Associations of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose and body mass index among pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes with offspring being large for gestational age and preterm birth: a cohort study in China
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AbstractIntroduction Associations of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and body mass index (BMI) with large for gestational age (LGA) and preterm birth (PTB) have been poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the associations of maternal BMI, separately and together with pre-pregnancy IFG, with LGA and PTB in Chinese population. We also aimed to quantify these associations by maternal age. Research design and methods This was a retrospective cohort study of women from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project with singleton birth from 121 counties/districts in 21 cities of Guangdong Province, China, from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2017. Women were included if they did not have pre-existing chronic diseases (diabetes, hypertension, etc). Participants were divided into eight groups according to their BMI (underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m 2), normal weight (18.5-23.9 kg/m 2), overweight (24.0-27.9 kg/m 2), and obesity (≥28.0 kg/m 2)) and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status (normoglycemia (fasting glucose concentration <6.1 mmol/L) and IFG (6.1-7.0 mmol/L)). Adjusted incidence risk ratios (aIRRs) and 95% CIs of LGA, severe LGA, PTB and early PTB were estimated. Results We included 634 030 women. The incidences of LGA, severe LGA, PTB and early PTB for the study population were 7.1%, 2.5%, 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively. Compared with normal weight mothers with normoglycemia, overweight and obese mothers irrespective of IFG had a higher risk of LGA (eg, obesity with IFG aIRR 1.85 (1.60-2.14)) and severe LGA (eg, obesity with IFG 2.19 (1.73-2.79)). The associations of BMI and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status with LGA were similar found among women of all age groups. Underweight with normoglycemia had 6.0% higher risk of PTB (1.06 (1.03-1.09)) and 8.0% higher risk of early PTB (1.08 (1.02-1.17)), underweight with IFG had 14.0% higher risk of PTB (1.14 (1.02-1.27)), and obese mothers with IFG had 45.0% higher risk of PTB (1.45 (1.18-1.78)). The associations of BMI and pre-pregnancy fasting glucose status with PTB differed by maternal age. Conclusion Overweight and obesity regardless of IFG were associated with an increased risk of LGA, and these associations were similarly observed among mothers of all age groups. Underweight regardless of IFG, and obesity with IFG were associated with an increased risk of PTB, but the associations differed by maternal age. Findings from this study may have implications for risk assessment and counselling before pregnancy.
CitationTang J., Chen R., Yu Y., et al. (2021) Associations of pre-pregnancy impaired fasting glucose and body mass index among pregnant women without pre-existing diabetes with offspring being large for gestational age and preterm birth: a cohort study in China. BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care 2021; 9:e001641. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001641
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
PubMed ID33568359 (pubmed)
Description© 2021 The Authors. Published by BMJ. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://drc.bmj.com/content/9/1/e001641
SponsorsThis study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81773457 and 81302445).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Licence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
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