Owen, Rhiannon M.; Baker, Rachael D.; Bader, Scott; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Nicholl, Iain D. (Spandidos Publications Ltd, 2007)
Methyl-CpG binding protein 4 (MBD4) is a mismatch-specific G:T and G:U DNA glycosylase. During an analysis of MBD4 expression in HeLa cells we noted the presence of an unexpectedly short reverse transcribed product. This cDNA lacked the region encoding the methyl-binding domain and exon 3 of MBD4 but retained the glycosylase domain. Sequence comparison indicates the existence of a previously unreported cryptic splice site in the MBD4 genomic sequence thus illuminating a mechanism whereby a glycosylase acquired a methyl-binding capacity, thus targeting potential mutagenic CpG sites. In vitro assays of this highly purified species, refolded in arginine rich conditions, confirmed that this unique, short version of MBD4 possessed uracil DNA glycosylase but not thymine DNA glycosylase activity. We conclude that the identification of a transcript encoding a short version of MBD4 indicates that MBD4 expression may be more complex than previously reported, and is worthy of further investigation.
Martin, Jan H.; Symonds, A. (Spandidos Publications Ltd, 2002)
We investigated the effect of toremifene, interferon-alpha2a, interferon-alpha2b and interferon-alpha2c, singly and in combination for their effect on the growth of ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells. Median effect analysis was used to determine synergistic or additive effects. Anti-proliferative studies showed that the growth of ZR-75-1 cells was inhibited to a greater extent by combination treatment with toremifene plus interferon-alpha2a, resulting in a synergistic interaction (CI <1) for all concentrations tested. A combination of toremifene plus interferon-alpha2b resulted in a synergistic interaction (CI <1) for the two highest concentrations of toremifene (10(-6) and 10(-7) M) and an additive effect (CI approximately equal to 1) for the lower concentrations (10(-8) to 10(-10) M). When toremifene was combined with interferon-alpha2c no additive or synergistic interaction was determined.
Lahiri, M.; Martin, Jan H. (Spandidos Publications Ltd, 2004)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line compared to a multidrug resistant variant, MCF-7-ADR. Immunohistochemical investigations demonstrated 51% of MCF-7 cells stained positive for endothelial nitric oxide synthase, with 46% positive for inducible nitric oxide synthase. However, in the breast cancer cell line that was multidrug resistant there was a much lower positive staining for endothelial nitric oxide synthase at 20% and for inducible nitric oxide synthase at 15%. For the multidrug resistant variant, there was also lower nitric oxide production and the band intensity for immunoblotting for endothelial nitric oxide synthase was weaker than for the parent cell line. These results lend further support to the proposal that expression of NOS is negatively associated with human breast cancer progression.
Martin, Jan H.; Symonds, A.; Chohan, S. (Spandidos Publications Ltd, 2003)
We investigated the effect of tamoxifen, 4-OH tamoxifen, toremifene droloxifene, interferon-alpha2a, interferon-alpha2b and interferon-alpha2c, singly and in combination, for their effect on nitric oxide production by MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cells. Tamoxifen and 4-OH tamoxifen singly had no effect on nitric oxide production by either cell line. However, treatment with droloxifene or toremifene significantly reduced nitric oxide production by both MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell lines. Combination treatment with anti-estrogens and interferon-alpha2a interferon-alpha2b or interferon-alpha2c had no synergistic or additive effect compared to each drug singly.
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