Global risks of suicidal behaviours and being bullied and their association in adolescents: School-based health survey in 83 countries
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AbstractBackground Global risks of suicidal behaviours (SB) and being bullied as well as their association among adolescents have been poorly understood. We aimed to determine the risks of suicidal ideation (SI), suicide planning (SP), suicide attempt (SA) and being bullied in adolescents and their related associations across gender, countries and different WHO regions. Methods We examined data from the Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS), which recorded health behaviours among adolescents aged 12 to 15 years from 83 countries. We computed prevalence rates of SB and being bullied and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multilevel models were employed to examine the association of being bullied with risks of SI, SP and SA. Results The overall prevalence of SI was 16·5%, SP 16·5%, SA 16·4%, and being bullied 35·3%. The highest risks of SB and being bullied were in Africa (SI 19·9%, SP 23·2%, SA 20·8%, being bullied 48·0%). Compared to boys, girls had an increased risk for SI (18·2%) and SP (17·3%) but similar risk for SA (16·7%) and being bullied (33·3%). Being bullied was associated with SA (adjusted odds ratio ‒ aOR 2·14, 95%CI 2·06–2·23), more strongly than SI (1·83, 1·78–1·89) and SP (1·70, 1·65–1·76). The strongest association with SA was in the Western Pacific (2·68, 2·45–2·92) and with SI (2·04, 1·74–2·39) and SP (1·81, 1·68–1·95) were in Southeast Asia. There were no gender differences in aOR for SI and SP, but the aOR for SA among boys (2·28, 2·14–2·42) was significantly greater than among girls (2·04, 1·93–2·15), ratio of two odds ratios was 1.12 (P = 0.008). Interpretation SB and being bullied were common among adolescents worldwide. The findings of gender differences in SB, being bullied and their association could inform the design of prevention programmes to reduce the risks of SI, SP and SA in adolescents worldwide.
CitationTang, J. J., Yu, Y., Wilcox, H. C., Kang, C., Wang, K., Wang, C., Wu, Y. and Chen, R. (2019) Global risks of suicidal behaviours and being bullied and their association in adolescents: School-based health survey in 83 countries, EClinicalMedicine (in press). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.100253
SponsorsThis work was partly supported by the Higher Education Research Project of Guangzhou (JJT, 1201610188), the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (JJT, 2015A030313455), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (JJT, 81773457 & 81302445).