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dc.contributor.authorWyon, Matthew
dc.contributor.authorWolman, Roger
dc.contributor.authorMartin, Clare
dc.contributor.authorGalloway, Shaun
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-29T13:22:39Z
dc.date.available2020-05-29T13:22:39Z
dc.date.issued2020-06-05
dc.identifier.citationWyon, M., Wolman, R., Martin, C. and Galloway, S. (2020) The efficacy of different vitamin D supplementation delivery methods on serum 25(OH)D: a randomised double-blind placebo trial, Clinical Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.05.040en
dc.identifier.issn0261-5614
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.clnu.2020.05.040
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/623234
dc.descriptionThis is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Elsevier in Clinical Nutrition on 05/06/2020. The published version can be accessed here: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.05.040 The accepted version of the publication may differ from the final published version.en
dc.description.abstractBackground: The use of vitamin D supplementation has increased due to greater recognition of widespread deficiency. Aims: There has been little research on the effectiveness of different delivery methods and therefore the aim of was to test the efficacy of different delivery methods on serum 25(OH)D. Methods: Using a randomised repeated measures double-blind placebo design (registered under ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier no. NCT03463642), changes in serum 25(OH)D over a 4-week period using a capillary spot method were monitored. 62 female participants blindly chose a number related to a supplementation delivery method: pill placebo, pill, oral liquid, oral liquid placebo, Skin oil application (SOA) placebo, SOA plus vitamin D3 suspension, or SOA plus vitamin D3 suspension with essential oil enhancer; active vitamin D supplements contained 100,000IU. Participants took their allocated supplements over a 24-hr period with serum 25(OH)D retested 4 weeks later. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to dried blood spot samples by an independent laboratory. Results: ANCOVA reported a significant difference between the groups (F1,6=146.68; p<0.001, eta2 =.51). Separate analysis within the delivery methods (pill, SOA, oral liquid) indicated significant differences between the active and placebo supplementation groups (p<0.01). Post hoc analysis of absolute changes indicated vit D pill and SOA + vit D + essential oil had significant increases (p<0.05) in serum 25(OH)D compared to all other interventions with no significant difference between them. Conclusions: In human participants vitamin D oral pill has the greatest effect on serum 25(OH)D levels. Skin oil application delivery of vitamin D using a penetrator enhancer has also been shown to be an effective method of delivery.en
dc.formatapplication/pdfen
dc.languageEngliah
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherElsevieren
dc.relation.urlhttps://www.clinicalnutritionjournal.com/article/S0261-5614(20)30276-4/fulltexten
dc.subjectSkin penetrator enhanceren
dc.subjectpillen
dc.subjectoral liquiden
dc.subjectHumanen
dc.subjectvitamin Den
dc.titleThe efficacy of different vitamin D supplementation delivery methods on serum 25(OH)D: a randomised double-blind placebo trialen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.journalClinical Nutritionen
dc.date.updated2020-05-27T11:05:22Z
dc.date.accepted2020-05-27
rioxxterms.funderUniversity of Wolverhamptonen
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUOW29052020MWen
rioxxterms.versionAMen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2021-06-05en
refterms.dateFCD2020-05-29T13:21:18Z
refterms.versionFCDAM


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