trial (LHU-SAT) was a 16 week RCT (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02912130) of 100 community-dwelling older adults [mean age: 68.73 ± 5.80 years, body mass index: 27.06 ± 5.18 kg/m2 (52% women)] who were randomized to four independent groups [Control (C), Exercise (E), Exercise + Protein (EP), Protein (P)]. E and EP completed supervised and progressive resistance-based exercise (resistance exercise: two times per week, functional circuit exercise: once per week), while EP and P were supplemented with a leucine-enriched whey protein drink (three times per day) based on individual body weight (0.50 g/kg/meal, 1.50 g/kg/day). Outcome measures including arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity), fasting plasma/serum biomarkers [glucose/glycated haemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein, insulin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, cystatin-C, & ferritin], insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and kidney function (eGFR) were measured before and after intervention. Results Total protein intake (habitual diet plus supplementation) increased to 1.55 ± 0.69 g/kg/day in EP and to 1.93 ± 0.72 g/kg/day in P, and remained significantly lower (P < 0.001) in unsupplemented groups (E: 1.08 ± 0.33 g/kg/day, C: 1.00 ± 0.26 g/kg/day). At 16 weeks, there was a group-by-time interaction whereby absolute changes in LDL-cholesterol were lower in EP [mean difference: −0.79 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI): −1.29, −0.28, P = 0.002] and P (mean difference: −0.76 mmol/L, 95% CI: −1.26, −0.26, P = 0.003) vs. C. Serum insulin also showed group-by-time interactions at 16 weeks whereby fold changes were lower in EP (mean difference: −0.40, 95% CI: −0.65, −0.16, P = 0.001) and P (mean difference: −0.32, 95% CI: −0.56, −0.08, P = 0.009) vs. C, and fold changes in HOMA-IR improved in EP (mean difference: −0.37, 95% CI: −0.64, −0.10, P = 0.007) and P (mean difference: −0.27, 95% CI: −0.53, −0.00, P = 0.048) vs. C. Serum resistin declined in P only (group-by-time interaction at 16 weeks: P = 0.009). No other interactions were observed in outcome measures (P > 0.05), and kidney function (eGFR) remained unaltered. Conclusions Sixteen weeks of leucine-enriched whey protein supplementation alone and combined with resistance-based exercise improved cardiometabolic health markers in older adults.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by internal doctoral research scholarships (awarded to B.K. and K.M. during 2016–2019) from Liverpool Hope University who purchased the protein supplements directly from the manufacture (MyProtein, UK) at retail price with no discount applied. No external funding was received for this study.en
dc.formatapplication/pdfen
dc.languageeng
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherWileyen
dc.relation.urlhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jcsm.12805en
dc.rightsLicence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
dc.subjectagingen
dc.subjectinsulin resistanceen
dc.subjectinflammationen
dc.subjectlipoproteinsen
dc.subject.meshHumans
dc.subject.meshCardiovascular Diseases
dc.subject.meshLeucine
dc.subject.meshExercise
dc.subject.meshDietary Supplements
dc.subject.meshAged
dc.subject.meshMiddle Aged
dc.subject.meshFemale
dc.subject.meshMale
dc.subject.meshWhey Proteins
dc.titleLeucine-enriched whey protein supplementation, resistance-based exercise, and cardiometabolic health in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.eissn2190-6009
dc.identifier.journalJournal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscleen
dc.date.updated2022-08-17T21:14:58Z
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Medicine-Western Health, Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
pubs.place-of-publicationGermany
dc.date.accepted2021-08-23
rioxxterms.funderLiverpool Hope Universityen
rioxxterms.identifier.project20220818FAen
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2022-08-18en
dc.source.volume12
dc.source.issue6
dc.source.beginpage2022
dc.source.endpage2033
dc.description.versionPublished version
refterms.dateFCD2022-08-18T14:59:21Z
refterms.versionFCDVoR
refterms.dateFOA2022-08-18T14:59:51Z


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Licence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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