• Does Astronomy research become too dated for the public? Wikipedia citations to Astronomy and Astrophysics journal articles 1996-2014

      Thelwall, Mike (Fundacion Espanola para la ciencia y la technologia, 2016-11-14)
      Astronomy is a natural science attracting substantial public interest. On a human scale, most individual celestial objects are essentially unchanging but is the same true for interest in astronomy research? This article uses the popular online encyclopedia Wikipedia as a proxy for public interest in academic research and assesses the extent to which it cites astronomy and astrophysics articles published between 1996 and 2014. Automatic Bing searches in Webometric Analyst were used to count the number of citations to astronomy and astrophysics articles from Wikipedia. The results show that older papers from before 2008 are increasingly less likely to be cited. This is true overall and in most of the major language versions of Wikipedia, although it may reflect editors’ interests rather than the public’s interests. This is consistent with a moderate tendency towards obsolescence in public interest in research, although it is probably affected by the dates on which most Wikipedia content on the topic was created. Papers may become obsolete if they report evidence that are later superseded by improved data or if they propose a model that is later replaced.
    • Does female-authored research have more educational impact than male-authored research?

      Thelwall, Mike (Levy Library Press, 2018-10-04)
      Female academics are more likely to be in teaching-related roles in some countries, including the USA. As a side effect of this, female-authored journal articles may tend to be more useful for students. This study assesses this hypothesis by investigating whether female first-authored research has more uptake in education than male first-authored research. Based on an analysis of Mendeley readers of articles from 2014 in five countries and 100 narrow Scopus subject categories, the results show that female-authored articles attract more student readers than male-authored articles in Spain, Turkey, the UK and USA but not India. They also attract fewer professorial readers in Spain, the UK and the USA, but not India and Turkey, and tend to be less popular with senior academics. Because the results are based on analysis of differences within narrow fields they cannot be accounted for by females working in more education-related disciplines. The apparent additional educational impact for female-authored research could be due to selecting more accessible micro-specialisms, however, such as health-related instruments within the instrumentation narrow field. Whatever the cause, the results suggest that citation-based research evaluations may undervalue the wider impact of female researchers.
    • Does Mendeley provide evidence of the educational value of journal articles?

      Thelwall, Mike (Wiley-Blackwell, 2016-12-07)
      Research articles seem to have direct value for students in some subject areas, even though scholars may be their target audience. If this can be proven to be true, then subject areas with this type of educational impact could justify claims for enhanced funding. To seek evidence of disciplinary differences in the direct educational uptake of journal articles, but ignoring books, conference papers, and other scholarly outputs, this paper assesses the total number and proportions of student readers of academic articles in Mendeley across 12 different subjects. The results suggest that whilst few students read mathematics research articles, in other areas, the number of student readers is broadly proportional to the number of research readers. Although the differences in the average numbers of undergraduate readers of articles varies by up to 50 times between subjects, this could be explained by the differing levels of uptake of Mendeley rather than the differing educational value of disciplinary research. Overall, then, the results do not support the claim that journal articles in some areas have substantially more educational value than average for academia, compared with their research value.
    • Does Microsoft Academic find early citations?

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2017-10-27)
      This article investigates whether Microsoft Academic can use its web search component to identify early citations to recently published articles to help solve the problem of delays in research evaluations caused by the need to wait for citation counts to accrue. The results for 44,398 articles in Nature, Science and seven library and information science journals 1996-2017 show that Microsoft Academic and Scopus citation counts are similar for all years, with no early citation advantage for either. In contrast, Mendeley reader counts are substantially higher for more recent articles. Thus, Microsoft Academic appears to be broadly like Scopus for citation count data, and is apparently not more able to take advantage of online preprints to find early citations.
    • Early Mendeley readers correlate with later citation counts

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2018-03-26)
      Counts of the number of readers registered in the social reference manager Mendeley have been proposed as an early impact indicator for journal articles. Although previous research has shown that Mendeley reader counts for articles tend to have a strong positive correlation with synchronous citation counts after a few years, no previous studies have compared early Mendeley reader counts with later citation counts. In response, this first diachronic analysis compares reader counts within a month of publication with citation counts after 20 months for ten fields. There were moderate or strong correlations in eight out of ten fields, with the two exceptions being the smallest categories (n=18, 36) with wide confidence intervals. The correlations are higher than the correlations between later citations and early citations, showing that Mendeley reader counts are more useful early impact indicators than citation counts.
    • Effective websites for small and medium-sized enterprises

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2000)
      In the UK, millions are now online and many are prepared to use the Internet to make and influence purchasing decisions. Businesses should, therefore, consider whether the Internet could provide them with a new marketing opportunity. Although increasing numbers of businesses now have a website, there seems to be a quality problem that is leading to missed opportunities, particularly for smaller enterprises. This belief is backed up by an automated survey of 3,802 predominantly small UK business sites, believed to be by far the largest of its kind to date. Analysis of the results reveals widespread problems in relation to search engines. Most Internet users find new sites through search engines, yet over half of the sites checked were not registered in the largest one, Yahoo!, and could therefore be missing a sizeable percentage of potential customers. The underlying problem with business sites is the lack of maturity of the medium as evidenced by the focus on technological issues amongst designers and the inevitable lack of Web-business experience of managers. Designers need to take seriously the usability of the site, its design and its ability to meet the business goals of the client. These issues are perhaps being taken up less than in the related discipline of software engineering, probably owing to the relative ease of website creation. Managers need to dictate the objectives of their site, but also, in the current climate, cannot rely even on professional website design companies and must be capable of evaluating the quality of their site themselves. Finally, educators need to ensure that these issues are emphasised to the next generation of designers and managers in order that the full potential of the Internet for business can be realised.
    • Effects of lexical properties on viewing time per word in autistic and neurotypical readers

      Štajner, Sanja; Yaneva, Victoria; Mitkov, Ruslan; Ponzetto, Simone Paolo (Association of Computational Linguistics, 2017-09-08)
      Eye tracking studies from the past few decades have shaped the way we think of word complexity and cognitive load: words that are long, rare and ambiguous are more difficult to read. However, online processing techniques have been scarcely applied to investigating the reading difficulties of people with autism and what vocabulary is challenging for them. We present parallel gaze data obtained from adult readers with autism and a control group of neurotypical readers and show that the former required higher cognitive effort to comprehend the texts as evidenced by three gaze-based measures. We divide all words into four classes based on their viewing times for both groups and investigate the relationship between longer viewing times and word length, word frequency, and four cognitively-based measures (word concreteness, familiarity, age of acquisition and imagability).
    • El EEES y la competencia tecnológica: los nuevos grados en Traducción

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Muñoz, María (Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Servicio de Publicaciones y Difusión Científica, 2015-04-23)
      El presente trabajo toma como punto de partida la investigación que se describe en Muñoz Ramos (2012). En él haremos una breve síntesis del origen y evolución del EEES hasta llegar a nuestros días y su repercusión en los estudios de Traducción. Daremos cuenta de la imbricación existente entre los principios constitutivos del Proceso de Bolonia y las Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicación (TIC), que se posicionan como las compañeras idóneas para la consecución de los objetivos de la Declaración de Bolonia. Finalmente, podremos comprobar cómo estos dos puntos convergen en los nuevos grados en Traducción españoles, que se ajustan al EEES y encuentran en las materias de tecnologías de la traducción la piedra angular de su razón de ser.
    • Enhancing unsupervised sentence similarity methods with deep contextualised word representations

      Ranashinghe, Tharindu; Orasan, Constantin; Mitkov, Ruslan (RANLP, 2019-09-02)
      Calculating Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) plays a significant role in many applications such as question answering, document summarisation, information retrieval and information extraction. All modern state of the art STS methods rely on word embeddings one way or another. The recently introduced contextualised word embeddings have proved more effective than standard word embeddings in many natural language processing tasks. This paper evaluates the impact of several contextualised word embeddings on unsupervised STS methods and compares it with the existing supervised/unsupervised STS methods for different datasets in different languages and different domains.
    • Evaluation of a cross-lingual Romanian-English multi-document summariser

      Orǎsan, C; Chiorean, OA (European Language Resources Association, 2008-01-01)
      The rapid growth of the Internet means that more information is available than ever before. Multilingual multi-document summarisation offers a way to access this information even when it is not in a language spoken by the reader by extracting the GIST from related documents and translating it automatically. This paper presents an experiment in which Maximal Marginal Relevance (MMR), a well known multi-document summarisation method, is used to produce summaries from Romanian news articles. A task-based evaluation performed on both the original summaries and on their automatically translated versions reveals that they still contain a significant portion of the important information from the original texts. However, direct evaluation of the automatically translated summaries shows that they are not very legible and this can put off some readers who want to find out more about a topic.
    • Evidence for the existence of geographic trends in university web site interlinking

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2002)
      The Web is an important medium for scholarly communication of various types, perhaps eventually to replace entirely some traditional mechanisms such as print journals. Yet the Web analogy of citations, hyperlinks, are much more varied in use and existing citation techniques are difficult to generalise to the new medium. In this context, one new challenging object of study is the modern multi-faceted, multi-genre, partly unregulated university Web site. This paper develops a methodology to analyse the patterns of interlinking between university Web sites and uses it to indicate that the degree of interlinking decreases with distance, at least in the UK. This is perhaps not in itself a surprising result, despite claims of a paradigm shift from the traditional virtual college towards collaboratories, but the methodology developed can also be used to refine existing Web link metrics to produce more powerful tools for comparing groups of sites.
    • Exploiting Data-Driven Hybrid Approaches to Translation in the EXPERT Project

      Orăsan, Constantin; Escartín, Carla Parra; Torres, Lianet Sepúlveda; Barbu, Eduard; Ji, Meng; Oakes, Michael (Cambridge University Press, 2019-06-13)
      Technologies have transformed the way we work, and this is also applicable to the translation industry. In the past thirty to thirty-five years, professional translators have experienced an increased technification of their work. Barely thirty years ago, a professional translator would not have received a translation assignment attached to an e-mail or via an FTP and yet, for the younger generation of professional translators, receiving an assignment by electronic means is the only reality they know. In addition, as pointed out in several works such as Folaron (2010) and Kenny (2011), professional translators now have a myriad of tools available to use in the translation process.
    • FGFR1 expression and role in migration in low and high grade pediatric gliomas

      Egbivwie, Naomi; Cockle, Julia V.; Humphries, Matthew; Ismail, Azzam; Esteves, Filomena; Taylor, Claire; Karakoula, Katherine; Morton, Ruth; Warr, Tracy; Short, Susan C.; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2019-03-13)
      The heterogeneous and invasive nature of pediatric gliomas poses significant treatment challenges, highlighting the importance of identifying novel chemotherapeutic targets. Recently, recurrent Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) mutations in pediatric gliomas have been reported. Here, we explored the clinical relevance of FGFR1 expression, cell migration in low and high grade pediatric gliomas and the role of FGFR1 in cell migration/invasion as a potential chemotherapeutic target. A high density tissue microarray (TMA) was used to investigate associations between FGFR1 and activated phosphorylated FGFR1 (pFGFR1) expression and various clinicopathologic parameters. Expression of FGFR1 and pFGFR1 were measured by immunofluorescence and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 3D spheroids in five rare patient-derived pediatric low-grade glioma (pLGG) and two established high-grade glioma (pHGG) cell lines. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) migration assays were performed for migration and inhibitor studies with three FGFR1 inhibitors. High FGFR1 expression was associated with age, malignancy, tumor location and tumor grade among astrocytomas. Membranous pFGFR1 was associated with malignancy and tumor grade. All glioma cell lines exhibited varying levels of FGFR1 and pFGFR1 expression and migratory phenotypes. There were significant anti-migratory effects on the pHGG cell lines with inhibitor treatment and anti-migratory or pro-migratory responses to FGFR1 inhibition in the pLGGs. Our findings support further research to target FGFR1 signaling in pediatric gliomas.
    • Figshare: A universal repository for academic resource sharing?

      Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015-12-18)
      Purpose A number of subject-orientated and general websites have emerged to host academic resources. It is important to evaluate the uptake of such services in order to decide which depositing strategies are effective and should be encouraged. Design/methodology/approach This article evaluates the views and shares of resources in the generic repository Figshare by subject category and resource type. Findings Figshare use and common resource types vary substantially by subject category but resources can be highly viewed even in subjects with few members. Subject areas with more resources deposited do not tend to have higher viewing or sharing statistics. Practical implications Limited uptake of Figshare within a subject area should not be a barrier to its use. Several highly successful innovative uses for Figshare show that it can reach beyond a purely academic audience. Originality/value This is the first analysis of the uptake and use of a generic academic resource sharing repository.
    • Finding similar academic Web sites with links, bibliometric couplings and colinks

      Thelwall, Mike; Wilkinson, David (Elsevier, 2004)
      A common task in both Webmetrics and Web information retrieval is to identify a set of Web pages or sites that are similar in content. In this paper we assess the extent to which links, colinks and couplings can be used to identify similar Web sites. As an experiment, a random sample of 500 pairs of domains from the UK academic Web were taken and human assessments of site similarity, based upon content type, were compared against ratings for the three concepts. The results show that using a combination of all three gives the highest probability of identifying similar sites, but surprisingly this was only a marginal improvement over using links alone. Another unexpected result was that high values for either colink counts or couplings were associated with only a small increased likelihood of similarity. The principal advantage of using couplings and colinks was found to be greater coverage in terms of a much larger number of pairs of sites being connected by these measures, instead of increased probability of similarity. In information retrieval terminology, this is improved recall rather than improved precision.
    • A first dataset for film age appropriateness investigation

      Mohamed, Emad; Ha, Le An (LREC, 2020-05-13)
    • GCN-Sem at SemEval-2019 Task 1: Semantic Parsing using Graph Convolutional and Recurrent Neural Networks

      Taslimipoor, Shiva; Rohanian, Omid; Može, Sara (Association for Computational Linguistics, 2019-06-06)
      This paper describes the system submitted to the SemEval 2019 shared task 1 ‘Cross-lingual Semantic Parsing with UCCA’. We rely on the semantic dependency parse trees provided in the shared task which are converted from the original UCCA files and model the task as tagging. The aim is to predict the graph structure of the output along with the types of relations among the nodes. Our proposed neural architecture is composed of Graph Convolution and BiLSTM components. The layers of the system share their weights while predicting dependency links and semantic labels. The system is applied to the CONLLU format of the input data and is best suited for semantic dependency parsing.
    • Gender and image sharing on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat and WhatsApp in the UK: Hobbying alone or filtering for friends?

      Thelwall, Mike; Vis, Farida (Emerald, 2017-10-01)
      Purpose: Despite the ongoing shift from text-based to image-based communication in the social web, supported by the affordances of smartphones, little is known about the new image sharing practices. Both gender and platform type seem likely to be important, but it is unclear how. Design/methodology/approach: This article surveys an age-balanced sample of UK Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat and WhatsApp image sharers with a range of exploratory questions about platform use, privacy, interactions, technology use and profile pictures. Findings: Females shared photos more often overall and shared images more frequently on Snapchat, but males shared more images on Twitter, particularly for hobbies. Females also tended to have more privacy-related concerns but were more willing, in principle, to share pictures of their children. Females also interacted more through others’ images by liking and commenting on them. Both genders used supporting apps but in different ways: females applied filters and posted to albums whereas males retouched photos and used photo organising apps. Finally, males were more likely to be alone in their profile pictures. Practical implications: Those designing visual social web communication strategies to reach out to users should consider the different ways in which platforms are used by males and females to optimise their message for their target audience. Social implications: There are clear gender and platform differences in visual communication strategies. Overall, males may tend to have more informational, and females more relationship-based, skills or needs. Originality/value: This is the first detailed survey of electronic image sharing practices and the first to systematically compare the current generation of platforms.
    • Gender and research Publishing in India: Uniformly high inequality?

      Thelwall, Mike; Bailey, Carol; Makita, Meiko; Sud, Pardeep; Madalli, Devika P. (Elsevier, 2018-12-18)
      Gender inequalities have been a persistent feature of all modern societies. Although employment-related gender discrimination in various forms is legally prohibited, prejudice and violence against females have not been eradicated. Moreover, gendered social expectations can constrain the career choices of both males and females. Within academia, continuing gender imbalances have been found in many countries (Larivière, Ni, Gingras, Cronin, & Sugimoto, 2013), and particularly at senior levels (e.g., Ucal, O'Neil, & Toktas, 2015; Weisshaar, 2017; Winchester & Browning, 2015). India was the fifth largest research producer in 2017, according to Scopus, but has the highest United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) gender inequality index of the 30 largest research producers in Scopus (/hdr.undp.org/en/data) and so is an important case for global science. Moreover, the complex web of influences that have led to women being underrepresented in science in India is not well understood (Gupta, 2015). The absence of basic information about gender inequalities is a serious limitation because gender issues in India differ from the better researched case of the USA, due to economic conditions, probably stronger family influences (Vindhya, 2007), greater female safety concerns (Vindhya, 2007), and differing cultural expectations (Chandrakar, 2014).
    • Gender bias in machine learning for sentiment analysis

      Thelwall, Mike (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2018-01-01)
      Purpose: This paper investigates whether machine learning induces gender biases in the sense of results that are more accurate for male authors than for female authors. It also investigates whether training separate male and female variants could improve the accuracy of machine learning for sentiment analysis. Design/methodology/approach: This article uses ratings-balanced sets of reviews of restaurants and hotels (3 sets) to train algorithms with and without gender selection. Findings: Accuracy is higher on female-authored reviews than on male-authored reviews for all data sets, so applications of sentiment analysis using mixed gender datasets will over represent the opinions of women. Training on same gender data improves performance less than having additional data from both genders. Practical implications: End users of sentiment analysis should be aware that its small gender biases can affect the conclusions drawn from it and apply correction factors when necessary. Users of systems that incorporate sentiment analysis should be aware that performance will vary by author gender. Developers do not need to create gender-specific algorithms unless they have more training data than their system can cope with. Originality/value: This is the first demonstration of gender bias in machine learning sentiment analysis.