Kwak, Eunice L.; Jankowski, Janusz; Thayer, Sarah P.; Lauwers, Gregory Y.; Brannigan, Brian W.; Harris, Patricia L.; Okimoto, Ross A.; Haserlat, Sara M.; Driscoll, David R.; Ferry, David R.; et al. (American Association for Cancer Research, 2006)
PURPOSE: Specific activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) identify a subset of non-small cell lung cancers with dramatic sensitivity to the specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib. Despite the abundant expression of EGFR protein in a broad range of epithelial cancers, EGFR mutations have not been reported in a substantial fraction of other cancers. Given recent reports of TKI-responsive cases of esophageal and pancreatic cancer, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of EGFR mutations in these gastrointestinal cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We sequenced exons 18 to 21 of EGFR from 21 cases of Barrett's esophagus, 5 cases of high-grade esophageal dysplasia, 17 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, and 55 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Subsets of esophageal (n = 7) and pancreatic cancer cases (n = 5) were obtained from patients who were subsequently treated with gefitinib or erlotinib-capecitabine, respectively. RESULTS: Mutations of EGFR were identified in two esophageal cancers (11.7%), three cases of Barrett's esophagus (14.2%), and two pancreatic cancers (3.6%). The mutations consisted of the recurrent missense L858R and in-frame deletion delE746-A750, previously characterized as activating EGFR mutations in non-small cell lung cancer. We also identified the TKI drug resistance-associated EGFR T790M mutation in an untreated case of Barrett's esophagus and the corresponding adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION: The presence of activating mutations within EGFR in both esophageal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas defines a previously unrecognized subset of gastrointestinal tumors in which EGFR signaling may play an important biological role. EGFR mutations in premalignant lesions of Barrett's esophagus also point to these as an early event in transformation of the esophageal epithelium. The role of genotype-directed TKI therapy should be tested in prospective clinical trials.
OBJECTIVE: To develop an HPLC method for the content determination of oleanolic acid in Caulis clematidis armandii after hydrolysis. METHODS: In the system of HPLC, a Alltima C_(18)(250 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) column was used with a mixture of methanol-water-acetic acid-triethylamine(89∶11∶0.04∶0.02) as the mobile phase.The measuring wavelength was set at 207 nm.The flow rate was 1.0 ml·min~(-1) and the column temperature maintained at 45 ℃.RESULTS The oleanolic acid peak in chromatograms was completely separated from ...
Yi, Tao; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin; Lu, Guang-Hua; Chan, Kelvin C.; Zhang, Hao (Tokyo: The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 2006)
An HPLC-DAD-MS method was developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents in Chuanxiong (the dried rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort). Twenty compounds including phenolic constituents, alkylphthalides and phthalide dimers were identified using online ESI-MS and comparisons with literature data and standard compounds, and six of them were quantified by HPLC-DAD simultaneously. A comprehensive validation of the method including sensitivity, linearity, repeatability and recovery was conducted. The linear regressions were acquired with R(2) > 0.99 and limit of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) values were between 1.5 and 2.5 ng. The repeatability was evaluated by intra- and inter-day assays, and relative standard deviation (RSD) values were reported within 1.87%. The recovery studies for the quantified compounds were observed in the range of 96.36-102.37% with RSD values less than 2.63%. These phenolic constituents and alkylphthalides, the major constituents in Chuanxiong, are generally regarded as the index for the quality assessment of this herb. The overall procedure is accurate and reproducible, which is considered suitable for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of a large number of Chuanxiong samples.
Alhalaweh, Amjad; Alzghoul, Ahmad; Kaialy, Waseem; Mahlin, Denny; Bergström, Christel A S (ACS Publications, 2014-09-02)
Amorphization is an attractive formulation technique for drugs suffering from poor aqueous solubility as a result of their high lattice energy. Computational models that can predict the material properties associated with amorphization, such as glass-forming ability (GFA) and crystallization behavior in the dry state, would be a time-saving, cost-effective, and material-sparing approach compared to traditional experimental procedures. This article presents predictive models of these properties developed using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. The GFA and crystallization tendency were investigated by melt-quenching 131 drug molecules in situ using differential scanning calorimetry. The SVM algorithm was used to develop computational models based on calculated molecular descriptors. The analyses confirmed the previously suggested cutoff molecular weight (MW) of 300 for glass-formers, and also clarified the extent to which MW can be used to predict the GFA of compounds with MW < 300. The topological equivalent of Grav3_3D, which is related to molecular size and shape, was a better descriptor than MW for GFA; it was able to accurately predict 86% of the data set regardless of MW. The potential for crystallization was predicted using molecular descriptors reflecting Hückel pi atomic charges and the number of hydrogen bond acceptors. The models developed could be used in the early drug development stage to indicate whether amorphization would be a suitable formulation strategy for improving the dissolution and/or apparent solubility of poorly soluble compounds.
Kenward, M A; Hill, D J; Martin, C; Low, Wan Li (Taylor & Francis, 2016-01-20)
Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, controlled delivery systems with the ability to encapsulate both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds, including metal ions. Liposome encapsulated Ag(+) (lipo-Ag(+)), prepared by reverse-phase evaporation, was used as a controlled delivery system against Candida albicans. Characterisation of the lipo-Ag(+) indicated that the multilamellar vesicles with diameters ranging between ≈ 0.5 and 5.0 μm showed potential as a controlled delivery system to consistently deliver Ag(+) to C. albicans. Results from inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis showed higher association of cell bound Ag(+) at 15 mins post exposure when compared to unencapsulated Ag(+). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate detrimental effects of Ag(+) on C. albicans cell structure. These effects along with the ICP results also correlate with previously reported time kill experiment observations.
Persaud, Shanta; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, P.; Bone, Adrian J.; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon J; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; et al. (Landes Bioscience, 2010)
Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research
Nelson, Paul N.; Westwood, Olwyn M. R.; Soltys, Andy; Jefferis, Roy; Goodall, Margaret; Baumforth, Karl R. N.; Frampton, Geoffrey; Tribbick, Gordon; Roden, Denise A.; Hay, Frank C. (Elsevier BV, 2003)
The characterisation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and their epitopes is important prior to their application as molecular probes. In this study, Western blotting using IgG1 Fc and pFc' fragments was employed to screen seven MAbs before pepscan analysis to determine their reactivity to potentially linear epitopes. MAbs PNF69C, PNF110A, X1A11 and MAbs WC2, G7C, JD312, 1A1 detected epitopes within the C(H)3 and C(H)2 domains, respectively. However, only four MAbs showed pepscan profiles that highlighted likely target residues. In particular, MAbs PNF69C and PNF110A that have previously been characterised with pan-IgG and anti-G3m(u) specificity, detected the peptide motif 338-KAKGQPR-344 which was located within the N-terminal region of the C(H)3 domain. Furthermore the majority of residues were present in all four IgG subclasses. Consequently the peptide identified was consistent with the pan-IgG nature of these antibodies. By using PCImdad, a molecular display programme, this sequence was visualised as surface accessible, located in the C(H)2/C(H)3 inter-domain region and proximal to the residue arginine(435). It is speculated that this residue may be important for phenotypic expression of G3m(u) and specificity of these reagents. Pepscan analysis of MAbs G7C and JD312 (both pan-IgG) highlighted the core peptide sequence 290-KPREE-294, which was present in the C(H)2 domain and was common to all four IgG subclasses. PCImdad also showed this region to be highly accessible and was consistent with previous bioinformatic and autoimmune analysis of IgG. Overall these MAbs may serve as useful anti-IgG or anti-G3m(u) reagents and probes of immunoglobulin structure.
The cel1 gene of Agaricus bisporus encodes a protein (CEL1) that has an architecture resembling the multi-domain fungal cellulases, although the sequence of its putative catalytic core is not matched by any other in the protein and nucleic acid data bases. The N-terminal half of the putative catalytic domain of CEL1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase. The fusion protein was used to raise a CEL1-specific antibody. CEL1 was detected as an extracellular 49.8 kDa protein in A. bisporus cellulose-grown cultures, where it bound strongly to cellulose. CEL1 was neither an endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase able to hydrolyze fluorogenic cellobiosides, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, nor a cellobiose: quinone oxidoreductase. CEL1 was present in some fractions of culture fluid separated by electrophoresis which released soluble sugars from crystalline cellulose.
Low temperature adsorption cooling is an attractive heat powered cooling technology suitable for various applications where waste heat is available. The use of activated carbon as adsorbent with ethanol offers potential for low temperature cooling applications like the food retail industry. Activated carbons are commercially available in the form of powders, granules and pellets. Although powder materials have the advantage of good adsorption kinetics but they are difficult to integrate in adsorption beds. Pellets and granules come at various shapes and sizes and can be effectively accommodated in adsorption beds but offer slower kinetics compared to the powder form. This work experimentally and numerically investigates the effect of pellet size on the ethanol adsorption characteristics of Norit RX3 activated carbon. Dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) testing was used for measuring the adsorption isotherms and kinetics for a range of pellet lengths ranging from 3mm to 12mm. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to simulate the adsorption effect taking into account the diffusion process. Results showed that increasing the pellet dimension in terms of diameter and length reduces the adsorption kinetics.
Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali (Elsevier, 2015-02-20)
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical and inhalation characteristics of different size fractions of a promising carrier, i.e., freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). FDM was prepared and sieved into four size fractions. FDMs were then characterized in terms of micromeritic, solid-state and bulk properties. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were prepared using salbutamol sulphate (SS) and then evaluated in terms of drug content homogeneity and in vitro aerosolization performance. The results showed that the crystalline state of mannitol was maintained following freeze-drying for all size fractions of FDM. All FDM particles showed elongated morphology and contained mixtures of α-, β- and δ-mannitol. In comparison to small FDM particles, FDMs with larger particle sizes demonstrated narrower size distributions, higher bulk and tap densities, lower porosities and better flowability. Regardless of particle size, all FDMs generated a significantly higher (2.2-2.9-fold increase) fine particle fraction (FPF, 37.5 ± 0.9%-48.6 ± 2.8%) of SS in comparison to commercial mannitol. The FPFs of SS were related to the shape descriptors of FDM particles; however, FPFs did not prove quantitative apparent relationships with either particle size or powder bulk descriptors. Large FDM particles were more favourable than smaller particles because they produced DPI formulations with better flowability, better drug content homogeneity, lower amounts of the drug depositing on the throat and contained lower fine-particle-mannitol. Optimized stable DPI formulations with superior physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties can be achieved using larger particles of freeze-dried mannitol (FDM).
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