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AbstractCloud computing (CC) is rapidly growing new information technology (IT) in private, public and especially in Government sectors internationally. CC technology facilitates rather than deploy and manage an in-house physical IT infrastructure by having local servers or personal devices to manage their softwares application. This new technology helps to transfer their traditional IT services model into remote, virtualised environments, which are often hosted and managed by the third parties. Therefore, CC environment of any organisation turn prospective opportunity for cyber attackers, which is become a primary challenges of CC in the protection of valuable data from different types of attacks. CC posed a serious risk and major challenge to digital investigators, also offers sufficient opportunities to investigators for better refining the forensic science. This study summarises the key areas of CC forensics science challenges and analyses by the researched performed by other researchers. The challenges also presented along with associated literature that particularly reference them. Finally the discussion and analysis, which is based on the study finding to consider the challenges provoke by the CC forensics science on our findings.
CitationUbaid Ullah, R.M., Buckley, K., Garvey, M. and Li, J. (2019) The challenges of cloud computing in forensic science. International Journal of Computer Trends & Technology, 67(7), pp. 40-48.
PublisherSeventh Sense Research Group
JournalInternational Journal of Computer Trends & Technology
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
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Investigating the Postmortem Molecular Biology of Cartilage and its Potential Forensic ApplicationsBolton, Shawna N.; Whitehead, Michael P.; Dudhia, Jayesh; Baldwin, Timothy C.; Sutton, Raul (2015-05-31)This study investigated the postmortem molecular changes that articular cartilage undergoes following burial. Fresh pig trotters were interred in 30-cm-deep graves at two distinct locations exhibiting dissimilar soil environments for up to 42 days. Extracts of the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint cartilage from trotters disinterred weekly over 6 weeks were analyzed by Western blot against the monoclonal antibody 2-B-6 to assess aggrecan degradation. In both soil conditions, aggrecan degradation by-products of decreasing molecular size and complexity were observed up to 21 days postmortem. Degradation products were undetected after this time and coincided with MCP/MTP joint exposure to the soil environment. These results show that cartilage proteoglycans undergo an ordered molecular breakdown, the analysis of which may have forensic applications. This model may prove useful for use as a human model and for forensic investigations concerning crimes against animals and the mortality of endangered species.
The Forensic Institute Research Network.Sutton, Raul; Jamieson, Allan J. (York: Physical Sciences Centre, The Higher Education Academy, 2008)The burgeoning activity in forensic science in universities continues to attract criticism. A positive aspect is the potential to inject a much-needed boost to research in all forensic practices. Only recently has fingerprinting, for example, been exposed to rigorous scientific examination and, to a great extent, been found wanting as regards its science – probability apparently has no place in fingermark examination. In response to the opportunity The Forensic Institute brought together representatives from more than 40 UK universities to discuss how this new resource, academics and students, could be used to further research in the forensic sciences. It was envisaged that many casework-related problems, such as environmental frequencies of trace evidence, could be best accomplished by a lot of small student projects coordinated on a national and perhaps international level by a steering group. This steering group in turn would be part of an integrated research strategy developed in conjunction with practitioners. A virtuous cycle of practice, research, development, and practice would be the outcome. And so, in 2004, The Forensic Institute Research Network (FIRN) was born.
Forensic Taphonomy: Investigating the Post Mortem Biochemical Properties of Cartilage and Fungal Succession as Potential Forensic ToolsBolton, Shawna N. (2015)Post mortem interval (PMI – the time elapsed since death and discovery) is important to medicolegal investigations. It helps to construct crucial time lines and assists with the identification of unknown persons by inclusion or exclusion of a suspect’s known movements. Accurate methodologies for establishing PMI are limited to about 48-hours. Such methods involve use of increasing levels of potassium in vitreous humour, and algor mortis. This study is two-fold. Firstly, it explores the biomolecular changes in degrading porcine cartilage buried in soil environments and its potential to determine PMI in the crucial two days to two months period. Trotters were interred in a number of graves at two distinct locations exhibiting dissimilar soil environments. Weekly disinterments (for 6 weeks) resulted in dissection for cartilage samples which were processed for protein immunoblot analyses and cell vitality assays. Results demonstrate that aggrecan, a major structural proteoglycan, produces high (230kDa) and low (38kDa) molecular weight cross-reactive polypeptides (CRPs) within cartilage extracellular matrix. The 230kDa CRP degrades in a reproducible manner irrespective of the different soil environments utilised. As PMI increases, aggrecan diminishes and degrades forming heterogeneous subpopulations with time. Immunodetection of aggrecan ceases when joint exposure to the soil environment occurs. At this time, aggrecan is metabolised by soil microbes. The molecular breakdown of cartilage proteoglycans has potential for use as a reliable indicator of PMI, irrespective of differing soil environments, beyond the 48-hours period. Likewise, vitality assays also demonstrated viable chondrocytes for as long as 35 PM days. The second component of this study examined the fungal activity associated with trotters buried below ground. Results indicate that fungal growth was considerably influenced by soil chemistry and changes in the environment. Fungal colonisation did not demonstrate temporal patterns of succession. The results of this study indicate that cartilage has the potential to prolong PMI determination well beyond the current 48- and 100-hour limitations posed by various other soft tissue methods. Moreover, the long-term post mortem viability of chondrocytes presents an opportunity to explore DNA extraction from these cells for the purpose of establishing a positive identification for unidentified remains. On the contrary, the growth and colonisation patterns of post putrefactive fungi in relation to decomposing porcine trotters proved to be futile for estimating PMI. Therefore, fungi may not be a suitable candidate for evaluating PMI during the early phase fungal activity.