• A comparison of sources of links for academic Web impact factor calculations

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2002)
      There has been much recent interest in extracting information from collections of Web links. One tool that has been used is Ingwersen¿s Web impact factor. It has been demonstrated that several versions of this metric can produce results that correlate with research ratings of British universities showing that, despite being a measure of a purely Internet phenomenon, the results are susceptible to a wider interpretation. This paper addresses the question of which is the best possible domain to count backlinks from, if research is the focus of interest. WIFs for British universities calculated from several different source domains are compared, primarily the .edu, .ac.uk and .uk domains, and the entire Web. The results show that all four areas produce WIFs that correlate strongly with research ratings, but that none produce incontestably superior figures. It was also found that the WIF was less able to differentiate in more homogeneous subsets of universities, although positive results are still possible.
    • A comparison of title words for journal articles and Wikipedia pages: Coverage and stylistic differences?

      Thelwall, Mike; Sud, Pardeep (La Fundación Española para la Ciencia y la Tecnología (FECYT), 2018-02-12)
      This article assesses whether there are gaps in Wikipedia’s coverage of academic information and whether there are non-obvious stylistic differences from academic journal articles that Wikipedia users and editors should be aware of. For this, it analyses terms in the titles of journal articles that are absent from all English Wikipedia page titles for each of 27 Scopus subject categories. The results show that English Wikipedia has lower coverage of issues of interest to non-English nations and there are gaps probably caused by a lack of willing subject specialist editors in some areas. There were also stylistic disciplinary differences in the results, with some fields using synonyms of “analysing” that were ignored in Wikipedia, and others using the present tense in titles to emphasise research outcomes. Since Wikipedia is broadly effective at covering academic research topics from all disciplines, it might be relied upon by non-specialists. Specialists should therefore check for coverage gaps within their areas for useful topics and librarians should caution users that important topics may be missing.
    • A decade of Garfield readers

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2017-11-30)
      This brief note discusses Garfield’s continuing influence from the perspective of the Mendeley readers of his articles. This reflects the direct impact of his work since the launch of Mendeley in August 2008. In the last decade, his work is still extensively read by younger scientists, especially in computer and information sciences and the social sciences, and with a broad international spread. His work on citation indexes, impact factors and science history tracking seems to have the most contemporary relevance.
    • A Free Database of University Web Links: Data Collection Issues

      Thelwall, Mike (2003)
      This paper describes and gives access to a database of the link structures of 109 UK university and higher education college websites, as created by a specialist information science web crawler in June and July of 2001. With the increasing interest in web links by information and computer scientists this is an attempt to make available raw data for research that is not reliant upon the opaque techniques of commercial search engines. Basic tools for querying are also provided. The key issues concerning running an accurate web crawler are also discussed. Access is also given to the normally hidden crawler stop list with the aim of making the crawl process more transparent. The necessity of having such a list is discussed, with the conclusion that fully automatic crawling is not socially or empirically desirable because of the existence of database-generated areas of the web and the proliferation of the phenomenon of mirroring.This paper describes a free set of databases of the link structures of the university web sites from a selection of countries, as created by a specialist information science web crawler. With the increasing interest in web links by information and computer scientists this is an attempt to make available raw data for research that is not reliant upon the opaque techniques of commercial search engines. Basic tools for querying are also provided. The key issues concerning running an accurate web crawler are also discussed. Access is also given to the normally hidden crawler stop list with the aim of making the crawl process more transparent. The necessity of having such a list is discussed, with the conclusion that fully automatic crawling is not socially or empirically desirable because of the existence of database-generated areas of the web and the proliferation of the phenomenon of mirroring.
    • A layered approach for investigating the topological structure of communities in the Web.

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2003)
      A layered approach for identifying communities in the Web is presented and explored by applying the flake exact community identification algorithm to the UK academic Web. Although community or topic identification is a common task in information retrieval, a new perspective is developed by: the application of alternative document models, shifting the focus from individual pages to aggregated collections based upon Web directories, domains and entire sites; the removal of internal site links; and the adaptation of a new fast algorithm to allow fully-automated community identification using all possible single starting points. The overall topology of the graphs in the three least-aggregated layers was first investigated and found to include a large number of isolated points but, surprisingly, with most of the remainder being in one huge connected component, exact proportions varying by layer. The community identification process then found that the number of communities far exceeded the number of topological components, indicating that community identification is a potentially useful technique, even with random starting points. Both the number and size of communities identified was dependent on the parameter of the algorithm, with very different results being obtained in each case. In conclusion, the UK academic Web is embedded with layers of non-trivial communities and, if it is not unique in this, then there is the promise of improved results for information retrieval algorithms that can exploit this additional structure, and the application of the technique directly to partially automate Web metrics tasks such as that of finding all pages related to a given subject hosted by a single country's universities.
    • A neuro-inspired visual tracking method based on programmable system-on-chip platform

      Yang, Shufan; Wong-Lin, KongFatt; Andrew, James; Mak, Terrence; McGinnity, T. Martin (Springer, 2017-01-20)
      Using programmable system-on-chip to implement computer vision functions poses many challenges due to highly constrained resources in cost, size and power consumption. In this work, we propose a new neuro-inspired image processing model and implemented it on a system-on-chip Xilinx Z702c board. With the attractor neural network model to store the object’s contour information, we eliminate the computationally expensive steps in the curve evolution re-initialisation at every new iteration or frame. Our experimental results demonstrate that this integrated approach achieves accurate and robust object tracking, when they are partially or completely occluded in the scenes. Importantly, the system is able to process 640 by 480 videos in real-time stream with 30 frames per second using only one low-power Xilinx Zynq-7000 system-on-chip platform. This proof-of-concept work has demonstrated the advantage of incorporating neuro-inspired features in solving image processing problems during occlusion.
    • A research and institutional size-based model for national university Web site interlinking

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2002)
      Web links are a phenomenon of interest to bibliometricians by analogy with citations, and to others because of their use in Web navigation and search engines. It is known that very few links on university Web sites are targeted at scholarly expositions and yet, at least in the UK and Australia, a correlation has been established between link count metrics for universities and measures of institutional research. This paper operates on a finer-grained level of detail, focussing on counts of links between pairs of universities. It provides evidence of an underlying linear relationship with the quadruple product of the size and research quality of both source and target institution. This simple model is proposed as applying generally to national university systems, subject to a series of constraints to identify cases where it is unlikely to be applicable. It is hoped that the model, if confirmed by studies of other countries, will open the door to deeper mining of academic Web link data.
    • Academia.edu: Social network or Academic Network?

      Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Wiley, 2014-03-12)
      Academic social network sites Academia.edu and ResearchGate, and reference sharing sites Mendeley, Bibsonomy, Zotero, and CiteULike, give scholars the ability to publicize their research outputs and connect with each other. With millions of users, these are a significant addition to the scholarly communication and academic information‐seeking eco‐structure. There is thus a need to understand the role that they play and the changes, if any, that they can make to the dynamics of academic careers. This article investigates attributes of philosophy scholars on Academia.edu, introducing a median‐based, time‐normalizing method to adjust for time delays in joining the site. In comparison to students, faculty tend to attract more profile views but female philosophers did not attract more profile views than did males, suggesting that academic capital drives philosophy uses of the site more than does friendship and networking. Secondary analyses of law, history, and computer science confirmed the faculty advantage (in terms of higher profile views) except for females in law and females in computer science. There was also a female advantage for both faculty and students in law and computer science as well as for history students. Hence, Academia.edu overall seems to reflect a hybrid of scholarly norms (the faculty advantage) and a female advantage that is suggestive of general social networking norms. Finally, traditional bibliometric measures did not correlate with any Academia.edu metrics for philosophers, perhaps because more senior academics use the site less extensively or because of the range informal scholarly activities that cannot be measured by bibliometric methods.
    • Academic information on Twitter: A user survey

      Mohammadi, Ehsan; Thelwall, Mike; Kwasny, Mary; Holmes, Kristi L. (PLOS, 2018-05-17)
      Although counts of tweets citing academic papers are used as an informal indicator of interest, little is known about who tweets academic papers and who uses Twitter to find scholarly information. Without knowing this, it is difficult to draw useful conclusions from a publication being frequently tweeted. This study surveyed 1,912 users that have tweeted journal articles to ask about their scholarly-related Twitter uses. Almost half of the respondents (45%) did not work in academia, despite the sample probably being biased towards academics. Twitter was used most by people with a social science or humanities background. People tend to leverage social ties on Twitter to find information rather than searching for relevant tweets. Twitter is used in academia to acquire and share real-time information and to develop connections with others. Motivations for using Twitter vary by discipline, occupation, and employment sector, but not much by gender. These factors also influence the sharing of different types of academic information. This study provides evidence that Twitter plays a significant role in the discovery of scholarly information and cross-disciplinary knowledge spreading. Most importantly, the large numbers of non-academic users support the claims of those using tweet counts as evidence for the non-academic impacts of scholarly research
    • The Accuracy of Confidence Intervals for Field Normalised Indicators

      Thelwall, Mike; Fairclough, Ruth (Elsevier, 2017-04-07)
      When comparing the average citation impact of research groups, universities and countries, field normalisation reduces the influence of discipline and time. Confidence intervals for these indicators can help with attempts to infer whether differences between sets of publications are due to chance factors. Although both bootstrapping and formulae have been proposed for these, their accuracy is unknown. In response, this article uses simulated data to systematically compare the accuracy of confidence limits in the simplest possible case, a single field and year. The results suggest that the MNLCS (Mean Normalised Log-transformed Citation Score) confidence interval formula is conservative for large groups but almost always safe, whereas bootstrap MNLCS confidence intervals tend to be accurate but can be unsafe for smaller world or group sample sizes. In contrast, bootstrap MNCS (Mean Normalised Citation Score) confidence intervals can be very unsafe, although their accuracy increases with sample sizes.
    • An initial exploration of the link relationship between UK university Web sites.

      Thelwall, Mike (MCB UP Ltd, 2002)
      Aggregates of links are of interest to information scientists in the same way as citation counts are: as potential sources of data from which new knowledge can be mined. Builds on the recent discovery of a correlation between a Web link count measure and the research quality of British universities by applying a range of multivariate statistical techniques to counts of links between pairs of universities. This represents an initial attempt at developing an understanding of this phenomenon. Extracts plausible results. Also identifies outliers in the data by the techniques, some of which were verified by being tracked down to identifiable Web phenomena. This is an important outcome because successful anomaly identification is a precondition to more effective analysis of this kind of data. The identification of groupings is encouraging evidence that Web links between universities can be mined for significant results, although it is clear that more methodological development is needed, if any but the simplest patterns are to be extracted. Finally, based upon the types of patterns extracted, argues that none of the methods used are capable of fully analysing link structures on their own.
    • An intelligible implementation of FastSLAM2.0 on a low-power embedded architecture

      Jiménez Serrata, Albert A.; Yang, Shufan; Li, Renfa (Springer, 2017-03-02)
      The simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) algorithm has drawn increasing interests in autonomous robotic systems. However, SLAM has not been widely explored in embedded system design spaces yet due to the limitation of processing recourses in embedded systems. Especially when landmarks are not identifiable, the amount of computer processing will dramatically increase due to unknown data association. In this work, we propose an intelligible SLAM solution for an embedded processing platform to reduce computer processing time using a low-variance resampling technique. Our prototype includes a low-cost pixy camera, a Robot kit with L298N motor board and Raspberry Pi V2.0. Our prototype is able to recognise artificial landmarks in a real environment with an average 75% of identified landmarks in corner detection and corridor detection with only average 1.14 W.
    • An investigation of the online presence of UK universities on Instagram

      Stuart, Emma; Stuart, David; Thelwall, Mike (Emerald, 2017-08-01)
      Purpose – Rising tuition fees and a growing importance on league tables has meant that university branding is becoming more of a necessity to attract prospective staff, students, and funding. Whilst university websites are an important branding tool, academic institutions are also beginning to exploit social media. Image-based social media services such as Instagram are particularly popular at the moment. It is therefore logical for universities to have a presence on popular image-based social media services such as Instagram. This paper investigates the online presence of UK universities on Instagram in an initial investigation of use. Design/Methodology/Approach – This study utilizes webometric data collection, and content analysis methodology. Findings – The results indicate that at the time of data analysis for this investigation (Spring, 2015), UK universities had a limited presence on Instagram for general university accounts, with only 51 out of 128 institutions having an account. The most common types of images posted were humanizing (31.0%), showcasing (28.8%), and orienting (14.3%). Orienting images were more likely to receive likes than other image types, and crowdsourcing images were more likely to receive comments. Originality/Value – This paper gives a valuable insight into the image posting practices of UK universities on Instagram. The findings are of value to heads of marketing, online content creators, social media campaign managers, and anyone who is responsible for the marketing, branding, and promoting of a university’s services.
    • Análisis de necesidades documentales y terminológicas de médicos y traductores médicos como base para el diseño de un diccionario multilingüe de nueva generación

      Corpas Pastor, Gloria; Roldán Juárez, Marina (Universitat Jaume I, 2014)
      En el presente trabajo se plantea el diseño de un recurso lexicográfico multilingüe orientado a médicos y traductores médicos. En la actualidad, no existe ningún recurso que satisfaga a ambos colectivos por igual, debido a que estos poseen necesidades muy diferentes. Sin embargo, partimos de la premisa de que se podría crear una herramienta única, modular, adaptable y flexible, que responda a sus diversas expectativas, necesidades y preferencias. Se parte para ello de un análisis de necesidades siguiendo el método empírico de recogida de datos en línea mediante una encuesta trilingüe.
    • Are citations from clinical trials evidence of higher impact research? An analysis of ClinicalTrials.gov

      Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Springer, 2016-09-03)
      An important way in which medical research can translate into improved health outcomes is by motivating or influencing clinical trials that eventually lead to changes in clinical practice. Citations from clinical trials records to academic research may therefore serve as an early warning of the likely future influence of the cited articles. This paper partially assesses this hypothesis by testing whether prior articles referenced in ClinicalTrials.gov records are more highly cited than average for the publishing journal. The results from four high profile general medical journals support the hypothesis, although there may not be a cause-and effect relationship. Nevertheless, it is reasonable for researchers to use citations to their work from clinical trials records as partial evidence of the possible long-term impact of their research.
    • Are classic references cited first? An analysis of citation order within article sections

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2019-06-07)
      Early citations within an article section may have an agenda-setting role but contribute little to the new research. To investigate whether this practice may be common, this article assesses whether the average impact of cited references is influenced by the order in which they are cited within article sections. This is tested on 1,683,299,868 citations to 41,068,375 unique journal articles from 1,470,209 research articles in the PubMed Open Access collection, split into 22 fields. The results show that the first cited article in the Introduction and Background have much higher average citation impacts than later articles, and the same is true to a lesser extent for the Discussion and Conclusion in most fields, but not the Methods and Results. The findings do not prove that early citations are less central to the citing article but nevertheless add to previous evidence suggesting that this practice may be widespread. It may therefore be useful to distinguish between initial introductory citations when evaluating citation impact, or to use impact indicators that implicitly or explicitly give less weight to the citation counts of highly cited articles.
    • Are Mendeley reader counts high enough for research evaluations when articles are published?

      Thelwall, Mike (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2017-10-27)
      Purpose –Mendeley reader counts have been proposed as early indicators for the impact of academic publications. In response, this article assesses whether there are enough Mendeley readers for research evaluation purposes during the month when an article is first published. Design/methodology/approach – Average Mendeley reader counts were compared to average Scopus citation counts for 104520 articles from ten disciplines during the second half of 2016. Findings - Articles attracted, on average, between 0.1 and 0.8 Mendeley readers per article in the month in which they first appeared in Scopus. This is about ten times more than the average Scopus citation count. Research limitations/implications – Other subjects may use Mendeley more or less than the ten investigated here. The results are dependent on Scopus’s indexing practices, and Mendeley reader counts can be manipulated and have national and seniority biases. Practical implications – Mendeley reader counts during the month of publication are more powerful than Scopus citations for comparing the average impacts of groups of documents but are not high enough to differentiate between the impacts of typical individual articles. Originality/value - This is the first multi-disciplinary and systematic analysis of Mendeley reader counts from the publication month of an article.
    • Are Mendeley Reader Counts Useful Impact Indicators in all Fields?

      Thelwall, Mike (Springer, 2017-10-27)
      Reader counts from the social reference sharing site Mendeley are known to be valuable for early research evaluation. They have strong correlations with citation counts for journal articles but appear about a year before them. There are disciplinary differences in the value of Mendeley reader counts but systematic evidence is needed at the level of narrow fields to reveal its extent. In response, this article compares Mendeley reader counts with Scopus citation counts for journal articles from 2012 in 325 narrow Scopus fields. Despite strong positive correlations in most fields, averaging 0.671, the correlations in some fields are as weak as 0.255. Technical reasons explain most weaker correlations, suggesting that the underlying relationship is almost always strong. The exceptions are caused by unusually high educational or professional use or topics of interest within countries that avoid Mendeley. The findings suggest that if care is taken then Mendeley reader counts can be used for early citation impact evidence in almost all fields and for related impact in some of the remainder. As an additional application of the results, cross-checking with Mendeley data can be used to identify indexing anomalies in citation databases.
    • Are raw RSS feeds suitable for broad issue scanning? A science concern case study

      Thelwall, Mike; Prabowo, Rudy; Fairclough, Ruth (Wiley InterScience, 2006)
      Broad issue scanning is the task of identifying important public debates arising in a given broad issue; really simple syndication (RSS) feeds are a natural information source for investigating broad issues. RSS, as originally conceived, is a method for publishing timely and concise information on the Internet, for example, about the main stories in a news site or the latest postings in a blog. RSS feeds are potentially a nonintrusive source of high-quality data about public opinion: Monitoring a large number may allow quantitative methods to extract information relevant to a given need. In this article we describe an RSS feed-based coword frequency method to identify bursts of discussion relevant to a given broad issue. A case study of public science concerns is used to demonstrate the method and assess the suitability of raw RSS feeds for broad issue scanning (i.e., without data cleansing). An attempt to identify genuine science concern debates from the corpus through investigating the top 1,000 burst words found only two genuine debates, however. The low success rate was mainly caused by a few pathological feeds that dominated the results and obscured any significant debates. The results point to the need to develop effective data cleansing procedures for RSS feeds, particularly if there is not a large quantity of discussion about the broad issue, and a range of potential techniques is suggested. Finally, the analysis confirmed that the time series information generated by real-time monitoring of RSS feeds could usefully illustrate the evolution of new debates relevant to a broad issue.
    • Are Wikipedia citations important evidence of the impact of scholarly articles and books?

      Thelwall, Mike; Kousha, Kayvan (Wiley-Blackwell, 2016-06-13)
      Individual academics and research evaluators often need to assess the value of published research. Whilst citation counts are a recognised indicator of scholarly impact, alternative data is needed to provide evidence of other types of impact, including within education and wider society. Wikipedia is a logical choice for both of these because the role of a general encyclopaedia is to be an understandable repository of facts about a diverse array of topics and hence it may cite research to support its claims. To test whether Wikipedia could provide new evidence about the impact of scholarly research, this article counted citations to 302,328 articles and 18,735 monographs in English indexed by Scopus in the period 2005 to 2012. The results show that citations from Wikipedia to articles are too rare for most research evaluation purposes, with only 5% of articles being cited in all fields. In contrast, a third of monographs have at least one citation from Wikipedia, with the most in the arts and humanities. Hence, Wikipedia citations can provide extra impact evidence for academic monographs. Nevertheless, the results may be relatively easily manipulated and so Wikipedia is not recommended for evaluations affecting stakeholder interests.