Cleaning the molecular machinery of cells via proteostasis, proteolysis and endocytosis selectively, effectively, and precisely: intracellular self-defense and cellular perturbations
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AbstractNetwork coordinates of cellular processes (proteostasis, proteolysis, and endocytosis), and molecular chaperones are the key complements in the cell machinery and processes. Specifically, cellular pathways are responsible for the conformational maintenance, cellular concentration, interactions, protein synthesis, disposal of misfolded proteins, localization, folding, and degradation. The failure of cellular processes and pathways disturbs structural proteins and the nucleation of amyloids. These mishaps further initiate amyloid polymorphism, transmissibility, co-aggregation of pathogenic proteins in tissues and cells, prion strains, and mechanisms and pathways for toxicity. Consequently, these conditions favor and lead to the formation of elongated amyloid fibrils consisting of many-stranded β-sheets (N,N-terminus and C,C-terminus), and abnormal fibrous, extracellular, proteinaceous deposits. Finally, these β-sheets deposit, and cells fail to degrade them effectively. The essential torsion angles (φ, ψ, and ω) define the conformation of proteins and their architecture. Cells initiate several transformations and pathways during the regulation of protein homeostasis based on the requirements for the functioning of the cell, which are governed by ATP-dependent proteases. In this process, the kinetics of the molding/folding phenomenon is disturbed, and subsequently, it is dominated by cross-domain misfolding intermediates; however, simultaneously, it is opposed by small stretching forces, which naturally exist in the cell. The ubiquitin/proteasome system deals with damaged proteins, which are not refolded by the chaperone-type machinery. Ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3-Ub) participate in all the cellular activity initiated and governed by molecular chaperones to stabilize the cellular proteome and participate in the degradation phenomenon implemented for damaged proteins. Optical tweezers, a single-resolution based technique, disclose the folding pathway of linear chain proteins, which is how they convert themselves into a three-dimensional architecture. Further, DNA-protein conjugation analysis is performed to obtain folding energies as single-molecule kinetic and thermodynamic data.
CitationKumar, R., Chhikara, B.S., Gulia, K. and Chhillar, M. (2020) Cleaning the molecular machinery of cells via proteostasis, proteolysis and endocytosis selectively, effectively, and precisely: intracellular self-defense and cellular perturbations, Molecular Omics. https://doi.org/10.1039/D0MO00085J
PublisherRoyal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
PubMed ID33135707 (pubmed)
DescriptionThis is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Royal Society of Chemistry in Molecular Omics on 02/11/2020, available online: https://doi.org/10.1039/D0MO00085J The accepted version of the publication may differ from the final published version.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
- Cleaning the molecular machinery of cells via proteostasis, proteolysis and endocytosis selectively, effectively, and precisely: intracellular self-defense and cellular perturbations.
- Authors: Kumar R, Chhikara BS, Gulia K, Chhillar M
- Issue date: 2021 Feb 1
- Repair or destruction-an intimate liaison between ubiquitin ligases and molecular chaperones in proteostasis.
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- Proteostasis and the Regulation of Intra- and Extracellular Protein Aggregation by ATP-Independent Molecular Chaperones: Lens α-Crystallins and Milk Caseins.
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