A mesoscopic modelling approach for direct numerical simulations of transition to turbulence in hypersonic flow with transpiration cooling
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AbstractA rescaling methodology is developed for high-fidelity, cost-efficient direct numerical simulations (DNS) of flow through porous media, modelled at mesoscopic scale, in a hypersonic freestream. The simulations consider a Mach 5 hypersonic flow over a flat plate with coolant injection from a porous layer with 42 % porosity. The porous layer is designed using a configuration studied in the literature, consisting of a staggered arrangement of cylinder/sphere elements. A characteristic Reynolds number Rec of the flow in a pore cell unit is first used to impose aerodynamic similarity between different porous layers with the same porosity, ∈, but different pore size. A relation between the pressure drop and the Reynolds number is derived to allow a controlled rescaling of the pore size from the realistic micrometre scales to higher and more affordable scales. Results of simulations carried out for higher cylinder diameters, namely 24 µm, 48 µm and 96 µm, demonstrate that an equivalent Darcy-Forchheimer behaviour to the reference experimental microstructure is obtained at the different pore sizes. The approach of a porous layer with staggered spheres is applied to a 3D domain case of porous injection in the Darcy limit over a flat plate, to study the transition mechanism and the associated cooling performance, in comparison with a reference case of slot injection. Results of the direct numerical simulations show that porous injection in an unstable boundary layer leads to a more rapid transition process, compared to slot injection. On the other hand, the mixing of coolant within the boundary layer is enhanced in the porous injection case, both in the immediate outer region of the porous layer and in the turbulent region. This has the beneficial effect of increasing the cooling performance by reducing the temperature near the wall, which provides a higher cooling effectiveness, compared to the slot injection case, even with an earlier transition to turbulence.
CitationCerminara, A., Deiterding, R. and Sandham, N. (in press) A mesoscopic modelling approach for direct numerical simulations of transition to turbulence in hypersonic flow with transpiration cooling, International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow.
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
DescriptionThis is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Elsevier in International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow (in press). The accepted version of the publication may differ from the final published version.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/