• Delusional ideation, cognitive processes and crime based reasoning

      Wilkinson, DJ; Caulfield, LS; Department of Psychology, University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom. (Leibniz-Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID), 2017-08-01)
      © 2017, PsychOpen. All rights reserved. Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p <.05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.
    • Designated or preferred? A deaf academic and two signed language interpreters working together for a PhD defence: A case study of best practice

      De Meulder, Maartje; Napier, Jemina; Stone, Christopher (Conference of Interpreter Trainers, 2018-12-26)
      In this paper we present an appreciative inquiry case study of our work together in a PhD defence, which we believe demonstrates a best practice in the field of signed language interpreting. We call into question the meaning and relevance of the ‘designated interpreter’ model, examining whether there is a ‘perfect formula’ for deaf academics and interpreters working together, not only in PhD defences, but also in academia more generally. We also challenge the very system for the provision of interpreter services as an institution creating structural inequalities, because it is heavily based on privilege. We argue that what is key is preference (i.e. the ability to exercise real choice) and familiarity, rather than the assignation of a ‘designated’ interpreter, and that simply achieving a degree in interpreting cannot guarantee that an interpreter will be prepared to meet the needs of deaf professionals. We also argue that sign language interpreter education needs to focus more than it does now on training to work into English (and/or other spoken languages in non-English-speaking countries), on performing visibly comfortable language work, and on specific specializations linked to deaf professional access and continuing professional development.
    • The development of deaf legal discourse

      Stone, Christopher; Mirus, Gene; Creese, Angela; Blackledge, Adrian (Routledge, 2018-02-21)
      The Deaf community or sign language using communities manifest superdiversity and translanguaging in ways that intersect with and yet differ from other accounts of superdiversity. In this chapter we explore the historical context of the use of sign language and the emergence of sign language communities from a minority language community context. We use the emergence of the American Deaf community as an example that is typical of many western Deaf communities. We also explore transnationalism with global deaf communities and the emergence of superdiversity in Deaf spaces both in situ and technologically enabled. We then turn our gaze to the case of a Deaf lawyer whom we interviewed. Here we examine schooling and language strategies used by the Deaf lawyer to gain access to a legal education. We describe the types of linguistic devices used by the lawyer and those used by others that he draws our attention to.
    • The distinctiveness of smaller voluntary organisations providing welfare services

      Dayson, Chris; Bennett, Ellen; Damm, Chris; Rees, James; Jacklin-Jarvis, Carol; Patmore, Beth; Baker, Leila; Terry, Vita; Turner, Katie (Cambridge University Press, 2022-02-15)
      This article presents empirical findings about the distinctiveness of smaller voluntary sector organisations (VSOs) involved in welfare service provision, based on in-depth, qualitative case study research. We identify a series of organisational features and practices which can mean that smaller VSOs are distinctive from larger organisations. These include how they are governed and managed, their approach to their work, and their position relative to other providers. To explain our findings, we draw on the concept of stakeholder ambiguity. This idea was posited by Billis and Glennerster (1998) and is commonly cited in relation to distinctiveness. We identified several manifestations of stakeholder ambiguity and confirm the concept’s explanatory importance, although we argue that our understanding of distinctiveness is enhanced when stakeholder ambiguity is considered alongside other closely related features, such as being embedded in a local geographic community and informal, familial care-based organisational cultures. Our findings also highlight the fragility of smaller VSOs. We argue that this combination of distinctiveness and fragility creates a tension for social policy makers, many of whom recognise the value of smaller VSOs and the risks that they face but must weigh this against a requirement to allocate resources for statutory services as effectively as possible.
    • Do challenge and threat evaluations predict netball performance and selection at trials in youth netball players?

      Turner, Martin; Massie, Rachel; Slater, Matthew; Braithwaite, Elizabeth (APA, 2020-10-01)
      In the current paper, we investigated the extent to which challenge and threat evaluations predicted the trials performance of youth netball players. This paper compared two theoretical frameworks, the Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) and the BioPsychoSocial Model (BPSM) of Challenge and Threat, in their prediction of trials performance. A field-based cross-sectional design was adopted, including self-report psychometric, and observational performance, data. Data were collected prior to the participants’ trials performance. Youth female netball athletes (n = 92, Mage = 13.26 years, SD = 1.55) completed psychometrics concerning challenge and threat evaluations and emotions, in relation to upcoming trials performance. Performance was rated by 10 independent club coaches. Binary logistic and linear regression analyses revealed that BPSM derived resource evaluations (general self-confidence, general perception of positive challenge, positive disposition) were related to trials performance, whilst TCTSA-derived resource evaluations (self-efficacy, perceived control, goal orientation) were not. Also, a greater perceived ability to cope with demands was positively related to trial outcome. The strongest and most consistent predictor of performance was number of previous trials. The greater number of previously attended trials, the better the participants performed in trials. The findings reveal the importance of BPSM-derived resource evaluations and the perceived ability to cope with demands in the prediction of performance outcomes, over and above the TCTSA-derived resource evaluations. The findings also have important implications for sports teams, athletes, and coaches, who should strive to maximise perceptions of resources and coping abilities in the face of pressure situations, such as trials.
    • Doctors’ views on how to improve communication and quality of care for patients experiencing end-of-life: a qualitative descriptive study

      McCormack, Fiona; Hopley, Rachel; Kurth, Judith; Iqbal, Zafar (MDPI, 2021-09-29)
      (1) Background: There remains a lack of sufficient progress in enhancing quality of care for patients experiencing end-of-life. This study aimed to better understand the views of doctors on how to improve end-of-life healthcare, in light of existing challenges and processes. (2) Methods: This qualitative descriptive study used semi-structured individual interviews. Through purposive sampling, sixteen doctors from primary care (three general practices) or acute care (one National Health Service hospital trust) participated. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematic analysis conducted. (3) Results: Two main themes were identified: First, planning for patient-centred care—conversations about end-of-life care should take place earlier to allow for care that is planned and personalised. The need for more training and improvements to documenting patient wishes were highlighted. Second, delivering on patients’ wishes: improvements to the healthcare system—the importance of a record of patient wishes that can be shared across the system was identified. Improved utilisation of available resources is also needed to better deliver quality patient-centred care. (4) Conclusion: More effective communication and coordination across acute and primary care settings is needed. The importance of patient wishes and advance care planning was emphasised. More guidance at a strategic level may help provide clarity about expectations, roles and responsibilities.
    • Early career primary teachers’ discursive negotiations of academisation

      Spicksley, Kathryn (Routledge, 2021-12-08)
      This article reports findings from a small-scale research project which explored the professional identities of early career teachers working in primary academies in England. During interviews and focus groups, these new teachers resisted identifying as ‘academy teachers,’ constructing academy status as an unimportant feature when deciding where to work. I theorise this phenomenon using Foucault, arguing that the willingness of new teachers to construct academy schools as ‘no different’ to their maintained counterparts is a key factor in the success of post-2010 academisation as a biopolitical project.
    • Effects of a twelve-week exercise intervention on subsequent compensatory behaviours in adolescent girls: an exploratory study

      Smallcombe, James; Tolfrey, Keith; Massie, Rachel (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2019-07-19)
      Purpose: Chronic exercise programmes can induce adaptive compensatory behavioural responses through increased energy intake (EI) and/or decreased free-living physical activity in adults. These responses can negate the benefits of an exercise-induced energy deficit; however, it is unclear whether young people experience similar responses. This study examined whether exercise-induced compensation occurs in adolescent girls. Methods: Twenty-three adolescent girls, heterogeneous for weight status, completed the study. Eleven, 13-year-old adolescent girls completed a twelve-week supervised exercise intervention (EX). Twelve body size matched girls comprised the non-exercise control group (CON). Body composition, EI, free-living energy expenditure (EE) and peak oxygen uptake (V ̇O_2) were measured repeatedly over the intervention. Results: Laboratory EI (EX: 9027, 9610, 9243 kJd-1 and CON: 9953, 9770, 10052 kJd-1 at 0, 12 and 18 weeks respectively) (ES = 0.26, P = 0.46) and free living EI (EX: 7288, 6412, 5273, 4916 kJd-1 and CON: 7227, 7128, 6470, 6337 kJd-1 at 0, 6, 12 and 18 weeks respectively) (ES ≤ 0.26, P = 0.90) did not change significantly over time and were similar between groups across the duration of the study. Free-living EE was higher in EX than CON (13295 vs. 12115 kJd-1, ES ≥ 0.88, P ≥ 0.16), but no significant condition by time interactions were observed (P ≥ 0.17). Conclusion: The current findings indicate that compensatory changes in EI and EE behaviours did not occur at a group level within a small cohort of adolescent girls. However, analysis at the individual level highlights large inter-individual variability in behaviours, which suggest a larger study may be prudent to extend this initial exploratory research.
    • Engaging British Sign Language/ English interpreting students through the use of situated learning

      Hughes, Thaisa; Bown, Sarah; Green, Karen (RAISE, 2019-12-01)
      This case study documents a pilot where situated-learning was used to train students at level 6 (final year) of the BA (hons.) BSL/English interpreting programme, in medical/healthcare interpreting. The learning experience was situated within the clinical simulation suite at the University of Wolverhampton and student interpreters had the opportunity to interpret for a real healthcare practitioner and a deaf patient in a series of carefully constructed roleplays, designed to provide as authentic an experience as possible.
    • An evaluation of Changing Lives’ Iris project - supporting women with experience of sex work, survival sex or sexual exploitation

      Hopley, Rachel; Sojka, Bozena; Caulfield, Laura (Institute for Community Research and Development, University of Wolverhampton, 2021-05)
    • An evaluation of Sandwell Youth Offending Service –a creative approach to working with young people

      Caulfield, Laura; Sojka, Bozena; Massie, Rachel (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-10-14)
      Sandwell Youth Offending Service (YOS) work with young people who have very complex life stories. The young people may have committed very serious offences but are also often highly vulnerable to exploitation and have experienced significant trauma. Their experiences can lead to mistrust or suspicion of those in authority and in turn, for practitioners, the challenge of engagement can seem insurmountable. Sandwell YOS therefore argue that an evolution of the current approach is required to more effectively engage, support, and help young people. The new National Standards for youth justice, underpinned by the Youth Justice Board’s (YJB) helpful focus on a ‘child first’ principle support a change in thinking and encourage YOSs to take local initiatives. Sandwell YOS’ vision is to focus on the use of the arts and increasingly reconceptualise the YOS over time into a ‘Creative YOS’. In January 2019 Sandwell YOS were awarded funding from the YJB’s Serious Youth Violence Grant to help increase the use of arts with the cohort. The Institute for Community Research and Development were commissioned to conduct a process and impact evaluation, combining quantitative data to understand if any change was happening with in-depth qualitative interviews to understand how this change might be happening, foregrounding the voice and experience of participants. Most existing research and evaluation studies have looked at the impact of discrete arts programmes. The new creative programme of work being introduced by Sandwell YOS is innovative in working across the whole service with a range of arts and creative activities, and therefore no similar evaluation has previously been conducted.
    • Exploring alternative terrain in the rehabilitation and treatment of offenders: findings from a prison-based music project

      Caulfield, Laura; Wilkinson, Dean John; Wilson, David (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-05)
      The arts in prison settings have provided an alternative or complimentary component to rehabilitation. Despite increased interest, studies capturing the voice of offenders participating in projects and the long-term impact are limited. Data from semistructured interviews with 18 men who had taken part in a music-based project while incarcerated, including one group of five participants who were tracked for 18 months with supplemented data from correctional staff and official documentation, is presented. Participants of the art-based projects comment on changes they believe to have derived from participating in the project, particularly relating to emotions, self-esteem, self-confidence, communication and social skills. An exoffender sample of participants reported that participation in art projects provide experiences that promote beneficial skills that have been useful for post prison life.
    • Exploring pregnant women’s experiences of stopping smoking with an incentive scheme with ‘enhanced’ support: a qualitative study

      McCormack, Fiona C; Hopley, Rachel; Boath, Elizabeth H; Parry, Sian L; Roscoe, Suzie M; Stewart, Antony; Birch, Victoria A (SAGE, 2022-07-05)
      Aim: This study aims to understand pregnant women’s experiences of smoking cessation with an incentive scheme in a deprived UK city. This is important because smoking cessation with pregnant women is one of the most crucial public health initiatives to promote, and is particularly challenging in deprived areas. While financial incentive schemes are controversial, there is a need to better understand pregnant women’s experiences. The scheme combined quasi-financial incentives (shopping vouchers) for validated quits (carbon monoxide (CO) validated at < 10 ppm), enhanced support from smoking cessation advisors, the opportunity to identify a ‘Significant Other Supporter’ and nicotine replacement therapy. Methods: With the focus on understanding pregnant women’s experiences, a qualitative design was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 pregnant women from the scheme, and the three advisors. All interviews were transcribed, and thematic analysis conducted. Results: Pregnant women reported various challenges to quitting, including long-established routines, and stress. Participants were aware of stigma around incentives but were all very positive about the scheme. The relationship with advisors was described as fundamental. The women valued their advice and support, while uptake of the ‘Significant Other Supporter’ appeared low. Participants viewed the CO monitoring as ‘an incentive’, while the vouchers were framed as a ‘bonus’. Advisors perceived the vouchers as helping engage pregnant women and maintain quit status, and women appreciated the vouchers both as financial assistance and recognition of their accomplishments. Conclusion: This study highlights the great value women placed on the support, advice and monitoring from specialist advisors. The distinction between vouchers as a welcomed bonus, rather than ‘the incentive’ to engage, is important. How smoking cessation and schemes to promote this are communicated to pregnant women and health professionals is important, particularly given the stigma and controversy involved.
    • Firewalls: A necessary tool to enable social rights for undocumented migrants in social work

      Hermansson, Linus; Lundberg, Anna; Gruber, Sabine; Jolly, Andrew; Lind, Jacob; Righard, Erica; Scott, Hanna (SAGE Publications, 2020-05-29)
      Firewalls are clear divisions between border policing and the provision of basic social rights. They have a dual character: to ensure that no information collected with the purpose of safeguarding basic social rights should be shared for immigration control purposes; and that migrants should not be subject to immigration control when being present at, or in the vicinity, of religious, private and public institutions upholding and providing social rights. This article suggests a normative argument for ‘firewalls’ in the context of social work and develops the concept theoretically as a principle practised and negotiated at different scales.
    • From the outside in: narratives of creative arts practitioners working in the criminal justice system

      Caulfield, Laura; Simpson, Ella; Morgan, Catherine (Wiley-Blackwell, 2019-09-04)
      The penal voluntary sector is highly variegated in its roles, practices and functions, though research to date has largely excluded the experiences of front-line practitioners. We argue that engaging with the narratives of practitioners can provide fuller appreciation of the potential of the sector’s work. Though life story and narrative have been recognised as important in offender desistance (Maruna, 2001), the narrative identities of creative arts practitioners, who are important ‘change agents’ (Albertson, 2015), are typically absent. This is despite evidence to suggest that a practitioner’s life history can be a significant and positive influence in the rehabilitation of offenders (Harris, 2017). Using narratological analysis (Bal, 2009), this study examined the narratives of 19 creative practitioners in prisons in England and Wales. Of particular interest were the formative experiences of arts practitioners in their journey to prison work. The findings suggest that arts practitioners identify with an ‘outsider’ status and may be motivated by an ethic of mutual aid. In the current climate of third sector involvement in the delivery of criminal justice interventions, such a capacity may be both a strength and weakness for arts organisations working in this field.
    • From the Windrush Generation to the ‘Air Jamaica generation’: local authority support for families with no recourse to public funds

      Jolly, Andrew; Heins, Elke; Rees, James; Needham, Catherine (Policy Press, 2019-07-22)
      Over the past year, immigration has been a continued focus of policy debates in the global north, with governments in Hungary and Italy elected on openly anti-immigration and ‘welfare chauvinist’ platforms. On the other side of the Atlantic the US federal government family separations policy has also been a source of fierce dispute. In the UK, the potential implications of Brexit for EU migrants in the UK and the treatment of the children of the ‘Windrush Generation’ under the hostile (or ‘compliant’) environment has caused particular controversy and the precipitated the resignation of the Home Secretary.
    • Fun, lifelong relationships and a safer community: understanding collective leadership practice in a grassroots association

      Jacklin-Jarvis, Carol; Rees, James (Bristol University Press, 2021-08-31)
      The relational processes and practices that create and sustain grassroots associations have received limited attention from researchers. This article addresses this gap, exploring collective leadership of grassroots associations through a ‘leadership-as-practice’ lens (Raelin, 2016a; 2016b). It adopts the concept of ‘bundles’ of leadership practice (Schatzki, 2005) to analyse data from a single ethnographic case study. Adopting this conceptual lens, we identify a set of ‘bundles’ of related practices – organising, engaging and accounting – that constitute the enduring reality of the grassroots association’s collective leadership.
    • Hard work / workload: discursive constructions of teacher work in policy and practice

      Spicksley, Kathryn (Informa UK Limited, 2022-04-12)
      This paper explores contradictory constructions of teacher work across policy discourse and professional practice. It draws from a corpus-assisted critical discourse analysis of 363 political speeches published on England’s Department for Education website between 2010 and 2018, and qualitative interviews with two executive leaders working in English primary academy schools. Findings indicate a contradiction in the way that teacher work was constructed by government ministers, with hard work constructed positively as leading to improved educational outcomes, but workload negatively constructed as a problem which needed to be solved. This contradiction was echoed in school leaders’ discursive constructions of teacher work. Extending previous research on teacher workload, I raise the possibility that it is not only workload, but the requirement to navigate contradictory discursive constructions of teacher work which may cause damage to teachers’ professional identities.
    • Immigration policies: enforcing borders, driving hunger and creating destitution

      Jolly, Andrew; Dickson, Eve; Garande, Kimberley; Richmond-Bishop, Imogen; Singh, Jasber (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-04-30)
      There is a long history of immigration control and welfare conditionality in the UK, but the interaction between immigration policies and food poverty is underresearched. This article outlines the links between immigration control and food poverty or destitution in the UK. Drawing on insights from the existing literature and a structured discussion at a participatory workshop for researchers and practitioners, the article identifies issues for research and practice around the issue of the No Recourse to Public Funds (NRPF) immigration rule and food poverty. We argue that future research should take a rights based approach to immigration and food poverty that engages with both the history of immigration control and the intent of public policies such as the NRPF rule.
    • Increasing athlete knowledge of mental health and intentions to seek help: The State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) Pilot Program

      Breslin, Gavin; Haughey, Tandy; O'Brien, Wesley; Caulfield, Laura; Robertson, Alexa; Lawlor, Martin (Human Kinetics, 2018-03-01)
      The present study had three aims, to determine: (a) whether providing a curriculum-based mental health awareness program to athletes increased knowledge of mental health and intentions to offer support; (b) whether the program increased resilience and well-being compared to a control group; and (c) the feasibility of the program. A total of 100 participants (Mage = 20.78; SD = 2.91; male = 59) either attended the program or were part of a control group. Participants completed questionnaires pre-, post-, and 3-months post-intervention, although there was a low participant return rate for the 3-month follow-up (n = 15). Participants were invited to take part in a focus group to explore program relevance. Knowledge of mental health and intentions to offer support increased for the intervention group, compared to the control. The program with some modification could be integrated into university sport courses to promote mental health awareness.