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dc.contributor.authorMorais, JE
dc.contributor.authorForte, P
dc.contributor.authorNevill, AM
dc.contributor.authorBarbosa, TM
dc.contributor.authorMarinho, DA
dc.date.accessioned2020-08-20T11:35:54Z
dc.date.available2020-08-20T11:35:54Z
dc.date.issued2020-07-15
dc.identifier.citationMorais, J.E., Forte, P., Nevill, A.M. et al. (2020) Upper-limb kinematics and kinetics imbalances in the determinants of front-crawl swimming at maximal speed in young international level swimmers. Sci Rep 10, 11683 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68581-3en
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322en
dc.identifier.pmid32669605 (pubmed)
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41598-020-68581-3en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/623506
dc.description© 2020 The Authors. Published by Nature Research. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68581-3en
dc.description.abstract© 2020, The Author(s). Short-distance swimmers may exhibit imbalances in their upper-limbs’ thrust (differences between the thrust produced by each upper-limb). At maximal speed, higher imbalances are related to poorer performances. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between thrust and swim speed, and whether hypothetical imbalances exist in the speed achieved while performing each upper-limb arm-pull. This could be a major issue at least while swimming at maximal speed. This study aimed to: (1) verify a hypothetical inter-upper limb difference in the determinants related to front-crawl at maximal swim speed, and; (2) identify the main predictors responsible for the swim speed achieved during each upper-limb arm-pull. Twenty-two male swimmers of a national junior swim team (15.92 ± 0.75 years) were recruited. A set of anthropometric, dry-land strength, thrust and speed variables were assessed. Anthropometrics identified a significant difference between dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs (except for the hand surface area). Dry-land strength presented non-significant difference (p < 0.05) between the dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs. Overall, thrust and speed variables revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs over a 25 m time-trial in a short-course pool. Swimmers were not prone to maintaining the thrust and speed along the trial where a significant variation was noted (p < 0.05). Using multilevel regression, the speed achieved by each upper-limb identified a set of variables, with the peak speed being the strongest predictor (dominant: estimate = 0.522, p < 0.001; non-dominant: estimate = 0.756, p < 0.001). Overall, swimmers exhibit significant differences between upper-limbs determinants. The upper-limb noting a higher dry-land strength also presented a higher thrust, and consequently higher speed. Coaches should be aware that sprint swimmers produce significant differences in the speed achieved by each one of their upper-limbs arm-pull.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis project was supported by the National Funds through FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UIDB/DTP/04045/2020).en
dc.formatapplication/pdfen
dc.languageeng
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLCen
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-68581-3en
dc.rightsLicence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectanatomyen
dc.subjectbone quality and biomechanicsen
dc.titleUpper-limb kinematics and kinetics imbalances in the determinants of front-crawl swimming at maximal speed in young international level swimmersen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.eissn2045-2322
dc.identifier.journalScientific Reportsen
dc.date.updated2020-08-09T11:18:18Z
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Sport Sciences, Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus Sta. Apolónia, Apartado 1101, 5301-856, Bragança, Portugal. morais.jorgestrela@gmail.com.
pubs.place-of-publicationEngland
dc.date.accepted2020-06-26
rioxxterms.funderFundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologiaen
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUIDB/DTP/04045/2020en
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2020-08-20en
dc.source.volume10
dc.source.issue1
dc.source.beginpage11683
dc.description.versionAccepted version
refterms.dateFCD2020-08-20T11:34:41Z
refterms.versionFCDVoR
refterms.dateFOA2020-08-20T11:35:55Z


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Licence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
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