Acidic amino acids as counterions of ciprofloxacin: Effect on growth and pigment production in Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1
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AbstractAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) is emerging as a global threat to public health. One of the strategies employed to combat AMR is the use of adjuvants which act to enhance or reinstate antimicrobial activity by inhibiting resistance mechanisms. However, these adjuvants are themselves not immune to selecting resistant phenotypes. Thus, there is a need to utilise mechanisms which are either less likely to or unable to trigger resistance. One commonly employed mechanism of resistance by microorganisms is to prevent antimicrobial uptake or efflux the antibiotic which manages to permeate its membrane. Here we propose amino acids as antimicrobial adjuvants that may be utilizing alternate mechanisms to fight AMR. We used a modified ethidium bromide (EtBr) efflux assay to determine its efflux in the presence of ciprofloxacin within Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 8325) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1). In this study, aspartic acid and glutamic acid were found to inhibit growth of both bacterial species. Moreover, a reduced production of toxic pigments, pyocyanin and pyoverdine by P. aeruginosa was also observed. As evident from similar findings with tetracycline, these adjuvants, may be a way forward towards tackling antimicrobial resistance.
CitationWarraich AA, Mohammed AUR, Gibson H, Hussain M, Rahman AS (2021) Acidic amino acids as counterions of ciprofloxacin: Effect on growth and pigment production in Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. PLoS ONE 16(4): e0250705. https://doi.org/ 10.1371/journal.pone.0250705
PublisherPublic Library of Science (PLoS)
PubMed ID33914790 (pubmed)
Description© 2021 The Authors. Published by Public Library of Science. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0250705
SponsorsThe authors acknowledge BBSRC UKRI (BB/M017044/1) which funded AW. https://bbsrc.ukri.org/. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Please note this project was funded by a BBSRC-Industry case award. Dr Majad Hussain of Quest Healthcare Ltd, Birmingham, UK was the industrial sponsor on the project. He was involved in project development and supervision. There was no financial contribution from Quest Healthcare. There are no declarations to be made relating to employment, consultancy, patents, products in development, or marketed products, etc.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Licence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International