3D printed cobalt-chromium-molybdenum porous superalloy with superior antiviral activity
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AbstractCOVID-19 pandemic and associated supply-chain disruptions emphasise the requirement for antimicrobial materials for on-demand manufacturing. Besides aerosol transmission, SARS-CoV-2 is also propagated through contact with virus-contaminated surfaces. As such, the development of effective biofunctional materials that can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 is critical for pandemic preparedness. Such materials will enable the rational development of antiviral devices with prolonged serviceability, reducing the environmental burden of disposable alternatives. This research reveals the novel use of Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) to 3D print porous Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) superalloy with potent antiviral activity (100% viral inactivation in 30 min). The porous material was rationally conceived using a multi-objective surrogate model featuring track thickness (tt) and pore diameter (ϕd) as responses. The regression analysis found the most significant parameters for Co-Cr-Mo track formation to be the interaction effects of scanning rate (Vs) and laser power (Pl) in the order PlVs>Vs>Pl. Contrastively, the pore diameter was found to be primarily driven by the hatch spacing (Sh). The study is the first to demonstrate the superior antiviral properties of 3D printed Co-Cr-Mo superalloy against an enveloped virus used as biosafe viral model of SARS-CoV-2. The material significantly outperforms the viral inactivation time of other broadly used antiviral metals such as copper and silver, as the material’s viral inactivation time was from 5 h to 30 min. As such, the study goes beyond the current state-of-the-art in antiviral alloys to provide extra protection to combat the SARS-CoV-2 viral spread. The evolving nature of the COVID-19 pandemic brings new and unpredictable challenges where on-demand 3D printing of antiviral materials can achieve rapid solutions while reducing the environmental impact of disposable devices
CitationArjunan, A., Robinson, J., Baroutaji, A., Tuñón-Molina, A., Martí, M., Serrano-Aroca, Á. (2021) 3D Printed Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum Porous Superalloy with Superior Antiviral Activity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(23):12721. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312721
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Description© 2021 The Authors. Published by MDPI. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312721
SponsorsThis research was conducted with support from the CALMERIC grant (European Commission, Grant number: 32R19P03053); University of Wolverhampton; Additive Analytics UK and EOS GmbH. This research was also founded by the Fundación Universidad Católica de Valencia San Vicente Mártir, Grant 2020-231-006UCV and the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2020-119333RB-I00/AEI/10.13039/501100011033).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/