Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorBhat, AR
dc.contributor.authorIrorere, VU
dc.contributor.authorBartlett, T
dc.contributor.authorHill, D
dc.contributor.authorKedia, G
dc.contributor.authorMorris, MR
dc.contributor.authorCharalampopoulos, D
dc.contributor.authorRadecka, I
dc.date.accessioned2020-06-25T13:44:17Z
dc.date.available2020-06-25T13:44:17Z
dc.date.issued2013-07-05
dc.identifier.citationBhat, A.R., Irorere, V.U., Bartlett, T. et al. (2013) Bacillus subtilis natto: a non-toxic source of poly-γ-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteria, AMB Express, 3:36 http://www.amb-express.com/content/3/1/36en
dc.identifier.issn2191-0855en
dc.identifier.pmid23829836 (pubmed)
dc.identifier.doi10.1186/2191-0855-3-36en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/623299
dc.description© 2013 The Authors. Published by Springer. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1186/2191-0855-3-36en
dc.description.abstractIt is common practice to freeze dry probiotic bacteria to improve their shelf life. However, the freeze drying process itself can be detrimental to their viability. The viability of probiotics could be maintained if they are administered within a microbially produced biodegradable polymer - poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) - matrix. Although the antifreeze activity of γ-PGA is well known, it has not been used for maintaining the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying. The aim of this study was to test the effect of γ-PGA (produced by B. subtilis natto ATCC 15245) on the viability of probiotic bacteria during freeze drying and to test the toxigenic potential of B. subtilis natto. 10% γ-PGA was found to protect Lactobacillus paracasei significantly better than 10% sucrose, whereas it showed comparable cryoprotectant activity to sucrose when it was used to protect Bifidobacterium breve and Bifidobacterium longum. Although γ-PGA is known to be non-toxic, it is crucial to ascertain the toxigenic potential of its source, B. subtilis natto. Presence of six genes that are known to encode for toxins were investigated: three component hemolysin (hbl D/A), three component non-haemolytic enterotoxin (nheB), B. cereus enterotoxin T (bceT), enterotoxin FM (entFM), sphingomyelinase (sph) and phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase (piplc). From our investigations, none of these six genes were present in B. subtilis natto. Moreover, haemolytic and lecithinase activities were found to be absent. Our work contributes a biodegradable polymer from a non-toxic source for the cryoprotection of probiotic bacteria, thus improving their survival during the manufacturing process. © 2013 Bel-Rhlid et al.en
dc.formatapplication/pdfen
dc.languageeng
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherSpringer Science and Business Media LLCen
dc.relation.urlhttps://amb-express.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2191-0855-3-36en
dc.rightsLicence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectprobioticsen
dc.subjectgamma-PGAen
dc.subjectCryoprotectanten
dc.subjecttoxicityen
dc.subjectBifidobacteriaen
dc.subjectLactobacillusen
dc.titleBacillus subtilis natto: A non-toxic source of poly-γ-glutamic acid that could be used as a cryoprotectant for probiotic bacteriaen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.eissn2191-0855
dc.identifier.journalAMB Expressen
dc.date.updated2020-06-18T19:19:06Z
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK. i.radecka@wlv.ac.uk.
pubs.place-of-publicationGermany
dc.date.accepted2013-07-03
rioxxterms.funderUniversity of Wolverhamptonen
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUOW25062020MMen
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2020-06-25en
dc.source.volume3
dc.source.issue1
dc.source.beginpage1
dc.source.endpage9
dc.description.versionPublished version
refterms.dateFCD2020-06-25T13:43:55Z
refterms.versionFCDVoR
refterms.dateFOA2020-06-25T13:44:18Z


Files in this item

Thumbnail
Name:
Bacillus subtilis natto a non-toxic ...
Size:
1.435Mb
Format:
PDF

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record

Licence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Licence for published version: Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International