Upper-limb kinematics and kinetics imbalances in the determinants of front-crawl swimming at maximal speed in young international level swimmers
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Abstract© 2020, The Author(s). Short-distance swimmers may exhibit imbalances in their upper-limbs’ thrust (differences between the thrust produced by each upper-limb). At maximal speed, higher imbalances are related to poorer performances. Additionally, little is known about the relationship between thrust and swim speed, and whether hypothetical imbalances exist in the speed achieved while performing each upper-limb arm-pull. This could be a major issue at least while swimming at maximal speed. This study aimed to: (1) verify a hypothetical inter-upper limb difference in the determinants related to front-crawl at maximal swim speed, and; (2) identify the main predictors responsible for the swim speed achieved during each upper-limb arm-pull. Twenty-two male swimmers of a national junior swim team (15.92 ± 0.75 years) were recruited. A set of anthropometric, dry-land strength, thrust and speed variables were assessed. Anthropometrics identified a significant difference between dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs (except for the hand surface area). Dry-land strength presented non-significant difference (p < 0.05) between the dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs. Overall, thrust and speed variables revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between dominant and non-dominant upper-limbs over a 25 m time-trial in a short-course pool. Swimmers were not prone to maintaining the thrust and speed along the trial where a significant variation was noted (p < 0.05). Using multilevel regression, the speed achieved by each upper-limb identified a set of variables, with the peak speed being the strongest predictor (dominant: estimate = 0.522, p < 0.001; non-dominant: estimate = 0.756, p < 0.001). Overall, swimmers exhibit significant differences between upper-limbs determinants. The upper-limb noting a higher dry-land strength also presented a higher thrust, and consequently higher speed. Coaches should be aware that sprint swimmers produce significant differences in the speed achieved by each one of their upper-limbs arm-pull.
CitationMorais, J.E., Forte, P., Nevill, A.M. et al. (2020) Upper-limb kinematics and kinetics imbalances in the determinants of front-crawl swimming at maximal speed in young international level swimmers. Sci Rep 10, 11683 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68581-3
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLC
PubMed ID32669605 (pubmed)
Description© 2020 The Authors. Published by Nature Research. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68581-3
SponsorsThis project was supported by the National Funds through FCT—Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (UIDB/DTP/04045/2020).
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Licence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
- Upper-limb kinematics and kinetics imbalances in the determinants of front-crawl swimming at maximal speed in young international level swimmers.
- Authors: Morais JE, Forte P, Nevill AM, Barbosa TM, Marinho DA
- Issue date: 2020 Jul 15
- Relationship between thrust, anthropometrics, and dry-land strength in a national junior swimming team.
- Authors: Morais JE, Marques MC, Rodríguez-Rosell D, Barbosa TM, Marinho DA
- Issue date: 2020 Sep
- Arm-pull thrust in human swimming and the effect of post-activation potentiation.
- Authors: Barbosa TM, Yam JW, Lum D, Balasekaran G, Marinho DA
- Issue date: 2020 May 21
- Quantification of upper limb kinetic asymmetries in front crawl swimming.
- Authors: Morouço PG, Marinho DA, Fernandes RJ, Marques MC
- Issue date: 2015 Apr