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AbstractAt Nepal's northern border with Tibet is the great Himalaya Range. capped by Mount Everest itself (8848 ni) and including four of the other eight highest mountains in the world. South of the Kathmandu Valley at the centre of the country are the lesser mountains of the Mahabharat Range and Churia Ghati Hills. below 3000 m, and in the far south, stretching to India. are the fertile alluvial Terai Plains with scattered swamps and hardwood and bamboo forests. The distribution of the 14 species of venomous snakes known to inhabit Nepal is determined by geography and climate. The range of only one species. the Himalayan pit viper (Agkistrotlori hir~itilri~tiiiu.s), extends into the higher elevations.
CitationBhetwal, B. B., O'Shea, M. and Warrell, D. A. (1998) Snakes and snake bite in Nepal, Tropical Doctor, 28(4), pp. 193-195.
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A Guide to the snakes of Papua New Guinea: The first comprehensive guide to the snake fauna of Papua New GuineaO'Shea, Mark (Independent Publishing, 1996-11-02)A complete guide to the snakes of the island of New Guinea (with particular emphasis on the eastern half constituting the sovereign state of Papua New Guinea) and the islands to the east, e.g. Bismarck, Admiralty, d'Entrecasteaux, Louisiade and North Solomons Archipelagoes. Although out of print and also now out of date, this is still the definitive and much sought guide to the snake fauna of this region. It includes a section of snakebite first aid and hospital treatment by Drs David A Warrell and David G Lalloo.
The first female specimen of the poorly known Arfak Stout-tailed Snake, Calamophis sharonbrooksae Murphy, 2012, from the Vogelkop Peninsula of West New Guinea, with comments on the taxonomic history of primitive homalopsidsO'Shea, Mark (Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (ARC), 2016-06-01)The recent resurrection of Calamophis Meyer, 1874, type species C. jobiensis, from the synonymy of Brachyorrhos Kuhl in Schlegel, 1826, and the description of three new species of Calamophis, have changed concepts of homalopsid diversity in the Vogelkop Peninsula of West New Guinea. Both Brachyorrhos and Calamophis are now accepted to comprise four species each and are considered representatives of a unique fangless, nonvenomous, terrestrial to semi-fossorial, homalopsid lineage. With the original and only specimen of C. jobiensis lost, the genus Calamophis is now characterized by only six specimens (4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀), comprising holotypes and paratypes of the remaining three species; in each case the species is defined only by specimens of a single sex. We here present the description of the first female specimen of C. sharonbrooksae, the largest specimen of the genus discovered so far, which exhibits a slightly longer body (96% of SVL vs. 91%) and a higher ventral scale count (158 vs. 149 or 150) than the two males, combined with a significantly shorter tail (4.4% of total length vs. 8.6%) and a lower subcaudal scale count (12 pairs vs. 17 or 19 pairs). This is the first time both sexes of a Calamophis species have been available for comparison. The specimen is also the first mainland Papuan Calamophis documented outside the administrative boundaries of the Manokwari Residency, suggesting a wider distribution for the genus than previously thought.
Crotalus oreganus concolor (Viperidae; Crotalinae): A case of envenomation with venom analysis from the envenomating snake and a diagnostic conundrum of myo-neurological symptomsKeyler, Daniel E.; Saini, Vinay; O'Shea, Mark; Gee, Jeff; Smith, C.F.; Mackessy, Stephen (Elsevier, 2018-07-21)Background:Crotalus oreganus concolor is a smaller species of North American rattlesnake indigenous to a confined middle region of the western United States. Reports of envenomation to humans are quite rare, and studies regarding the toxicity and pharmacological actions of C. o. concolor venom have shown the presence of low molecular weight myotoxins with myotoxic effects, and low metalloproteinase activity. Method: A case that occurred in a remote location following the bite of a captive C. o. concolor is presented. Case: The bite was sustained to the right thumb while removing the snake from a drawer-type housing unit and it resulted in a single fang puncture. Immediately, there was tingling in the bitten thumb followed by extreme tingling in the lips that progressed to the toes, and tightening of the face, forehead, and chest. Ambulance ground transport to a medical helicopter airlift site was initiated. While in transport early on the patient experienced a cascade of symptoms beginning with blurry vision, total body paresthesia, dyspnea and transient diaphragmatic paralysis followed by three waves of spastic muscle paresis of the hands and feet. These symptoms were transient and had resolved spontaneously prior to arrival at the hospital three hours post bite. Patient laboratory values and coagulation parameters remained within normal limits, except for a mild increase in D-dimer, elevated creatine kinase, and reduced total calcium. Local envenomation at the bite site was minimal, but numbness of the thumb persisted for longer than a week. For various reasons antivenom was not administered at any stage and symptoms were successfully managed symptomatically. At 24 hours, and following discharge, the patient was experiencing total body weakness, but able to walk slowly without assistance. He continued to experience myalgias in the right arm and overall generalized weakness for several days. Several weeks later sloughing of skin around the bite site was observed, but other local symptoms, other than numbness of the thumb, had resolved completely. Venom from the offending snake was collected and venom analysis performed revealing the presence of very high levels of myotoxins, small peptides that induce rapid tetanic muscle contractions in mice, and several serine proteinases often associated with coagulopathies. Discussion/Conclusion: Causes of the patient’s transient myo-neurological symptoms were confounding diagnostically with respect to those that were potentially venom-induced versus those that may have been stress-induced physiological responses.