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dc.contributor.authorAlaswad, A
dc.contributor.authorOmran, A
dc.contributor.authorSodre, JR
dc.contributor.authorWilberforce, T
dc.contributor.authorPignatelli, G
dc.contributor.authorDassisti, M
dc.contributor.authorBaroutaji, A
dc.contributor.authorOlabi, AG
dc.date.accessioned2021-09-06T10:55:09Z
dc.date.available2021-09-06T10:55:09Z
dc.date.issued2020-12-29
dc.identifier.citationAlaswad A, Omran A, Sodre JR, Wilberforce T, Pignatelli G, Dassisti M, Baroutaji A, Olabi AG. (2021) Technical and Commercial Challenges of Proton-Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells. Energies, 14(1):144. https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010144en
dc.identifier.issn1996-1073en
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/en14010144en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/624313
dc.description© 2021 The Authors. Published by MDPI. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.3390/en14010144en
dc.description.abstractThis review critically evaluates the latest trends in fuel cell development for portable and stationary fuel cell applications and their integration into the automotive industry. Fast start-up, high efficiency, no toxic emissions into the atmosphere and good modularity are the key advantages of fuel cell applications. Despite the merits associated with fuel cells, the high cost of the technology remains a key factor impeding its widespread commercialization. Therefore, this review presents detailed information into the best operating conditions that yield maximum fuel cell performance. The paper recommends future research geared towards robust fuel cell geometry designs, as this determines the cell losses, and material characterization of the various cell components. When this is done properly, it will support a total reduction in the cost of the cell which in effect will reduce the total cost of the system. Despite the strides made by the fuel cell research community, there is a need for public sensitization as some people have reservations regarding the safety of the technology. This hurdle can be overcome if there is a well-documented risk assessment, which also needs to be considered in future research activities.en
dc.formatapplication/pdfen
dc.languageen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMDPIen
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/1/144en
dc.subjectfuel cellen
dc.subjectoptimizationen
dc.subjectelectric vehiclesen
dc.subjectautomotive industryen
dc.subjectefficiencyen
dc.titleTechnical and commercial challenges of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cellsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.eissn1996-1073
dc.identifier.journalEnergiesen
dc.date.updated2021-09-01T12:17:25Z
dc.date.accepted2020-12-23
rioxxterms.funderUniversity of Wolverhamptonen
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUOW06092021ABen
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2021-09-06en
dc.source.volume14
dc.source.issue1
dc.source.beginpage144
dc.source.endpage144
dc.description.versionPublished version
refterms.dateFCD2021-09-06T10:54:23Z
refterms.versionFCDVoR
refterms.dateFOA2021-09-06T10:55:10Z


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