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AbstractSports products can be divided into three major categories. First, spectator products, which are sold either at the sites of events or mediated electronically and made globally available by satellite technology. Secondly, player products which may include games, equipment and costume, instruction and assistance, facilities, clubs, and training. Thirdly, associated products which are goods and services which have been allied with sport in some way, but which are not really necessary to the playing or watching of sport, though they can heighten the enjoyment (Vamplew 2018). These might include a varied range of products which stand alone, but are integral to experiential enjoyment, such as music, food and drink, social media, mainstream media, merchandise, and different spectator experiences (including VIP boxes and special areas with enhanced hospitality) and so forth. As will be shown below, technology had a significant role in developments within all these categories All sports products can be affected also by cultural values through the beliefs, attitudes, and emotions of both producers and consumers. While income, wealth, and prices clearly have a major role in the marketing of sport, as with any other visitor attraction experience, culture also influences the taste demand. Tastes can vary across individuals who maybe like to experience “value for money” or a “grand day out” and are also affected by class, gender, and nationality. Tastes can also be influenced by opinion-makers including entrepreneurs and commercial advertisers, or dictated by law, as the “safe standing” movement in Britain at association football grounds indicates. This chapter, though far from comprehensive, explores some of these cultural issues in an introductory overview.
CitationWilliams, J. and Vamplew, W. (2021) Products, training, and technology, in Reiss, S. (ed.) A Cultural History of Sport, Volume 6: A Cultural History of Sport in the Modern Age. London: Bloomsbury.
TypeChapter in book
DescriptionThis is an accepted manuscript of a book chapter published by Bloomsbury in A Cultural History of Sport: Volume 6: A Cultural History of Sport in the Modern Age (in press). The published version can be accessed here: https://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/a-cultural-history-of-sport-9781350024106/ The accepted version of the publication may differ from the final published version.
Series/Report no.The Cultural Histories Series
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/