OBJECTIVE: To develop an HPLC method for the content determination of oleanolic acid in Caulis clematidis armandii after hydrolysis. METHODS: In the system of HPLC, a Alltima C_(18)(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) column was used with a mixture of methanol-water-acetic acid-triethylamine(89∶11∶0.04∶0.02) as the mobile phase.The measuring wavelength was set at 207 nm.The flow rate was 1.0 ml·min~(-1) and the column temperature maintained at 45 ℃.RESULTS The oleanolic acid peak in chromatograms was completely separated from ...
Yi, Tao; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Lu, Guang-Hua; Chan, Kelvin C.; Zhang, Hao (Tokyo: The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2006)
An HPLC-DAD-MS method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Chuanxiong (the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort). Twenty compounds including phenolic constituents, alkylphthalides and phthalide dimers were identified using online ESI-MS and comparisons with literature data and standard compounds, and six of them were quantified by HPLC-DAD simultaneously. A comprehensive validation of the method including sensitivity, linearity, repeatability and recovery was conducted. The linear regressions were acquired with R(2) > 0.99 and limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) values were between 1.5 and 2.5 ng. The repeatability was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and relative standard deviation (RSD) values were reported within 1.87%. The recovery studies for the quantified compounds were observed in the range of 96.36-102.37% with RSD values less than 2.63%. These phenolic constituents and alkylphthalides, the major constituents in Chuanxiong, are generally regarded as the index for the quality assessment of this herb. The overall procedure is accurate and reproducible, which is considered suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of a large number of Chuanxiong samples.
Changes in serum homocysteine (Hcy), often related to stroke and vascular dementia, are negatively correlated with changes in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and growth hormone (GH) replacement decreases Hcy levels in men with GH deficiency. Very little information on the effects of Chinese medicines on GH and Hcy is available in the literature published in English. In this study, the effects of a Chinese medicine suppository, Vigconic VI-28 (VI-28), consisting of concentrated extracts of a composite mixture of herbal materials, on serum IGF-1 and Hcy were studied. In vivo observations after treatment with Chinese medicines have often indicated changes in biochemical profiles of measurable parameters related to those changes in endocrine secretions. Thirty six healthy males (age 47-66) were under observation over a 16-week schedule after using VI-28 suppository from 0 to 12 weeks. Blood specimens were taken monthly (except at the end of week 8) for analysis of Hcy and IGF-1 levels. Compared with week 0, IGF-1 levels (192.5 ± 66.4 ng/ml) were significantly elevated at week 4 (211.7 ± 80.5, p < 0.05) and week 12 (226.6 ± 95.2 ng/ml, p = 0.01). No significant changes were observed for Hcy for the whole cohort from week 0 to week 16. When the cohort was divided into 2 groups using a Hcy level of 13.0 µmol/l as the cut-off, a significant (p < 0.05) difference in IGF-1 was observed between the 2 groups at week 12 only. The mean IGF-1 of 14 subjects with higher Hcy levels was lower than that of the 22 subjects with lower Hcy. We believe that VI-28 may exert a regulatory effect on the relationship between Hcy and IGF-1, at least in subjects with relatively low levels of Hcy. In addition, we also observed an apparent association of hyperhomocysteinemia (Hcy greater than or equal to 13.0 mcmol/l) with decreased IGF-1.
Song, Zonghua; Bi, Kaishun; Luo, Xu; Chan, Kelvin C. (The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry, 2002)
Poria cocos (Fuling), a popular Chinese medicinal (CM) herb of fungal origin, has been included in many combinations with other CM herbs for its traditionally claimed activities of inducing diuresis, excreting dampness, invigorating the spleen and tranquilizing the mind and its modern pharmacological use of modulating the immune system of the body. Dehydrotumulosic acid, one of the effective constituents of Fuling, was isolated from the chloroform-soluble material of ethanol extract of the fungus. After further purification by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method on a C18 column, the purified constituent was identified using modern analytical techniques, such as UV, 13C-NMR and EI-MS. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of dehydrotumulosic acid in Poria cocos. The determination can be accomplished in less than 50 min using methanol-acetonitrile-2% glacial acetic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a UV detector setting at 242 nm and testosterone propionate used as an internal standard. This assay for dehydrotumulosic acid is simple, rapid and with good reproducibility.
In order to develop a rapid and effective analysis method for studying integrally the main constituents in the medicinal materials and their extracts, discriminating the extracts from different extraction process, comparing the categories of chemical constituents in the different extracts and monitoring the qualities of medicinal materials, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) associated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR) to study the main constituents in traditional Chinese medicine Angelica and its different extracts (extracted by petroleum ether, ethanol and water in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR spectrum can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. Use of the macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectrum can not only identify the main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. This analytical method is highly rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research.
A new Chinese Quality of Life Instrument (ChQOL) based on the principles of diagnosis and practice in Chinese medicine has been developed. This paper describes the development of the ChQOL instrument using factor analysis and structural equation modeling. An initial pilot version of the 78 items instrument was field tested in a sample 273 subjects recruited from different areas in China. The objective of this study was to determine the factor structure and latent constructs of the ChQOL based on factor analysis. A series of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models were used to determine the final model of the ChQOL. The results showed that the application of factor analysis and structural equation modeling is an effective method to develop the new health-related quality of life instrument, ChQOL, even though the practice of Chinese medicine is quite different from the practice of conventional western medicine.
Paeoniflorin and sinomenine, derived from the root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. (family Ranunculaceae) and the stem of Sinomenium acutum Rehder & Wilson (family Menispermaceae), respectively, have been, and are currently, widely used for treatment of rheumatic and arthritic diseases in China and Japan. Our previous studies demonstrated that sinomenine could significantly improve the bioavailability of paeoniflorin in rats, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present study aims to investigate the intestinal kinetic absorptive characteristics of paeoniflorin as well as the absorptive behavior influenced by co-administration of sinomenine using an in vitro everted rat gut sac model. The results showed a good linear correlation between the paeoniflorin absorption in sac contents and the incubation time from 0 to 90 min. However, the concentration dependence showed that a non-linear correlation exists between the paeoniflorin absorption and its concentrations from 10 to 160 microM, and the absorption was saturated at about 80 microM of the drug. Sinomenine at 16 and 136 microM concentrations could significantly enhance the absorption of paeoniflorin (20 microM) by 1.5- and 2.5-fold, respectively. Moreover, two well-known P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinidine, could significantly elevate the absorption of paeoniflorin by 2.1- and 1.5-fold, respectively. Furthermore, sinomenine in a pattern, which influenced paeoniflorin's absorption, manifested as similar to that of P-glycoprotein inhibitors. In conclusion, sinomenine significantly enhance the intestinal absorption of paeoniflorin, subsequently improve the bioavailability of paeoniflorin. The mechanism underlying the improvement of paeoniflorin's bioavailability was proposed that sinomenine could decrease the efflux transport of paeoniflorin by P-glycoprotein.
Lu, Guang-Hua; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Chan, Kelvin C.; Cheng, SiQi; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen (Taipei City, Taiwan: Bureau of Food and Drug Analysis (BFDA), 2007)
Free and conjugated forms of ferulic acid (FA) are generally available in higher plant taxa such as Chinese Angelica (CA, the roots of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels). These various forms of FA were found readily inter-convertible and the extractable level of each depended on solvent properties and acidity. Extraction efficiency using various pH solutions namely, water, 70% methanol, methanol-formic acid (95:5) and methanol-2% NaHCO3 in water (95:5) was compared. Extractable FA were found varying in samples under neutral solvents extraction, whilst relatively consistent for slightly acidic and alkali solvents which were therefore chosen as the optimal media to extract and determine the reproducible levels of free and total available FA. An accurate and rapid high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis was conducted using an Alltima C18 column (5 mum, 4.6 mm i.d. x 250 mm) with a guard column (C18, 5 mum, 4.6 mm i.d. x 7.5 mm) at 30degreesC, eluted with a mixture of 1.0% acetic acid and acetonitrile in a gradient program at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 320 nm. Altogether 20 different types of CA samples including whole root, root head, rootlets, whole root slice, Angelica processed by Chinese yellow wine, and charred Angelica were quantified for free and total available FA. Total available FA was found more abundant than free counterpart with an average ratio of 3.15 (n = 20) in the range of 1.29 to 8.23 for these CA samples. The extraction protocol was proven reliable to quantitatively convert all conjugated FA into its free forms and thereby accurately determined by HPLC method for quality assessment.
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the development of the Chinese Quality of Life Instrument (ChQOL) which is a self-report health status instrument. Chinese Medicine relies very much on asking subjective feelings of patients in the process of diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. For thousands of years, Chinese Medicine practitioners have accumulated a good wealth of experiences in asking questions about health of their patients based on the concept of health in Chinese Medicine. These experiences were then transformed into questions for the ChQOL. It is believed that ChQOL can contribute to the existing Patient Report Outcome measures. This paper outlines the concept of health and disease in Traditional Chinese Medicine, the building of the conceptual framework of the ChQOL, the steps of drafting, selecting and validating the items, and the psychometric properties of the ChQOL. METHODS: The development of the ChQOL was based on the concept of health in Traditional Chinese Medicine with a theory driven approach. Based on the results of literature review, the research team developed an initial model of health which encompassed the concept of health in TCM. An expert panel was then invited to comment and give suggestions for improvement of the initial model. According to their suggestions, the model was refined and a set of initial items for the ChQOL was drafted. The refined model, together with the key domains, facets and initial items of the ChQOL were then mailed to a sample of about 100 Chinese medicine practitioners throughout Mainland China for their comments and advice. A revised set of items were developed for linguistic testing by a convenience sample consisting of both healthy people and people who attended Chinese Medicine treatment. After that, an item pool was developed for field-testing. Field test was conducted on a convenience sample of healthy and patient subjects to determine the construct validity and psychometric properties of the ChQOL. RESULTS: Construct validity was established by various methods, i.e. the internal consistency in all facets and domains were good; the correlation between facets to domain, and domains to overall ChQOL correlation were high; confirmatory factor analysis showed that the structure fitness of all facets, domain and overall structure were good with CFI > 0.9. Test-retest reliability was also good, especially in the domain scores with ICC value ranging from 0.83 to 0.90. No ceiling or floor effect was noted which indicated that ChQOL can be applied to subjects with a wide range of health status. Most facet scores, domain scores and the overall CHQOL scores were able to discriminate groups of subjects with known differences in health status. The ChQOL had mild positive convergence with the other generic health related QOL measures, i.e. the WHOQOL-100 and the SF-36, with moderate correlations. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the study indicated that the ChQOL is conceptually valid with satisfactory psychometric properties. It can provide additional information on health and QOL on top of the existing generic health related QOL measures. Furthermore, it forms basis for further testing and applications in clinical trials.
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