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dc.contributor.authorMcKeown, Denis
dc.contributor.authorMercer, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorBugajska, Kinga
dc.contributor.authorDuffy, Paul
dc.contributor.authorBarker, Emma
dc.date.accessioned2019-12-12T12:17:37Z
dc.date.available2019-12-12T12:17:37Z
dc.date.issued2019-12-23
dc.identifier.citationMcKeown, D, Mercer, T, Bugajska, K., Duffy, P. and Barker, E. (2019) The visual non-verbal memory trace is fragile when actively maintained but endures passively for tens of seconds, Memory and Cognition. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-019-01003-6en
dc.identifier.issn0090-502Xen
dc.identifier.doi10.3758/s13421-019-01003-6
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2436/622966
dc.description.abstractDespite attempts at active maintenance in the focus of attention, the rather fragile nature of the visual non-verbal memory trace may be revealed when the retention interval between target memoranda and probed recall on a trial is extended. In contrast, a passively maintained, or unattended visual memory trace may be revealed as persisting proactive interference extending across quite extended intervals between trials in a recent probes task. The present study, comprising five experiments, used this task to explore the persistence of such a passive visual memory trace over time. Participants viewed some target visual items (for example, abstract colored patterns) followed by a variable retention interval and a probe item. The task was to report whether the probe matched one of the targets or not. A decaying active memory trace was indicated by poorer performance as the memory retention interval was extended on a trial. However, when the probe was a member of the target set from the preceding trial, task performance was poorer than a comparison novel probe, demonstrating proactive interference. Manipulations of the inter-trial interval revealed that the temporal persistence of the passive memory trace of an old target was impressive, and proactive interference was largely resilient to a simple ‘cued forgetting’ manipulation. These data support the proposed two-process memory conception (active-passive memory) contrasting fragile active memory traces decaying over a few seconds with robust passive traces extending to tens of seconds.en
dc.formatapplication/pdfen
dc.languageEnglish
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherSpringer Natureen
dc.relation.urlhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13421-019-01003-6en
dc.subjectVisual memoryen
dc.subjectProactive interferenceen
dc.subjectdecayen
dc.subjectForgettingen
dc.subjectRetro-cueen
dc.titleThe visual non-verbal memory trace is fragile when actively maintained but endures passively for tens of secondsen
dc.typeJournal articleen
dc.identifier.journalMemory and Cognitionen
dc.date.updated2019-12-11T15:56:30Z
dc.date.accepted2019-12-04
rioxxterms.funderUniversity of Wolverhamptonen
rioxxterms.identifier.projectUOW12122019TMen
rioxxterms.versionVoRen
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2019-12-23en
dc.source.volume48
dc.source.beginpage212
dc.source.endpage225
refterms.dateFCD2019-12-12T12:16:41Z
refterms.versionFCDAM
refterms.dateFOA2020-01-06T09:39:11Z


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