• From the outside in: narratives of creative arts practitioners working in the criminal justice system

      Caulfield, Laura; Simpson, Ella; Morgan, Catherine (Wiley-Blackwell, 2019-12-31)
      The penal voluntary sector is highly variegated in its roles, practices and functions, though research to date has largely excluded the experiences of front-line practitioners. We argue that engaging with the narratives of practitioners can provide fuller appreciation of the potential of the sector’s work. Though life story and narrative have been recognised as important in offender desistance (Maruna, 2001), the narrative identities of creative arts practitioners, who are important ‘change agents’ (Albertson, 2015), are typically absent. This is despite evidence to suggest that a practitioner’s life history can be a significant and positive influence in the rehabilitation of offenders (Harris, 2017). Using narratological analysis (Bal, 2009), this study examined the narratives of 19 creative practitioners in prisons in England and Wales. Of particular interest were the formative experiences of arts practitioners in their journey to prison work. The findings suggest that arts practitioners identify with an ‘outsider’ status and may be motivated by an ethic of mutual aid. In the current climate of third sector involvement in the delivery of criminal justice interventions, such a capacity may be both a strength and weakness for arts organisations working in this field.
    • Engaging British Sign Language/ English interpreting students through the use of situated learning

      Hughes, Thaisa; Bown, Sarah; Green, Karen (RAISE, 2019-12-01)
      This case study documents a pilot where situated-learning was used to train students at level 6 (final year) of the BA (hons.) BSL/English interpreting programme, in medical/healthcare interpreting. The learning experience was situated within the clinical simulation suite at the University of Wolverhampton and student interpreters had the opportunity to interpret for a real healthcare practitioner and a deaf patient in a series of carefully constructed roleplays, designed to provide as authentic an experience as possible.
    • Participatory filmmaking in voluntary sector research: innovative or problematic?

      Vita, Terry; Andrew, Jolly (Policy Press, 2019-08-29)
      This paper draws both on the authors’ experiences of making a participatory film exploring collective leadership in diverse communities, and on a world café style workshop at the 2018 Voluntary Sector and Volunteering Research Conference organised by the National Council for Voluntary Organisations and the Voluntary Sector Studies Network. The intention is to provoke dialogue about the opportunities and challenges of participatory filmmaking as a research method, and whether it is an appropriate methodological approach for voluntary sector research, with the potential to advance thinking on about and the use of mixed-media methods.
    • Effects of a twelve-week exercise intervention on subsequent compensatory behaviours in adolescent girls: an exploratory study

      Smallcombe, James; Tolfrey, Keith; Massie, Rachel (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2019-07-19)
      Purpose: Chronic exercise programmes can induce adaptive compensatory behavioural responses through increased energy intake (EI) and/or decreased free-living physical activity in adults. These responses can negate the benefits of an exercise-induced energy deficit; however, it is unclear whether young people experience similar responses. This study examined whether exercise-induced compensation occurs in adolescent girls. Methods: Twenty-three adolescent girls, heterogeneous for weight status, completed the study. Eleven, 13-year-old adolescent girls completed a twelve-week supervised exercise intervention (EX). Twelve body size matched girls comprised the non-exercise control group (CON). Body composition, EI, free-living energy expenditure (EE) and peak oxygen uptake (V ̇O_2) were measured repeatedly over the intervention. Results: Laboratory EI (EX: 9027, 9610, 9243 kJd-1 and CON: 9953, 9770, 10052 kJd-1 at 0, 12 and 18 weeks respectively) (ES = 0.26, P = 0.46) and free living EI (EX: 7288, 6412, 5273, 4916 kJd-1 and CON: 7227, 7128, 6470, 6337 kJd-1 at 0, 6, 12 and 18 weeks respectively) (ES ≤ 0.26, P = 0.90) did not change significantly over time and were similar between groups across the duration of the study. Free-living EE was higher in EX than CON (13295 vs. 12115 kJd-1, ES ≥ 0.88, P ≥ 0.16), but no significant condition by time interactions were observed (P ≥ 0.17). Conclusion: The current findings indicate that compensatory changes in EI and EE behaviours did not occur at a group level within a small cohort of adolescent girls. However, analysis at the individual level highlights large inter-individual variability in behaviours, which suggest a larger study may be prudent to extend this initial exploratory research.
    • The academic foundations of interpreting studies: an introduction to its theories

      Roy, Cynthia; Brunson, Jeremy; Stone, Christopher (Gallaudet University Press, 2019-03-13)
      The Academic Foundations of Interpreting Studies is the first introductory course book that explores the theoretical foundations used in sign language interpreting studies. Authors Roy, Brunson, and Stone examine the disciplines whose theoretical frameworks and methodologies have influenced the academic study of interpreting. With this text, explanations for how interpreted events occur, how interpreted products are created, and how the interpreting process is studied can be framed within a variety of theoretical perspectives, forming a foundation for the emerging transdiscipline of Interpreting Studies. As sign language interpreting has emerged and evolved in the last 20 years as an academic field of study, the scope of learning has broadened to include fields beyond the language and culture of deaf people. This text surveys six disciplines that have informed the study of sign language interpreting: history, translation, linguistics, sociology, social psychology, and cognitive psychology, along with their major ideas, principal scholars, and ways of viewing human interaction. Each chapter includes clear learning goals, definitions, discussion questions, and images to aid understanding. The Academic Foundations of Interpreting Studies is required reading for upper-level undergraduate or first-year graduate students in interpreting, Deaf studies, and sign language programs.
    • Designated or preferred? A deaf academic and two signed language interpreters working together for a PhD defence: A case study of best practice

      De Meulder, Maartje; Napier, Jemima; Stone, Christopher (Conference of Interpreter Trainers, 2018-12-26)
      In this paper we present an appreciative inquiry case study of our work together in a PhD defence, which we believe demonstrates a best practice in the field of signed language interpreting. We call into question the meaning and relevance of the ‘designated interpreter’ model, examining whether there is a ‘perfect formula’ for deaf academics and interpreters working together, not only in PhD defences, but also in academia more generally. We also challenge the very system for the provision of interpreter services as an institution creating structural inequalities, because it is heavily based on privilege. We argue that what is key is preference (i.e. the ability to exercise real choice) and familiarity, rather than the assignation of a ‘designated’ interpreter, and that simply achieving a degree in interpreting cannot guarantee that an interpreter will be prepared to meet the needs of deaf professionals. We also argue that sign language interpreter education needs to focus more than it does now on training to work into English (and/or other spoken languages in non-English-speaking countries), on performing visibly comfortable language work, and on specific specializations linked to deaf professional access and continuing professional development.
    • Becoming conference interpreters: the deaf experience

      Stone, Christopher; Isari, Sofia (Danske Døves Landsforbund, 2018-05-25)
      In this article we consider the experience of two traditional ‘amateur’ Deaf interpreters working at an international conference within the context of the professionalization of deaf interpreters. We explore the themes raised during interviews of the Deaf and hearing interpreters who worked together at an efsli event. The path to becoming a professional deaf interpreter is often mediated by such capacity building opportunities in countries with limited access to formal training and so we note the dynamics of the teams and the professional reflections of the interpreters. We also draw attention to the attitudinal barriers that deaf interpreters face, which can affect the work of deaf interpreters and the ways in which traditional Deaf interpreters adopt strategies of collegiality and resilience to enable their professionalization.
    • The development of deaf legal discourse

      Stone, Christopher; Mirus, Gene (Routledge, 2018-03-06)
      The Deaf community or sign language using communities manifest superdiversity and translanguaging in ways that intersect with and yet differ from other accounts of superdiversity. In this chapter we explore the historical context of the use of sign language and the emergence of sign language communities from a minority language community context. We use the emergence of the American Deaf community as an example that is typical of many western Deaf communities. We also explore transnationalism with global deaf communities and the emergence of superdiversity in Deaf spaces both in situ and technologically enabled. We then turn our gaze to the case of a Deaf lawyer whom we interviewed. Here we examine schooling and language strategies used by the Deaf lawyer to gain access to a legal education. We describe the types of linguistic devices used by the lawyer and those used by others that he draws our attention to.
    • Increasing athlete knowledge of mental health and intentions to seek help: The State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) Pilot Program

      Breslin, Gavin; Haughey, Tandy; O'Brien, Wesley; Caulfield, Laura; Robertson, Alexa; Lawlor, Martin (Human Kinetics, 2018-03-01)
      The present study had three aims, to determine: (a) whether providing a curriculum-based mental health awareness program to athletes increased knowledge of mental health and intentions to offer support; (b) whether the program increased resilience and well-being compared to a control group; and (c) the feasibility of the program. A total of 100 participants (Mage = 20.78; SD = 2.91; male = 59) either attended the program or were part of a control group. Participants completed questionnaires pre-, post-, and 3-months post-intervention, although there was a low participant return rate for the 3-month follow-up (n = 15). Participants were invited to take part in a focus group to explore program relevance. Knowledge of mental health and intentions to offer support increased for the intervention group, compared to the control. The program with some modification could be integrated into university sport courses to promote mental health awareness.
    • ‘You just have to work with what you’ve got’ Practitioner research with precarious migrant families

      Jolly, Andrew (Taylor and Francis, 2017-10-09)
      Undocumented migrant families experience high levels of food poverty, exclusion from mainstream benefits, and sometimes from social work services. This is an under-researched area for social work in the UK, and there is no statutory guidance for social workers on supporting undocumented migrants. Practitioner research is one way of ‘visibilising’ their experiences. Six migrant families accessing a voluntary sector stay and play project were interviewed using a practitioner research model of semi-structured interviews on the themes of food, access to services and children. The research found that families responded to their situation with a seemingly contradictory strategy of resignation and resilience. The implications for practitioners working with this user group are considered, and suggestions for support services for this group of families are offered.
    • Delusional ideation, cognitive processes and crime based reasoning

      Wilkinson, DJ; Caulfield, LS; Department of Psychology, University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom. (Leibniz-Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID), 2017-08-01)
      © 2017, PsychOpen. All rights reserved. Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p <.05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.
    • The perceived benefits of an arts project for health and wellbeing of older offenders

      Wilkinson, DJ; Caulfield, LS; Department of Psychology, University of Worcester , Worcester , United Kingdom. (Leibniz-Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID), 2017-03-03)
      © 2017, PsychOpen. All rights reserved. The increasing ageing prison population is becoming a pressing issue throughout the criminal justice system. Alongside the rising population, are a host of health and wellbeing issues that contribute to older offenders needs whilst in prison. It has been recommended that meaningful activities can have positive effects on this population and therefore this paper uniquely reviews older offenders accounts of taking part in an arts based project, Good Vibrations, whilst imprisoned. The Good Vibrations project engages individuals in Gamelan music making with an end of project performance. This study used independent in-depth interviews to capture the voices of older offenders who took part in an art based prison project. The interview data was analysed using thematic analysis, which highlighted themes that were consistent with other populations who have taken part in a Good Vibrations project, along with specific age relating issues of mobility, motivation, identity and wellbeing.
    • Sign language interpreter aptitude: The trials and tribulations of a longitudinal study

      Stone, Christopher (2017-01-01)
      This paper discusses the process of undertaking an exploratory longitudinal study of language learning and interpreter aptitude. It discusses the context of aptitude testing, the test selection for a test battery, the recruitment of subjects within the small-scale study (n=22) and the administration of that battery within the context of whether longitudinal studies are feasible with small cohorts of sign language interpreters. Sign languages continue to be languages of limited diffusion in Europe. Even with gradually increasing numbers of ‘hearing’ sign language users, typically those wishing to become sign language interpreters do not have high levels of sign language fluency prior to enrolling in sign language interpreter training. As such, these students need to gain fluency in sign language, whilst also beginning to engage in interpreter education and interpreting-skills development. To date there is little understanding of how best to screen sign language interpreter program applicants to ensure the effective use of resources, i.e. to educate those who will both learn sign language to C1 fluency (Pro-signs, 2016) during the BA and also be able to learn how to interpret. Longitudinal studies enable us to take a longer view of learning and the professionalisation of skills and knowledge. They do, however, require significant time and this in itself can prove to be an obstacle when university researchers are required to produce tangible research outputs for career goals such as promotion or tenure.
    • Policing the threat: ‘implied hate crime’, homophobia and behaviour change

      Iafrati, Steve; Williams, Clare (Sheffield Hallum University, 2016-12-17)
      This research is based on focus groups with gay men in the Black Country, an area o f the West Midlands and examines the extent to which the men change their behaviour to avoid being identified as gay. Frequently, behaviour change was not in response to direct or overt threats, but instead, in response to perceived or implied threats. The way in which this limits personal freedoms and feelings o f community safety should be regarded as a key element of hate crime. The men in the focus groups also recognised clear geographical dimensions to this implied hate crime, with certain areas being identified as hostile. Problematically, relying solely on quantitative data to inform patterns o f hate crime is therefore limited as it (i) fails to include perceptions, (ii) fails to recognise that certain areas are avoided because o f perceived threats, and (iii) fails to recognise underreporting. A strategic response to hate crime must involve being more proactive and a multi-agency approach, with this article identifying how this research led to a sustainable and strategic response.
    • Counterintuitive findings from a qualitative study of mental health in English women’s prisons

      Caulfield, Laura (Humanitas Foundation, 2016-12-01)
      Purpose Large numbers of women in prison report significant emotional and mental health problems, and there is evidence to suggest that the prison environment may exacerbate the incidence and severity of these issues (Armour, 2012). However, there has been limited exploration of the extent to which women’s mental health problems exist prior to incarceration, whether symptoms first occur in incarceration, and how incarceration affects this. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 women incarcerated in three English prisons and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Review of official prison records provided a form of data triangulation. Findings Analysis of the data revealed that while many women who experienced mental health issues in prison had experienced these issues in the past, a number of women reported first experiencing mental health and emotional problems only after entering prison. Although these problems often recede, this demonstrates the significant impact that entering prison can have upon the mental health of women. Unusually, the data highlighted many positive experiences of support within prison. However, there was some lack of consistency in the treatment and support offered to women. Originality/value The data presented here are in many ways more positive than previous research and – as opposed to much of the existing literature that simply states the prevalence women’s issues in prison – provides insight into the lived experiences of women in prison. This paper documents how prison can present an opportunity for women to engage with treatment, but there is a need for a clearer understanding of women’s needs and consistent and appropriate support.
    • Exploring alternative terrain in the rehabilitation and treatment of offenders: findings from a prison-based music project

      Caulfield, Laura; Wilkinson, Dean John; Wilson, David (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-05)
      The arts in prison settings have provided an alternative or complimentary component to rehabilitation. Despite increased interest, studies capturing the voice of offenders participating in projects and the long-term impact are limited. Data from semistructured interviews with 18 men who had taken part in a music-based project while incarcerated, including one group of five participants who were tracked for 18 months with supplemented data from correctional staff and official documentation, is presented. Participants of the art-based projects comment on changes they believe to have derived from participating in the project, particularly relating to emotions, self-esteem, self-confidence, communication and social skills. An exoffender sample of participants reported that participation in art projects provide experiences that promote beneficial skills that have been useful for post prison life.
    • Recommendations for recruiting and retaining adolescent girls in chronic exercise (training) research studies

      Massie, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Tolfrey, Keith (MDPI, 2015-08-26)
      Extensive challenges are often encountered when recruiting participants to chronic exercise (training) studies. High participant burden during chronic exercise training programmes can result in low uptake to and/or poor compliance with the study. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify factors affecting adolescent girls’ recruitment and adherence to chronic exercise training research studies. Twenty-six adolescent girls (aged 12 to 15 years) participated in one of five focus groups discussing recruitment and retention to exercise physiology research involving a chronic exercise training programme. A thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and eight final themes were inductively identified. Seven evidence-based practical recommendations are suggested to improve the recruitment and retention of participants for prospective, chronic exercise training studies. Successful recruitment requires: (i) the defining of exercise-related terms; (ii) appropriate choice of recruitment material; and (iii) an understanding of participant motivations. Retention strategies include: (iv) regular monitoring of participant motives; and (v) small groups which foster peer and researcher support. Finally, (vi) friendship and ability groups were favoured in addition to (vii) a variety of activities to promote adherence to an exercise training programme.