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dc.contributor.authorFont-Julián, Cristina I.
dc.contributor.authorOntalba-Ruipérez, José-Antonio
dc.contributor.authorOrduña-Malea, Enrique
dc.contributor.authorThelwall, Mike
dc.date.accessioned2021-12-23T13:58:49Z
dc.date.available2021-12-23T13:58:49Z
dc.date.issued2022-01-05
dc.identifier.citationFont-Julián, C.I., Ontalba-Ruipérez, J., Orduña-Malea, E. and Thelwall, M. (2022) Which types of online resource support US patent claims? Journal of Informetrics, 16(1), Article No. 101247.en
dc.identifier.issn1751-1577en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.joi.2021.101247
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/624517
dc.descriptionThis is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Elsevier in Journal of Informetrics on 05/01/2022. Available online: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joi.2021.101247 The accepted version of the publication may differ from the final published version.en
dc.description.abstractPatents are key documents to support the commercial exploitation of inventions. Patent documents must claim inventiveness, industrial application, and novelty to be granted and may use citations and URLs to support these claims as well as to explain their ideas. Although there is much research into the citations used to support inventions, almost nothing is known about the cited URLs. This may hinder inventors and evaluators from deciding which URLs are appropriate. To investigate this issue, all 3,133,247 patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from 2008 to 2018 were investigated, and 2,719,705 URLs (patent outlinks) were automatically extracted using heuristics, and analyzed using link analyses techniques. A minority of patents included URLs (17.1%), with the percentage increasing over time. The inclusion of URLs differs between disciplines, with Physics (especially the subcategory Computation) having the most URLs per patent. Patents are generally embedded in the “other citations” patent section (referring to academic publications) and the “description” section (e.g., supplementary information and definitions). Online content-oriented resources (e.g., Wayback Machine, Wikipedia, YouTube), academic bibliographic databases (e.g., IEEE Xplore, Microsoft Academic, PubMed, CiteSeerX) and technological companies (e.g., IBM, Amazon, Microsoft) are often linked from USPTO patents. These findings show the broad roles that URLs can play when supporting a patent claim. Finally, in order to avoid bad practices found in the inclusion of URLs in patents, a list of recommendations to cite online resources from patents is provided.en
dc.formatapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherElsevieren
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1751157721001188en
dc.subjectpatentsen
dc.subjectwebometricsen
dc.subjectpatent hyperlinksen
dc.subjectinformetricsen
dc.subjectlink analysisen
dc.subjectUnited States Patent and Trademark Officeen
dc.subjectonline resourcesen
dc.titleWhich types of online resource support US patent claims?en
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.journalJournal of Informetricsen
dc.date.updated2021-12-22T17:04:46Z
dc.identifier.articlenumber101247
dc.date.accepted2021-12-22
rioxxterms.funderUniversity of Wolverhamptonen
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUOW23122021MTen
rioxxterms.versionAMen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2023-01-05en
dc.source.volume16
dc.source.issue1
dc.source.beginpage1
refterms.dateFCD2021-12-23T13:58:21Z
refterms.versionFCDAM


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