• The public sector and co-creation in turbulent times: A systematic literature review on robust governance in the COVID-19 emergency

      Scognamiglio, Fulvio; Sancino, Alessandro; Caló, Francesca; Jacklin‐Jarvis, Carol; Rees, James (Wiley, 2022-08-02)
      The capacity of public sector of co-creating with other stakeholders is challenged by the increasing presence of disruptive turbulent events, such as the COVID-19. At this regard, robustness has been identified as a suitable response to deal with this kind of events. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed how public sector organizations have co-created with other actors during the COVID-19 and what have been the contribution of robust governance strategies. Our findings point firstly to the empirical validity of the robustness concept, providing evidence of the extensive use of robust governance strategies into the co-creation processes. Second, we identified a configurational approach to robustness, with governments co-creating by simultaneously employing several robust strategies. Thirdly, we observed a more active involvement of societal stakeholders, with emergence of proto-institutions and potential threats to the political system.
    • Exploring pregnant women’s experiences of stopping smoking with an incentive scheme with ‘enhanced’ support: a qualitative study

      McCormack, Fiona C; Hopley, Rachel; Boath, Elizabeth H; Parry, Sian L; Roscoe, Suzie M; Stewart, Antony; Birch, Victoria A (SAGE, 2022-07-05)
      Aim: This study aims to understand pregnant women’s experiences of smoking cessation with an incentive scheme in a deprived UK city. This is important because smoking cessation with pregnant women is one of the most crucial public health initiatives to promote, and is particularly challenging in deprived areas. While financial incentive schemes are controversial, there is a need to better understand pregnant women’s experiences. The scheme combined quasi-financial incentives (shopping vouchers) for validated quits (carbon monoxide (CO) validated at < 10 ppm), enhanced support from smoking cessation advisors, the opportunity to identify a ‘Significant Other Supporter’ and nicotine replacement therapy. Methods: With the focus on understanding pregnant women’s experiences, a qualitative design was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were completed with 12 pregnant women from the scheme, and the three advisors. All interviews were transcribed, and thematic analysis conducted. Results: Pregnant women reported various challenges to quitting, including long-established routines, and stress. Participants were aware of stigma around incentives but were all very positive about the scheme. The relationship with advisors was described as fundamental. The women valued their advice and support, while uptake of the ‘Significant Other Supporter’ appeared low. Participants viewed the CO monitoring as ‘an incentive’, while the vouchers were framed as a ‘bonus’. Advisors perceived the vouchers as helping engage pregnant women and maintain quit status, and women appreciated the vouchers both as financial assistance and recognition of their accomplishments. Conclusion: This study highlights the great value women placed on the support, advice and monitoring from specialist advisors. The distinction between vouchers as a welcomed bonus, rather than ‘the incentive’ to engage, is important. How smoking cessation and schemes to promote this are communicated to pregnant women and health professionals is important, particularly given the stigma and controversy involved.
    • Hard work / workload: discursive constructions of teacher work in policy and practice

      Spicksley, Kathryn (Informa UK Limited, 2022-04-12)
      This paper explores contradictory constructions of teacher work across policy discourse and professional practice. It draws from a corpus-assisted critical discourse analysis of 363 political speeches published on England’s Department for Education website between 2010 and 2018, and qualitative interviews with two executive leaders working in English primary academy schools. Findings indicate a contradiction in the way that teacher work was constructed by government ministers, with hard work constructed positively as leading to improved educational outcomes, but workload negatively constructed as a problem which needed to be solved. This contradiction was echoed in school leaders’ discursive constructions of teacher work. Extending previous research on teacher workload, I raise the possibility that it is not only workload, but the requirement to navigate contradictory discursive constructions of teacher work which may cause damage to teachers’ professional identities.
    • Welfare deservingness for migrants: Does the Welfare State model matter?

      Saar, Maarja; Sojka, Bozena; Runfors, Ann (Cogitatio, 2022-03-22)
      This article draws on the idea that welfare systems and institutions are based on normative assumptions about justice, solidarity, and responsibility. Even though the literature on welfare deservingness has highlighted the connection between ideas of solidarity and the support to, for instance, people with different ethnic backgrounds, there is very little research on the interconnections of different welfare state models and ideas on how migration should be governed. This article suggests that there is a link between the welfare state models suggested by Esping‐Anderssen and different discourses on migrant welfare deservingness. The article explores the interlinkages of three welfare state models—liberal, socialdemocratic, and continental‐corporative—and four discourses on welfare deservingness of migrants in respect to social welfare—labourist, ethno‐cultural, residential, and welfarist (see Carmel & Sojka, 2020). It is suggested that the normative foundations embedded in different welfare systems lead to dissimilar ways of approaching migrants and migration.
    • Adoption and continued use of mobile contact tracing technology: multilevel explanations from a three-wave panel survey and linked data

      Horvath, Laszlo; Banducci, Susan; Blamire, Joshua; Degnen, Cathrine; James, Oliver; Jones, Andrew; Stevens, Daniel; Tyler, Katharine; Blamire (BMJ Publishing Group, 2022-01-17)
      Objective To identify the key individual-level (demographics, attitudes, mobility) and contextual (COVID-19 case numbers, tiers of mobility restrictions, urban districts) determinants of adopting the NHS COVID-19 contact tracing app and continued use overtime. Design and setting A three-wave panel survey conducted in England in July 2020 (background survey), November 2020 (first measure of app adoption) and March 2021 (continued use of app and new adopters) linked with official data. Participants N=2500 adults living in England, representative of England’s population in terms of regional distribution, age and gender (2011 census). Primary outcome Repeated measures of self-reported app usage. Analytical approach Multilevel logistic regression linking a range of individual level (from survey) and contextual (from linked data) determinants to app usage. Results We observe initial app uptake at 41%, 95% CI (0.39% to 0.43%), and a 12% drop-out rate by March 2021, 95% CI (0.10% to 0.14%). We also found that 7% of nonusers as of wave 2 became new adopters by wave 3, 95% CI (0.05% to 0.08%). Initial uptake (or failure to use) of the app associated with social norms, privacy concerns and misinformation about third-party data access, with those living in postal districts with restrictions on mobility less likely to use the app. Perceived lack of transparent evidence of effectiveness was associated with drop-out of use. In addition, those who trusted the government were more likely to adopt in wave 3 as new adopters. Conclusions Successful uptake of the contact tracing app should be evaluated within the wider context of the UK Government’s response to the crisis. Trust in government is key to adoption of the app in wave 3 while continued use is linked to perceptions of transparent evidence. Providing clear information to address privacy concerns could increase uptake, however, the disparities in continued use among ethnic minority participants needs further investigation.
    • “We will appreciate each other more after this”: Teachers' construction of collective and personal identities during lockdown

      Spicksley, Kathryn; Kington, Alison; Watkins, Maxine (Frontiers Media, 2021-08-20)
      In March 2020, schools in England were closed to all but vulnerable children and the children of key workers, as part of a national effort to curb the spread of the Covid-19 virus. Many teachers were required to work from home as remote learning was implemented. Teaching is primarily a relational profession, and previous literature acknowledges that supportive relationships with peers help to maintain teachers' resilience and commitment during challenging periods. This paper reports on findings from a small-scale study conducted in England during the first national lockdown beginning in March 2020, which explored the impact of the requirement to teach remotely on teachers' identity and peer relationships. A discourse analysis, informed by the aims and practices of discursive psychology, was conducted in order to explore the association between constructions of peer support and responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. Findings indicate that teachers who presented their professional self-identity as collective rather than personal appeared to have a more positive perspective on the difficulties caused by the Covid-19 pandemic. These findings, which have implications for policymakers and school leaders, contribute to the growing field of research on the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on education by showing the strong association between teachers' constructions of identity and their capacity to respond positively to the challenges brought about by the Covid-19 pandemic.
    • ‘A less unpalatable alternative’: Executive leaders strategically redefining their work in primary MATs

      Spicksley, Kathryn (SAGE, 2020-09-18)
      Since the election of the Coalition government in 2010, an increasing number of primary schools in England have converted to academy status. This article explores how executive leaders working in primary academies construct academy freedoms and their attitudes towards their local authorities. Interviews with four executive leaders working in two contrasting Multi-Academy Trusts were analysed using critical discourse analysis. Findings show that in these primary academies, leaders chose to discursively distance themselves from other academy schools, and instead construct themselves as continuing the best traditions of local authority support. The findings indicate that the professional identities of academy leaders, as key policy actors, have an impact on how national policy is interpreted and enacted. The discourse of these academy leaders suggests that primary academisation has led to school leaders appropriating methods of strategic redefinition, to navigate the new post-2010 education landscape and construct new professional identities.
    • Early career primary teachers’ discursive negotiations of academisation

      Spicksley, Kathryn (Routledge, 2021-12-08)
      This article reports findings from a small-scale research project which explored the professional identities of early career teachers working in primary academies in England. During interviews and focus groups, these new teachers resisted identifying as ‘academy teachers,’ constructing academy status as an unimportant feature when deciding where to work. I theorise this phenomenon using Foucault, arguing that the willingness of new teachers to construct academy schools as ‘no different’ to their maintained counterparts is a key factor in the success of post-2010 academisation as a biopolitical project.
    • The distinctiveness of smaller voluntary organisations providing welfare services

      Dayson, Chris; Bennett, Ellen; Damm, Chris; Rees, James; Jacklin-Jarvis, Carol; Patmore, Beth; Baker, Leila; Terry, Vita; Turner, Katie (Cambridge University Press, 2022-02-15)
      This article presents empirical findings about the distinctiveness of smaller voluntary sector organisations (VSOs) involved in welfare service provision, based on in-depth, qualitative case study research. We identify a series of organisational features and practices which can mean that smaller VSOs are distinctive from larger organisations. These include how they are governed and managed, their approach to their work, and their position relative to other providers. To explain our findings, we draw on the concept of stakeholder ambiguity. This idea was posited by Billis and Glennerster (1998) and is commonly cited in relation to distinctiveness. We identified several manifestations of stakeholder ambiguity and confirm the concept’s explanatory importance, although we argue that our understanding of distinctiveness is enhanced when stakeholder ambiguity is considered alongside other closely related features, such as being embedded in a local geographic community and informal, familial care-based organisational cultures. Our findings also highlight the fragility of smaller VSOs. We argue that this combination of distinctiveness and fragility creates a tension for social policy makers, many of whom recognise the value of smaller VSOs and the risks that they face but must weigh this against a requirement to allocate resources for statutory services as effectively as possible.
    • "You can’t Google everything”- voluntary sector and the leadership of communities of place

      Rees, James; Sancino, Alessandro; Jacklin-Jarvis, Carol; Pagani, Michela (SAGE, 2021-11-27)
      This paper addresses an identified absence in the place leadership literature by exploring how voluntary sector actors contribute to the leadership of place. We attempt to untangle the complex relationship between leadership, place and the voluntary sector, exploring first how understandings of both leadership and place are strengthened by the significant recent advances in the collective and critical approaches to leadership studies. We argue that collective approaches are particularly well suited to interrogating place leadership, and the voluntary sector, both of which are inherently collective endeavours. Drawing on an empirical study of locally-rooted voluntary organisations in a district in the Midlands of England, we produce a thematic analysis which highlights three core themes of the voluntary sector contribution to collective place leadership: their ability to draw on and mobilise local knowledge, their positioning in a web of dense local relationships, and the notion that their intrinsic characteristics are a key source of their distinctiveness and value to the wider ’system’ of place leadership. In drawing these empirical strands together we offer insight into the centrality of the voluntary sector in the constitution of place (a role that has long been undervalued). Further, our findings shed light on the complexity and multiplexity of leading in the collective, and particularly the extent to which the voluntary sector is constrained by wider structures and macro-dynamics.
    • Place leadership and the role of the third sector and civil society

      Potluka, O; Sancino, A; Diamond, J; Rees, J (Bristol University Press, 2021-02-09)
      Only relatively recently, place leadership has become an important debate in the leadership studies and public administration literatures. From a place leadership perspective, there is clearly a potential role for third sector organisations and the voluntary engagement that citizens can play for places through different activities, such as for example social innovation, public services provision, volunteering, civic engagement, advocacy, enhancement of the quality of life, strengthening of social bonds and social cohesion. However, the topic of civil society and third sector organisations is still neglected in research and public policy debates on place-based leadership. Our special issue aims at filling this gap.
    • Voluntary and community welfare

      Rees, James; Macmillan, Rob; Powell, Martin (Policy Press, 2019-01-16)
      Voluntary organisations and community groups have long been involved providing welfare support and services in different fields, although over time their relationships with state, commercial and informal welfare have changed. It is unlikely that their role in the mixed economy of welfare will diminish in the near future. This chapter provides an outline of the nature and scope of voluntary and community welfare, a historical overview of its role, and examines the current context, challenges and prospects faced by voluntary organisations and community groups.
    • Doctors’ views on how to improve communication and quality of care for patients experiencing end-of-life: a qualitative descriptive study

      McCormack, Fiona; Hopley, Rachel; Kurth, Judith; Iqbal, Zafar (MDPI, 2021-09-29)
      (1) Background: There remains a lack of sufficient progress in enhancing quality of care for patients experiencing end-of-life. This study aimed to better understand the views of doctors on how to improve end-of-life healthcare, in light of existing challenges and processes. (2) Methods: This qualitative descriptive study used semi-structured individual interviews. Through purposive sampling, sixteen doctors from primary care (three general practices) or acute care (one National Health Service hospital trust) participated. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and thematic analysis conducted. (3) Results: Two main themes were identified: First, planning for patient-centred care—conversations about end-of-life care should take place earlier to allow for care that is planned and personalised. The need for more training and improvements to documenting patient wishes were highlighted. Second, delivering on patients’ wishes: improvements to the healthcare system—the importance of a record of patient wishes that can be shared across the system was identified. Improved utilisation of available resources is also needed to better deliver quality patient-centred care. (4) Conclusion: More effective communication and coordination across acute and primary care settings is needed. The importance of patient wishes and advance care planning was emphasised. More guidance at a strategic level may help provide clarity about expectations, roles and responsibilities.
    • Fun, lifelong relationships and a safer community: understanding collective leadership practice in a grassroots association

      Jacklin-Jarvis, Carol; Rees, James (Bristol University Press, 2021-08-31)
      The relational processes and practices that create and sustain grassroots associations have received limited attention from researchers. This article addresses this gap, exploring collective leadership of grassroots associations through a ‘leadership-as-practice’ lens (Raelin, 2016a; 2016b). It adopts the concept of ‘bundles’ of leadership practice (Schatzki, 2005) to analyse data from a single ethnographic case study. Adopting this conceptual lens, we identify a set of ‘bundles’ of related practices – organising, engaging and accounting – that constitute the enduring reality of the grassroots association’s collective leadership.
    • Social inclusion, immigration legislation and social services

      Jolly, Andy; Liamputtong, Pranee (Springer, 2021-05-06)
      Undocumented migrants are at particular risk of social exclusion, both because of the precarity of their immigration status, and because of restrictive welfare policies at a national level, which make it more difficult for non-nationals to access social security and other welfare programs. In the absence of access to other forms of support, health and social care services have a key role in supporting social inclusion for families with an irregular migration status. However, the tension between the focus of immigration legislation on enforcement and control on the one hand; and the emphasis of child welfare legislation on rights and care on the other, can lead to ethical dilemmas for workers in health and social care settings. This chapter discusses how some of these tensions can work out in practice. Using the concept of statutory neglect, it outlines the different forms of social exclusion faced by irregular migrant families, and concludes with a discussion of the implications for the role of health and social care services, with suggestions for how to promote social inclusion for migrant children and families.
    • Immigration policies: enforcing borders, driving hunger and creating destitution

      Jolly, Andrew; Dickson, Eve; Garande, Kimberley; Richmond-Bishop, Imogen; Singh, Jasber (University of Wolverhampton, 2021-04-30)
      There is a long history of immigration control and welfare conditionality in the UK, but the interaction between immigration policies and food poverty is underresearched. This article outlines the links between immigration control and food poverty or destitution in the UK. Drawing on insights from the existing literature and a structured discussion at a participatory workshop for researchers and practitioners, the article identifies issues for research and practice around the issue of the No Recourse to Public Funds (NRPF) immigration rule and food poverty. We argue that future research should take a rights based approach to immigration and food poverty that engages with both the history of immigration control and the intent of public policies such as the NRPF rule.
    • Local authority responses to people with NRPF during the pandemic: research report

      Dickson, Eve; Jolly, Andrew; Morgan, Benjamin; Qureshi, Fizza; Sojka, Bozena; Stamp, Dave (ICRD, 2020-08-03)
    • Café Delphi: Hybridising ‘World Café’ and ‘Delphi Techniques’ for successful remote academic collaboration

      Jolly, Andy; Caulfield, Laura; Sojka, Bozena; Iafrati, Steve; Rees, James; Massie, Rachel (Elsevier, 2020-12-23)
      Developing collaborative and cooperative research across academic disciplines and university administrative boundaries can be a challenge. In an attempt to understand and propose solutions to this challenge, the authors of this paper set out to: test an innovative combination of methods to generate and evaluate ideas and strategies; and to write about the findings using collaborative online methods. During this process universities in the UK moved to online working and so the authors completed this paper through entirely online means. The authors - a team of academic researchers from the University of AAA - came together in sessions designed as a hybrid of World Café and Delphi technique approaches to discuss challenges and solutions. The findings were written up drawing on insights from the use of massively authored papers (also known as ‘massively open online papers’, MOOPs), and online tools to enable remote collaboration. Expert consensus was sought in this project within a group of participants (N ​= ​7) in one university setting to create a MOOP. This paper presents details of the process, the findings, and reflections on this collaborative and cooperative exercise. That this paper was written using the methods discussed within it, highlights the value and success of the approach. In light of the current Coronavirus pandemic and the increased need to work remotely, this paper offers academics useful strategies for meaningful and productive online collaboration.
    • A systematic review of the characteristics and needs of older prisoners

      Wilkinson, Dean; Caulfield, Laura (Emerald, 2020-09-21)
      Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and understand what the existing evidence base concludes about the needs of this population. The older prisoner population is growing faster than the older general population and placing a strain on prisons. Much of the existing literature focusses on the health-care needs of, or in-prison initiatives for, older prisoners. Typically, these are responsive and lacking an evidence-based understanding of the characteristics and needs of this group. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents a systematic review of the existing literature on the needs and characteristics of older people in contact with the criminal justice system. After a thorough search and selection process, 21 papers, from 2002 onwards, were included in the final analysis. The review process was structured through (People, Intervention/Exposure, Comparison, Outcome) and reported using (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). Findings The contradictions within the existing evidence base make it difficult to reach firm conclusions about the needs and characteristics of older prisoners. What is clear from the existing research are the relatively high levels of need. There is also some consensus that where older people commit homicide, the victim is likely to be an intimate partner. Overall, there is a need for consistent recording and reporting of characteristics and demographics and more systematic study design. Originality/value This paper has highlighted the key findings and limitations in the existing literature. Future research should make use of secondary official data sources to provide a clearer understanding of the characteristics of this group, their routes to prison, their needs and challenges they present.