• The academic foundations of interpreting studies: an introduction to its theories

      Roy, Cynthia; Brunson, Jeremy; Stone, Christopher (Gallaudet University Press, 2019-03-13)
      The Academic Foundations of Interpreting Studies is the first introductory course book that explores the theoretical foundations used in sign language interpreting studies. Authors Roy, Brunson, and Stone examine the disciplines whose theoretical frameworks and methodologies have influenced the academic study of interpreting. With this text, explanations for how interpreted events occur, how interpreted products are created, and how the interpreting process is studied can be framed within a variety of theoretical perspectives, forming a foundation for the emerging transdiscipline of Interpreting Studies. As sign language interpreting has emerged and evolved in the last 20 years as an academic field of study, the scope of learning has broadened to include fields beyond the language and culture of deaf people. This text surveys six disciplines that have informed the study of sign language interpreting: history, translation, linguistics, sociology, social psychology, and cognitive psychology, along with their major ideas, principal scholars, and ways of viewing human interaction. Each chapter includes clear learning goals, definitions, discussion questions, and images to aid understanding. The Academic Foundations of Interpreting Studies is required reading for upper-level undergraduate or first-year graduate students in interpreting, Deaf studies, and sign language programs.
    • Becoming conference interpreters: the deaf experience

      Stone, Christopher; Isari, Sofia (Danske Døves Landsforbund, 2018-05-25)
      In this article we consider the experience of two traditional ‘amateur’ Deaf interpreters working at an international conference within the context of the professionalization of deaf interpreters. We explore the themes raised during interviews of the Deaf and hearing interpreters who worked together at an efsli event. The path to becoming a professional deaf interpreter is often mediated by such capacity building opportunities in countries with limited access to formal training and so we note the dynamics of the teams and the professional reflections of the interpreters. We also draw attention to the attitudinal barriers that deaf interpreters face, which can affect the work of deaf interpreters and the ways in which traditional Deaf interpreters adopt strategies of collegiality and resilience to enable their professionalization.
    • Beyond welfare chauvinism and deservingness. Rationales of belonging as a conceptual framework for the politics and governance of migrants’ rights

      Sojka, Bozena; Carmel, Emma (Cambridge University Press, 2020-12-31)
      This article argues that the politics and governance of migrants’ rights needs to be reframed. In particular, the terms “welfare chauvinism”, and deservingness should be replaced. Using a qualitative transnational case study of policymakers in Poland and the UK, we develop an alternative approach. In fine-grained and small-scale interpretive analysis, we tease out four distinct rationales of belonging that mark out the terms and practices of social membership, as well as relative positions of privilege and subordination. These rationales of belonging are: temporal-territorial, ethno-cultural, labourist, and welfareist. Importantly, these rationales are knitted together by different framings of the transnational contexts, within which the politics and governance of migration and social protection are given meaning. The rationales of belonging do not exist in isolation, but in each country, they qualify each other in ways that imply different politics and governance of migrants’ rights. Taken together, these rationales of belonging generate transnational projects of social exclusion, as well as justifications for migrant inclusion stratified by class, gender and ethnicity.
    • Capturing the magic: A three-way dialogue on the impact of music on people and society

      Camlin, Dave; Caulfield, Laura; Perkins, Rosie (Intellect, 2020-05-18)
      This article sets out a dialogue on the impact of music on people and society. The perspectives of three researchers, from different experiential and methodological backgrounds, are presented. The article explores: how we define concepts of impact; how we seek to measure the impact of engaging with music, providing examples from our own recent work; and tensions in attempting to capture or measure the ‘magic’ of music, including how to meet the needs of different audiences and how to develop new ways to capture impact. The authors reflect on the political climate in which music interventions operate, including the need to ask different questions at different times for different audiences, concluding that it is vital to measure both whether there is any impact, how this impact was achieved, and people’s experiences of engaging with music. We found consensus about the need to move evidence forwards through both the use of arts-based creative methods that focus on the music-making process itself as well as through collaborations that bring together varied perspectives, experiences, disciplines and research methods. We also argue that – as there is considerable evidence about the impact of music, on different people, in different ways and in different settings – researchers should now aim to take stock of the evidence base. Finally, we posit that there is merit in engaging with a reflective dialogue like the one presented here, as a tool to help challenge, disrupt and influence our own thinking.
    • Consulting the oracle: Using the Delphi method in research with undocumented migrant children

      Jolly, Andrew (Social Research Association, 2019-10-04)
      Although there are estimates of the number of undocumented migrant families resident in the UK, there are currently no estimates at local authority level. As a result, undocumented migrant families are often invisible in local discussions of child poverty and safeguarding, can be excluded from services to safeguard their welfare, and face the risk of destitution. This paper explores the Delphi method as a way of using expert consensus to estimate numbers of undocumented migrant families. Fieldwork was completed in Birmingham, West Midlands, but uses a methodology transferrable to other areas. A median estimate of 1,500 families, containing 1,900 children was reached. The paper concludes with a discussion of the methodological difficulties encountered, and recommendations for use of the method in the future.
    • The contribution of the voluntary sector to mental health crisis care: a mixed-methods study

      Newbigging, Karen; Rees, James; Ince, Rebecca; Mohan, John; Joseph, Doreen; Ashman, Michael; Norden, Barbara; Dare, Ceri; Bourke, Suzanne; Costello, Benjamin (National Institute for Health Research, 2020-07)
      Background Weaknesses in the provision of mental health crisis support are evident and improvements that include voluntary sector provision are promoted. There is a lack of evidence regarding the contribution of the voluntary sector and how this might be used to the best effect in mental health crisis care. Aim To investigate the contribution of voluntary sector organisations to mental health crisis care in England. Design Multimethod sequential design with a comparative case study. Setting England, with four case studies in North England, East England, the Midlands and London. Method The method included a scoping literature review, a national survey of 1612 voluntary sector organisations, interviews with 27 national stakeholders and detailed mapping of the voluntary sector organisation provision in two regions (the north and south of England) to develop a taxonomy of voluntary sector organisations and to select four case studies. The case studies examined voluntary sector organisation crisis care provision as a system through interviews with local stakeholders (n = 73), eight focus groups with service users and carers and, at an individual level, narrative interviews with service users (n = 47) and carers (n = 12) to understand their crisis experience and service journey. There was extensive patient and public involvement in the study, including service users as co-researchers, to ensure validity. This affected the conduct of the study and the interpretation of the findings. The quality and the impact of the involvement was evaluated and commended. Main findings A mental health crisis is considered a biographical disruption. Voluntary sector organisations can make an important contribution, characterised by a socially oriented and relational approach. Five types of relevant voluntary sector organisations were identified: (1) crisis-specific, (2) general mental health, (3) population-focused, (4) life-event-focused and (5) general social and community voluntary sector organisations. These voluntary sector organisations provide a range of support and have specific expertise. The availability and access to voluntary sector organisations varies and inequalities were evident for rural communities; black, Asian and minority ethnic communities; people who use substances; and people who identified as having a personality disorder. There was little evidence of well-developed crisis systems, with an underdeveloped approach to prevention and a lack of ongoing support. Limitations The survey response was low, reflecting the nature of voluntary sector organisations and demands on their time. This was a descriptive study, so evaluating outcomes from voluntary sector organisation support was beyond the scope of the study. Conclusions The current policy discourse frames a mental health crisis as an urgent event. Viewing a mental health crisis as a biographical disruption would better enable a wide range of contributory factors to be considered and addressed. Voluntary sector organisations have a distinctive and important role to play. The breadth of this contribution needs to be acknowledged and its role as an accessible alternative to inpatient provision prioritised. Future work A whole-system approach to mental health crisis provision is needed. The NHS, local authorities and the voluntary sector should establish how to effectively collaborate to meet the local population’s needs and to ensure the sustainability of the voluntary sector. Service users and carers from all communities need to be central to this.
    • Counterintuitive findings from a qualitative study of mental health in English women’s prisons

      Caulfield, Laura (Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2016-12-01)
      Purpose Large numbers of women in prison report significant emotional and mental health problems, and there is evidence to suggest that the prison environment may exacerbate the incidence and severity of these issues (Armour, 2012). However, there has been limited exploration of the extent to which women’s mental health problems exist prior to incarceration, whether symptoms first occur in incarceration, and how incarceration affects this. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In-depth interviews were conducted with 43 women incarcerated in three English prisons and a thematic analysis of the data was conducted. Review of official prison records provided a form of data triangulation. Findings Analysis of the data revealed that while many women who experienced mental health issues in prison had experienced these issues in the past, a number of women reported first experiencing mental health and emotional problems only after entering prison. Although these problems often recede, this demonstrates the significant impact that entering prison can have upon the mental health of women. Unusually, the data highlighted many positive experiences of support within prison. However, there was some lack of consistency in the treatment and support offered to women. Originality/value The data presented here are in many ways more positive than previous research and – as opposed to much of the existing literature that simply states the prevalence women’s issues in prison – provides insight into the lived experiences of women in prison. This paper documents how prison can present an opportunity for women to engage with treatment, but there is a need for a clearer understanding of women’s needs and consistent and appropriate support.
    • Delusional ideation, cognitive processes and crime based reasoning

      Wilkinson, DJ; Caulfield, LS; Department of Psychology, University of Worcester, Worcester, United Kingdom. (Leibniz-Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID), 2017-08-01)
      © 2017, PsychOpen. All rights reserved. Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p <.05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.
    • Designated or preferred? A deaf academic and two signed language interpreters working together for a PhD defence: A case study of best practice

      De Meulder, Maartje; Napier, Jemima; Stone, Christopher (Conference of Interpreter Trainers, 2018-12-26)
      In this paper we present an appreciative inquiry case study of our work together in a PhD defence, which we believe demonstrates a best practice in the field of signed language interpreting. We call into question the meaning and relevance of the ‘designated interpreter’ model, examining whether there is a ‘perfect formula’ for deaf academics and interpreters working together, not only in PhD defences, but also in academia more generally. We also challenge the very system for the provision of interpreter services as an institution creating structural inequalities, because it is heavily based on privilege. We argue that what is key is preference (i.e. the ability to exercise real choice) and familiarity, rather than the assignation of a ‘designated’ interpreter, and that simply achieving a degree in interpreting cannot guarantee that an interpreter will be prepared to meet the needs of deaf professionals. We also argue that sign language interpreter education needs to focus more than it does now on training to work into English (and/or other spoken languages in non-English-speaking countries), on performing visibly comfortable language work, and on specific specializations linked to deaf professional access and continuing professional development.
    • The development of deaf legal discourse

      Stone, Christopher; Mirus, Gene; Creese, Angela; Blackledge, Adrian (Routledge, 2018-02-21)
      The Deaf community or sign language using communities manifest superdiversity and translanguaging in ways that intersect with and yet differ from other accounts of superdiversity. In this chapter we explore the historical context of the use of sign language and the emergence of sign language communities from a minority language community context. We use the emergence of the American Deaf community as an example that is typical of many western Deaf communities. We also explore transnationalism with global deaf communities and the emergence of superdiversity in Deaf spaces both in situ and technologically enabled. We then turn our gaze to the case of a Deaf lawyer whom we interviewed. Here we examine schooling and language strategies used by the Deaf lawyer to gain access to a legal education. We describe the types of linguistic devices used by the lawyer and those used by others that he draws our attention to.
    • Do challenge and threat evaluations predict netball performance and selection at trials in youth netball players?

      Turner, Martin; Massie, Rachel; Slater, Matthew; Braithwaite, Elizabeth (APA, 2020-12-31)
      In the current paper, we investigated the extent to which challenge and threat evaluations predicted the trials performance of youth netball players. This paper compared two theoretical frameworks, the Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) and the BioPsychoSocial Model (BPSM) of Challenge and Threat, in their prediction of trials performance. A field-based cross-sectional design was adopted, including self-report psychometric, and observational performance, data. Data were collected prior to the participants’ trials performance. Youth female netball athletes (n = 92, Mage = 13.26 years, SD = 1.55) completed psychometrics concerning challenge and threat evaluations and emotions, in relation to upcoming trials performance. Performance was rated by 10 independent club coaches. Binary logistic and linear regression analyses revealed that BPSM derived resource evaluations (general self-confidence, general perception of positive challenge, positive disposition) were related to trials performance, whilst TCTSA-derived resource evaluations (self-efficacy, perceived control, goal orientation) were not. Also, a greater perceived ability to cope with demands was positively related to trial outcome. The strongest and most consistent predictor of performance was number of previous trials. The greater number of previously attended trials, the better the participants performed in trials. The findings reveal the importance of BPSM-derived resource evaluations and the perceived ability to cope with demands in the prediction of performance outcomes, over and above the TCTSA-derived resource evaluations. The findings also have important implications for sports teams, athletes, and coaches, who should strive to maximise perceptions of resources and coping abilities in the face of pressure situations, such as trials.
    • Effects of a twelve-week exercise intervention on subsequent compensatory behaviours in adolescent girls: an exploratory study

      Smallcombe, James; Tolfrey, Keith; Massie, Rachel (Human Kinetics Publishers Inc., 2019-07-19)
      Purpose: Chronic exercise programmes can induce adaptive compensatory behavioural responses through increased energy intake (EI) and/or decreased free-living physical activity in adults. These responses can negate the benefits of an exercise-induced energy deficit; however, it is unclear whether young people experience similar responses. This study examined whether exercise-induced compensation occurs in adolescent girls. Methods: Twenty-three adolescent girls, heterogeneous for weight status, completed the study. Eleven, 13-year-old adolescent girls completed a twelve-week supervised exercise intervention (EX). Twelve body size matched girls comprised the non-exercise control group (CON). Body composition, EI, free-living energy expenditure (EE) and peak oxygen uptake (V ̇O_2) were measured repeatedly over the intervention. Results: Laboratory EI (EX: 9027, 9610, 9243 kJd-1 and CON: 9953, 9770, 10052 kJd-1 at 0, 12 and 18 weeks respectively) (ES = 0.26, P = 0.46) and free living EI (EX: 7288, 6412, 5273, 4916 kJd-1 and CON: 7227, 7128, 6470, 6337 kJd-1 at 0, 6, 12 and 18 weeks respectively) (ES ≤ 0.26, P = 0.90) did not change significantly over time and were similar between groups across the duration of the study. Free-living EE was higher in EX than CON (13295 vs. 12115 kJd-1, ES ≥ 0.88, P ≥ 0.16), but no significant condition by time interactions were observed (P ≥ 0.17). Conclusion: The current findings indicate that compensatory changes in EI and EE behaviours did not occur at a group level within a small cohort of adolescent girls. However, analysis at the individual level highlights large inter-individual variability in behaviours, which suggest a larger study may be prudent to extend this initial exploratory research.
    • Engaging British Sign Language/ English interpreting students through the use of situated learning

      Hughes, Thaisa; Bown, Sarah; Green, Karen (RAISE, 2019-12-01)
      This case study documents a pilot where situated-learning was used to train students at level 6 (final year) of the BA (hons.) BSL/English interpreting programme, in medical/healthcare interpreting. The learning experience was situated within the clinical simulation suite at the University of Wolverhampton and student interpreters had the opportunity to interpret for a real healthcare practitioner and a deaf patient in a series of carefully constructed roleplays, designed to provide as authentic an experience as possible.
    • An evaluation of Sandwell Youth Offending Service –a creative approach to working with young people

      Caulfield, Laura; Sojka, Bozena; Massie, Rachel (University of Wolverhampton, 2019-10-14)
      Sandwell Youth Offending Service (YOS) work with young people who have very complex life stories. The young people may have committed very serious offences but are also often highly vulnerable to exploitation and have experienced significant trauma. Their experiences can lead to mistrust or suspicion of those in authority and in turn, for practitioners, the challenge of engagement can seem insurmountable. Sandwell YOS therefore argue that an evolution of the current approach is required to more effectively engage, support, and help young people. The new National Standards for youth justice, underpinned by the Youth Justice Board’s (YJB) helpful focus on a ‘child first’ principle support a change in thinking and encourage YOSs to take local initiatives. Sandwell YOS’ vision is to focus on the use of the arts and increasingly reconceptualise the YOS over time into a ‘Creative YOS’. In January 2019 Sandwell YOS were awarded funding from the YJB’s Serious Youth Violence Grant to help increase the use of arts with the cohort. The Institute for Community Research and Development were commissioned to conduct a process and impact evaluation, combining quantitative data to understand if any change was happening with in-depth qualitative interviews to understand how this change might be happening, foregrounding the voice and experience of participants. Most existing research and evaluation studies have looked at the impact of discrete arts programmes. The new creative programme of work being introduced by Sandwell YOS is innovative in working across the whole service with a range of arts and creative activities, and therefore no similar evaluation has previously been conducted.
    • Exploring alternative terrain in the rehabilitation and treatment of offenders: findings from a prison-based music project

      Caulfield, Laura; Wilkinson, Dean John; Wilson, David (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-05)
      The arts in prison settings have provided an alternative or complimentary component to rehabilitation. Despite increased interest, studies capturing the voice of offenders participating in projects and the long-term impact are limited. Data from semistructured interviews with 18 men who had taken part in a music-based project while incarcerated, including one group of five participants who were tracked for 18 months with supplemented data from correctional staff and official documentation, is presented. Participants of the art-based projects comment on changes they believe to have derived from participating in the project, particularly relating to emotions, self-esteem, self-confidence, communication and social skills. An exoffender sample of participants reported that participation in art projects provide experiences that promote beneficial skills that have been useful for post prison life.
    • Firewalls: A necessary tool to enable social rights for undocumented migrants in social work

      Hermansson, Linus; Lundberg, Anna; Gruber, Sabine; Jolly, Andrew; Lind, Jacob; Righard, Erica; Scott, Hanna (SAGE Publications, 2020-05-29)
      Firewalls are clear divisions between border policing and the provision of basic social rights. They have a dual character: to ensure that no information collected with the purpose of safeguarding basic social rights should be shared for immigration control purposes; and that migrants should not be subject to immigration control when being present at, or in the vicinity, of religious, private and public institutions upholding and providing social rights. This article suggests a normative argument for ‘firewalls’ in the context of social work and develops the concept theoretically as a principle practised and negotiated at different scales.
    • From the outside in: narratives of creative arts practitioners working in the criminal justice system

      Caulfield, Laura; Simpson, Ella; Morgan, Catherine (Wiley-Blackwell, 2019-09-04)
      The penal voluntary sector is highly variegated in its roles, practices and functions, though research to date has largely excluded the experiences of front-line practitioners. We argue that engaging with the narratives of practitioners can provide fuller appreciation of the potential of the sector’s work. Though life story and narrative have been recognised as important in offender desistance (Maruna, 2001), the narrative identities of creative arts practitioners, who are important ‘change agents’ (Albertson, 2015), are typically absent. This is despite evidence to suggest that a practitioner’s life history can be a significant and positive influence in the rehabilitation of offenders (Harris, 2017). Using narratological analysis (Bal, 2009), this study examined the narratives of 19 creative practitioners in prisons in England and Wales. Of particular interest were the formative experiences of arts practitioners in their journey to prison work. The findings suggest that arts practitioners identify with an ‘outsider’ status and may be motivated by an ethic of mutual aid. In the current climate of third sector involvement in the delivery of criminal justice interventions, such a capacity may be both a strength and weakness for arts organisations working in this field.
    • From the Windrush Generation to the ‘Air Jamaica generation’: local authority support for families with no recourse to public funds

      Jolly, Andrew; Heins, Elke; Rees, James; Needham, Catherine (Policy Press, 2019-07-22)
      Over the past year, immigration has been a continued focus of policy debates in the global north, with governments in Hungary and Italy elected on openly anti-immigration and ‘welfare chauvinist’ platforms. On the other side of the Atlantic the US federal government family separations policy has also been a source of fierce dispute. In the UK, the potential implications of Brexit for EU migrants in the UK and the treatment of the children of the ‘Windrush Generation’ under the hostile (or ‘compliant’) environment has caused particular controversy and the precipitated the resignation of the Home Secretary.
    • Increasing athlete knowledge of mental health and intentions to seek help: The State of Mind Ireland (SOMI) Pilot Program

      Breslin, Gavin; Haughey, Tandy; O'Brien, Wesley; Caulfield, Laura; Robertson, Alexa; Lawlor, Martin (Human Kinetics, 2018-03-01)
      The present study had three aims, to determine: (a) whether providing a curriculum-based mental health awareness program to athletes increased knowledge of mental health and intentions to offer support; (b) whether the program increased resilience and well-being compared to a control group; and (c) the feasibility of the program. A total of 100 participants (Mage = 20.78; SD = 2.91; male = 59) either attended the program or were part of a control group. Participants completed questionnaires pre-, post-, and 3-months post-intervention, although there was a low participant return rate for the 3-month follow-up (n = 15). Participants were invited to take part in a focus group to explore program relevance. Knowledge of mental health and intentions to offer support increased for the intervention group, compared to the control. The program with some modification could be integrated into university sport courses to promote mental health awareness.
    • ‘It’s not just music, it helps you from inside’: Mixing methods to understand the impact of music on young people in contact with the criminal justice system

      Jolly, Andrew; Devi-McGleish, Yasmin; Simpson, Ella; Caulfield, Laura (SAGE, 2020-07-02)
      In response to some of the criticisms of previous research into the arts in criminal justice, this paper presents findings from research with a music programme run by a Youth Offending team (YOT). Data was collected on the attendance of 42 participants at YOT appointments - matched against a comparison group - and measures of change over time in musical development, attitudes and behaviour, and well-being. Participants who completed the music programme were statistically more likely to attend YOT appointments than a comparison group. There were statistically significant improvements in participants’ self-reported well-being and musical ability over the course of the project. Effect sizes reached the minimum important difference for quantitative measures. To understand not just if, but how, any impact was achieved, and to ensure the voice of the young people was heard, the quantitative elements of the research were complemented and extended by in-depth interviews with 23 participants.