Impact of anthropogenic factors on affiliative behaviors among bonnet macaques
AuthorsBalasubramaniam, Krishna N
Marty, Pascal R
Arlet, Malgorzata E
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AbstractObjectives: In primates, allogrooming and other affiliative behaviors confer many benefits and may be influenced by many socioecological factors. Of these, the impact of anthropogenic factors remain relatively understudied. Here we ask whether interactions with humans decreased macaques’ affiliative behaviors by imposing time-constraints, or increased these behaviors on account of more free-/available-time due to macaques’ consumption of high-energy human foods. Materials and Methods: In Southern India, we collected data on human-macaque and macaque-macaque interactions using focal-animal sampling on two groups of semi-urban bonnet macaques for 11 months. For each macaque within each climatic season, we calculated frequencies of human-macaque interactions, rates of monitoring human activity and foraging on anthropogenic food, dominance ranks, grooming duration, number of unique grooming partners, and frequencies of other affiliative interactions. Results: We found strong evidence for time-constraints on grooming. Macaques that monitored humans more groomed for shorter durations and groomed fewer partners, independent of their group membership, sex, dominance rank, and season. However, monitoring humans had no impact on other affiliative interactions. We found no evidence for the free-time hypothesis foraging on anthropogenic food was unrelated to grooming and other affiliation. Discussion: Our results are consistent with recent findings on other urban-dwellingspecies/populations. Macaques in such environments may be especially reliant on other forms of affiliation that are of short duration (e.g. coalitionary support, lip-smacking) and unaffected by time-constraints. We stress on the importance of evaluating human impact on inter-individual differences in primate/wildlife behavior for conservation efforts.
CitationBalasubramaniam, K. N. et al. (2020) Impact of anthropogenic factors on affiliative behaviors among bonnet macaques, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2020, 171 (4), pp. 704– 717. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24013.
JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
DescriptionThis is an accepted manuscript of an article published by Wiley in American Journal of Physical Anthropology on 16/02/2020, available online: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.24013 The accepted version of the publication may differ from the final published version.
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/